Turbidity data from the Carmel River, central California, 2014 to 2017

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Turbidity data from the Carmel River, central California, 2014 to 2017
Abstract:
This data provides river turbidity measurements collected on the Carmel River, CA. Turbidity was measured to study any changes in the Carmel River’s sediment loads following the removal of the San Clemente Dam. The USGS-run DTS-12 turbidity sensor was deployed above the Sleepy Hollow Weir on the Carmel River, CA (instrument was located at 36.445250 degrees North, 121.710494 degrees West). Deployment began on December 9, 2014. After June 16, 2016, the instrument was removed for calibration. A new instrument was re-deployed on October 14, 2016, and continued to record until recovery on July 13, 2017. Due to the instrument removal and calibration, there exists an approximately 4-month long gap in data collection from June 16 to October 14, 2016. The sensor recorded turbidity, water temperature, and battery voltage at 15-minute intervals. The data are in Formazin Nephelometric Units (FNU), which are similar to Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) in that both measure scattered light at 90 degrees from the incident light beam. FNU are measured with an infrared light source (by the ISO 7027 method), whereas NTU requires a white light source (EPA method 180.1). For more information on FNU and water turbidity data, please visit http://or.water.usgs.gov/grapher/fnu.html. Apparently spurious data points were removed during processing. Those included: data points in which the temperature reading dropped abruptly to zero [both temperature and turbidity values were set to "NaN" (Not A Number)], data points in which the turbidity value abruptly dropped from a non-zero value to zero and recovered immediately to near the original non-zero reading (in which case turbidity, but not temperature, values were set to "NaN"), and several points were deleted in the record in which turbidity spiked rapidly by two or three orders of magnitude and then immediately returned to much lower values. This may occur, for example, if a leaf blocked the sensor momentarily, but we considered it was likely not a real increase in turbidity. Several rapid apparent increases in turbidity remain in the record. These may be real or spurious; they did not appear abrupt enough to be clearly spurious, and so are left in the record. Turbidity spikes were also removed that coincided with equipment deployment at the site.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the field activities from which these data were derived is available online at: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2014-643-FA https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2015-638-FA https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-638-FA https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2017-635-FA
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    East, Amy, Harrison, Lee R., Smith, Douglas P., Bond, Rosealea, Logan, Joshua, Nicol, Colin, and Chow, Kaitlyn, 2017, Turbidity data from the Carmel River, central California, 2014 to 2017: data release doi:10.5066/F74M93HF, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    East, Amy, Harrison, Lee R., Smith, Douglas P., Bond, Rosealea, Logan, Joshua, Nicol, Colin, and Chow, Kaitlyn, 2017, River-channel topography, grain size, and turbidity records from the Carmel River, California, before, during, and after removal of San Clemente Dam: data release doi:10.5066/F74M93HF, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -121.710494
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -121.710494
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.445250
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.445250
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/59f8e5fae4b0531197ae705a?name=CarmelRiver.JPG&allowOpen=true (JPG)
    image of Carmel River channel in the former reservoir above the San Clemente Dam
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 09-Dec-2014
    Ending_Date: 13-Jul-2017
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Comma-separated values
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (79391)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0 m.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Carmel_2014to2017_Turbidity.csv
    Carmel River turbidity measurements from 2014 to 2017 (Source: Producer defined)
    WATER_YEAR
    The water year in which the measurement was taken. Water year is defined as the 12-month period beginning October 1 of a given year through September 30 of the following year. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2015
    Maximum:2017
    Units:water year
    DATE_PST
    Date the measurement was taken, in Pacific Standard Time (PST) and month/day/year format. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:12/09/2014
    Maximum:07/13/2017
    Units:month/day/year
    TIME_PST
    Time the measurement was taken, in Pacific Standard Time (PST) and hour:minute:second format. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0:00:00
    Maximum:23:45:00
    Units:hours:minutes:seconds
    YEAR_DAY
    The decimal day of year the measurement was taken. Decimal value represents the time of day. (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:366.98958
    BATTERY_VOLTS
    The voltage of the instruments battery at time of measurement. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:12.6
    Maximum:14.65
    Units:volts
    TEMP_DEG_C
    The water temperature reported by the instrument in degrees Celsius. NaN ("Not a Number") represents an apparently spurious data point in the raw data. (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.9
    Maximum:24.1
    Units:Degrees Celsius
    TURBIDITY_FNU
    The turbidity reported by the instrument in Fromazin Nephelometric Units (FNU). NaN ("Not a Number") represents an apparently spurious data point in the raw data. (Source: ISO 7027 method)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3033.15
    Units:FNU

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Amy East
    • Lee R. Harrison
    • Douglas P. Smith
    • Rosealea Bond
    • Joshua Logan
    • Colin Nicol
    • Kaitlyn Chow
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Data collection was funded by U.S. Geological Survey, California State University Monterey Bay, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Amy East
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    United States

    831-460-7533 (voice)
    aeast@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Data were collected to study changes to the Carmel River, central California, associated with the removal of the San Clemente Dam.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2017 (process 1 of 1)
    This data provides measurements from the USGS-run DTS-12 turbidity sensor deployed above the Sleepy Hollow weir on the Carmel River. Deployment began on December 9, 2014, and the sensor recorded turbidity and water temperature at 15-minute intervals. After June 16, 2016, the instrument was removed for calibration. A new instrument was re-deployed on October 14, 2016, and continued to record at the same interval rate until recovery on July 13, 2017.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    International Organization for Standardization, 2016, Water quality -- Determination of turbidity -- Part 1: Quantitative methods (ISO Standard No. 7027-1:2016).

    Online Links:

    O'Dell., James W., 1993, Method 180.1 Determination of turbidity by nephelometry: Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The instrument manufacturer (Forest Technology Systems) states that the instrument resolution is 0.01 NTU (FNU). Apparently spurious data points were removed during processing. Those included: data points in which the temperature reading dropped abruptly to zero (both temperature and turbidity values were set to "NaN" (Not a Number)), data points in which the turbidity value abruptly dropped from a non-zero value to zero and recovered immediately to near the original non-zero reading (in which case turbidity, but not temperature, values were set to "NaN"), and several points were deleted in the record in which turbidity spiked rapidly by two or three orders of magnitude and then immediately returned to much lower values. This may occur if a leaf blocked the sensor momentarily, e.g., but we considered it was likely not a real increase in turbidity. Several rapid apparent increases in turbidity remain in the record. These may be real or spurious; they did not appear abrupt enough to be clearly spurious, and so are left in the record. Turbidity spikes were also removed that coincided with equipment deployment at the site.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The GPS unit used to document the location of the instrument has an accuracy of +/- 1.5 cm.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the data set has not been conducted nor is applicable for these data.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Deployment began on December 9, 2014. After June 16, 2016, the instrument was removed for calibration. A new instrument was re-deployed on October 14, 2016, and continued to record until recovery on July 13, 2017. Due to the instrument removal and calibration, there exists an approximately 4-month long gap in data collection from June 16 to October 14, 2016.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
USGS -authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as the originators of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    United States

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? data are downloadable in .csv format (Carmel_2014to2017_Turbidity.csv) along with CMGDS FGDC-compliant metadata.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The downloadable data file is available in comma-separated values (CSV) spreadsheet format. Text editing software can be used to open the file, as well as spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Dec-2017
Metadata author:
Amy East
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA
United States

831-460-7533 (voice)
aeast@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/Carmel_2013to2017_Turbidity.faq.html>
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