Seafloor character from air-photo data-Santa Barbara Channel

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Title: Seafloor character from air-photo data-Santa Barbara Channel
Seafloor character was derived from interpretations of aerial photograph-derived kelp-distribution data available for Santa Cruz Island in the Santa Barbara Channel, California (Kushner and others 2013). The number of substrate classes was reduced because rugosity could not be derived for all areas.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cochrane, Guy R., 2015, Seafloor character from air-photo data-Santa Barbara Channel: data release DOI:10.5066/F7QF8QXF, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cochrane, Guy R., 2015, Data Release for the BOEM-USGS study of the Regional Importance of Manmade Structures as Rockfish Nurseries in the Santa Barbara Channel: Data Release doi:10.5066/F7QF8QXF, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -119.72653060082978
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -119.5065593510873
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 34.06738957079302
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 33.954016027264245
  3. What does it look like? (map service)
    Seafloor character types from air-photo data for Santa Barbara Channel.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2010
    Ending_Date: 2013
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: GeoTIFF
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 6036 x 10012 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is WGS 1984 UTM 11N.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -117
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D WGS 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    The attributes include VALUE - code for the seafloor character classes, COUNT - number of pixels. The raster can be added to any ESRI ArcMap project. (Source: ESRI)
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    This seafloor-character class was derived from a geologic interpretation of lidar data. A value of 1 indicates deposits of mud and sand thick enough to support infauna. A value of 2 indicates hard bottom including gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock. (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Units:Integers 1 - 2 representing seafloor character classes.
    The number of pixels (2m x 2m size grid cell) represented in each seafloor class (see Attribute: VALUE). (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Units:Integer pixel count.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Guy R. Cochrane
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Guy Cochrane
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    (831)460-7554 (voice)
    (831)427-4709 (FAX)

Why was the data set created?

These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. These data can be used with geographic information systems or other software to identify local seafloor character.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2013 (process 1 of 3)
    Areas of kelp were delineated using interpretive expertise. Seafloor character was assigned assuming kelp areas are hard bottom.
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 3)
    The seafloor character polygons were converted to a 10 meter grid.
    Date: 19-Oct-2020 (process 3 of 3)
    Edited metadata to add keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Kushner, D.J., Rassweiler, A., McLaughlin, J.P., and Lafferty, K.D., 2013, A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at the California channel islands.

    Online Links:

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Pixel resolution 10 m.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Positional information reflects the WAAS-enabled GSP unit, recording at between 1 to 2 nm. DGPS (WAAS) accuracy for position is less than 3 meters. (From Garmin GPSMAP 76C/76CS Specifications, M01-10108-00, Rev0304, <https://>).
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data covers less than half of the coastline of Santa Cruz Island.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Classification was done on the basis of kelp distribution polygons delineated by interpreter.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data. This information is not intended for navigation purposes.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: The .zip file for the TIFF image includes the image (.tif), the world registration file (.tfw) and other associated files, FGDC-compliant metadata, and a browse graphic (.jpg). in format GeoTIFF (version ArcMap (version 10.1)) Raster data layer is registered TIFF image in the UTM Zone 11 coordinate system with datum WGS84. Size: 0.032
      Network links:
    • Cost to order the data: none

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The downloadable data file has been compressed with the "zip" command and can be unzipped with Winzip (or other tool) on Windows systems. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the WinZip file and importing and viewing an Esri ArcMap TIFF. Users should download the ArcGIS Project File,, a compressed (with the "zip" command) version of the ArcMap document (.mxd) that has all the data layers loaded in the table of contents for ‚ÄúSantaBarbaraChannelGeohab‚ÄĚ and has all the data symbolized as on the data release map sheets. Download and save this ArcGIS project file, including all data layers, to the directory the user has created for this GIS.

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 19-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
Guy R. Cochrane
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, California

(831)460-7554 (voice)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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