Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Title: Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site
This Data Release contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) survey of the Oregon outer Continental shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The backscatter intensity data was collected along with bathymetry data by USGS during the period from August 20 to September 1, 2014, using a Reson 7111 multibeam echosounder. The mapping mission collected bathymetry data from about 163 m to 566 m depths on the Oregon outer continental shelf. The acquisition was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Within the final imagery, brighter tones indicate higher backscatter intensity, and darker tones indicate lower backscatter intensity. The intensity represents a complex interaction between the acoustic pulse and the seafloor, as well as characteristics within the shallow subsurface, providing a general indication of seafloor texture and composition. Backscatter intensity depends on the acoustic source level; the frequency used to image the seafloor; the grazing angle; the composition and character of the seafloor, including grain size, water content, bulk density, and seafloor roughness; and some biological cover. Harder and rougher bottom types such as rocky outcrops or coarse sediment typically return stronger intensities (high backscatter, lighter tones), whereas softer bottom types such as fine sediment return weaker intensities (low backscatter, darker tones).
Additional information about the field activity from which these data were derived is available online at:
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cochrane, Guy R., and Dartnell, Peter, 2015, Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site: Data Release doi:10.5066/F7V40S8V, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cochrane, Guy R., Dartnell, Peter, Hemery, Lenaig G., and Hatcher, Gerry, 2015, Data Release for USGS Field Activity 2014-607-FA, Oregon OCS Seafloor Mapping: Selected Lease Blocks Relevant to Renewable Energy: Data Release doi:10.5066/F7V40S8V, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.790
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.586
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.562
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.289
  3. What does it look like? (JPEG)
    Acoustic backscatter imagery of Oregon OCS Floating Windfarm Site.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 20-Aug-2014
    Ending_Date: 01-Sep-2014
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: GeoTIFF
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 3759 x 1988, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      UTM_Zone_Number: 10
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.00000
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.00
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.00.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    The Reson 7111 backscatter data that was processed by the USGS in 2014 was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size (X,Y) = 8.4645542, 8.4675282
    Number of rows = 3759
    Number of columns = 1988
    Data type = integer
    Xmin = 355165.874931
    Xmax = 371993.408586
    Ymin = 4793671.96784
    Ymax = 4825501.4065
    Minimum value = 1
    Maximum value = 255
    Mean = 152.87
    Standard deviation = 24.94
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Guy R. Cochrane
    • Peter Dartnell
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. These data can be used with geographic information systems or other software to identify bathymetric features. These data are not intended to be used for navigation.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2014 (process 1 of 4)
    Multibeam mapping took place over 13 days from August 20 through September 1, 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2014-607-FA). The survey was conducted using a 100-kHz Reson 7111 multibeam echosounder. The 7111 is a horseshoe shaped sonar that was mounted on the 34-foot USGS mapping vessel R/V Parke Snavely. The multibeam system receives acoustic returns from 101, 201, or 301 beams depending on the setting. Differentially Corrected Global Positioning System (DGPS) navigational data was used in combination with an Applanix Position and Motion Compensation System for Marine Vessels (POS/MV) to accurately position the vessel during data collection, and it also accounted for vessels motion such as heave, pitch, and roll. Sound velocity profiles were collected with an Applied Microsystems SVPlus sound velocimeter. Soundings were corrected for vessel motion using the Applanix POS/MV data, for variations in water-column sound velocity using the AM SVPlus data, and processed to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) using tidal data from the Charleston, OR harmonic tide station (Station ID 9432780). Processed data were stored line-by-line as Reson S7K files.
    Date: 2014 (process 2 of 4)
    The multibeam-echosounder backscatter data were processed using the Fledermaus (version 7.3.2) integration of Geocoder. Caris HDCS line files were exported as GSF line files and imported into Fledermaus along with the corresponding original Reson S7K files. Adjustments were made to the line files including TX/RX (transmit/receive) power gain, beam pattern, and adaptive angle-varying gain corrections. The line files were then mosaiced into a 12-m resolution image. The image was then exported as a georeferenced TIFF image, imported into a GIS, and converted to a GRID at 12-m resolution.
    Date: 21-Nov-2019 (process 3 of 4)
    Edit was made to remove extraneous text from Semi Major Axis tag. Point of Contact and Metadata Contact were changed to PCMSC static contact. No data information was changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A. Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7545 (voice)
    Date: 19-Oct-2020 (process 4 of 4)
    Edited metadata to add keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Not applicable for raster data.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Estimated to be no less than 2 m, owing to water depth and total propagated uncertainties of the mapping systems, which include sonar system, position and motion compensation system, and navigation, as well as data processing that includes sounding cleaning, gridding, and datum transformations.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Not applicable to acoustic-backscatter imagery.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data. This information is not intended for navigation purposes.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These data are available in GeoTIFF format (bs_2014607FA.tif and associated files) contained in a single zip file (, which also include CSDGM FGDC-compliant metadata.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: The .zip file for the TIFF image includes the image (.tif) and associated files including the world registration file (.tfw), in addition to FGDC-compliant metadata and a browse graphic for the Backscatter bs_2014607FA data layer of the Oregon OCS. in format TIFF (version ArcMap (version 10.1)) Raster data layer is registered TIFF image in the UTM Zone 10 coordinate system with datum WGS84. Size: 6.8
      Network links:
    • Cost to order the data: none

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The downloadable data file has been compressed with the "zip" command and can be unzipped with Winzip (or other tool) on Windows systems. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the WinZip file and importing and viewing an Esri ArcMap TIFF. Users should download the ArcGIS Project File,, a compressed (with the "zip" command) version of the ArcMap document (.mxd) that has all the data layers loaded in the table of contents for "Oregon OCS" and has all the data symbolized as on the data release map sheets. Download and save this ArcGIS project file, including all data layers, to the directory the user has created for this GIS.

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 19-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA

831-427-4747 (voice)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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