Underwater video observations offshore of Seattle, Washington

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Underwater video observations offshore of Seattle, Washington
Abstract:
This part of USGS Data Series 935 (Cochrane, 2014) presents observations from underwater video collected in the Offshore of Seattle, California, map area, a part of the Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series. To validate the interpretations of multibeam sonar data and turn it into geologically and biologically useful information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) towed a camera sled over specific locations throughout the Seattle map area to collect video and photographic data that would “ground truth” the seafloor. The ground-truth survey conducted in the Offshore of Seattle map area occurred in 2011 on the R/V Karluk (USGS field activity K0111PS) and on the Washington State Department of Fish and Game R/V Molluscan (USGS field activity M0111PS). The underwater camera sled was towed 1 to 2 m above the seafloor at speeds of between 1 and 2 nautical miles/hour. The surveys for this map area include approximately 6 hours (9.1 trackline km) of video.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the USGS field activities from which these data were derived is available online at:
https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=K0111PS https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=M0111PS
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in Esri format, this metadata file may include some Esri-specific terminology.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cochrane, Guy R., Ritchie, Andrew C., Hodson, Timothy O., and Kull, Kristine J., 20220202, Underwater video observations offshore of Seattle, Washington: data release DOI:10.5066/P9GVRZ3M, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cochrane, Guy R., 2022, Bathymetry and topography, video observation, and derived benthic habitat data offshore of Seattle, Washington: data release DOI:10.5066/P9GVRZ3M, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.514976
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.379062
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.828367
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.568494
  3. What does it look like?
    VideoObservations_OffshoreSeattle.jpg (JPEG)
    Shaded-relief map showing camera tracklines of underwater video collected in the Offshore of Seattle map area
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 15-Apr-2011
    Ending_Date: 23-Sep-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: comma-delimited text
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (1585)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is NAD 1983.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Planar coordinates are specified in degrees
      The horizontal datum used is D North American 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    VideoObservations_OffshoreSeattle.csv
    File containing physical habitat and biota presence with x and y coordinates (Source: Producer defined)
    FID
    internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    DATE
    date observations were made in M/DD/YYYY format. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4/16/2011
    Maximum:9/24/2011
    Units:day
    Resolution:1
    UTC_TIME
    time of day observations were made in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) also commonly referred to as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0:00:00
    Maximum:23:59:59
    Units:HH:MM:SS
    Resolution:1
    MAJOR_GEO
    Description of primary substrate constituting greater than fifty percent of the seafloor during an observation. The values are based on the Wentworth scale except that granule and pebble sizes have been grouped together into a class called "gravel," and clay and silt sizes have been grouped together into a class called "mud." (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    rExposed bedrock and megaclast (larger than 409.6 cm)
    bboulder (409.6 cm to 25.5 cm)
    ccobble (25.5 cm to 6.5 cm)
    ggravel (6.5 cm to .2 cm)
    ssand (.2 cm to .00625 cm)
    mmud (.00625 cm or smaller)
    MINOR_GEO
    Description of secondary seafloor substrate constituting greater than twenty percent of the seafloor during an observation. The classes are based on the Wentworth scale except that granule and pebble sizes have been grouped together into a class called "gravel," and clay and silt sizes have been grouped together into a class called "mud." (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    rExposed bedrock and megaclast (larger than 409.6 cm)
    bboulder (409.6 cm to 25.5 cm)
    ccobble (25.5 cm to 6.5 cm)
    ggravel (6.5 cm to .2 cm)
    ssand (.2 cm to .00625 cm)
    mmud (.00625 cm or smaller)
    SUBST_CLAS
    seafloor substrate classes determined using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    Unconsolidated MineralGeologic substrates with less than 50 percent cover of rock. This substrate class provides Folk (1954) terminology to describe any mix of loose mineral substrate occurring at any range of sizes from boulders to clay.
    Rockigneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock with particle sizes greater than or equal to 4096 mm in any dimension that covers greater than or equal to 50 percent of the geologic substrate surface.
    SUBST_SBCL
    seafloor substrate subclass determined using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    Bedrocksubstrate with largely continuous formations of bedrock covering 50 percent or more of the geologic substrate surface
    CoarseCoarse unconsolidated substrate. Substrate surface layer contains any amount of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2 mm) from a single granule to 100 percent boulders. These sediments are classified using the Folk (1954) Gravel-Sand-Mud diagram.
    FineFine Unconsolidated Substrate. Substrate surface layer contains no trace of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2 mm). These sediments are classified using the Folk (1954) Sand-Silt-Clay diagram, except that the word "Silt-Clay" replaces the word "Mud" in the Substrate Subgroup level. This prevents duplication of terms when recasting Folk's diagrams into a CMECS hierarchy.
    Actiniaria
    Order of animals in the Athozoa class. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Ascidiacea
    Class of animals in the Tunicata subphylum. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Asteriidae
    Family of sea stars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Asteroidea
    Animals in the class of sea stars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Balanophyl
    Animals from the genus of solitary corals. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Balanus
    Animals from the genus of barnacles. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Bivalvia
    Animals from a class of molluscs. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    bony_fish
    Any fish of the superclass Osteichthyes that is not on the list of specific fishes used for this project. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Bryozoa
    Animal from the mossy invertebrate phylum Bryozoa. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Cancer
    Animals from the crab genus Cancer. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Caridea
    Animal from the Decopoda order of shrimp. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Cerianthid
    Tube anemone from the family Ceriantidae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Chlorophyc
    Green algae from the class Chlorophyceae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Cottidae
    Fish from the family of Sculpins. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    driftweed
    Any detached drifting algae plant material. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    eggcase
    Casing that surrounds the fertilized eggs of sharks, skates, and chimaeras. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    encrusting
    Unidentifiable invertebrates that encrust hard substrate. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Fucus
    Algae from a genus of brown algae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Gadiformes
    Fish from the order Gadiformes. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Gastropoda
    Snails from the Gastropoda class of Molluscs. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Gobiidae
    Goby fish family. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Henricia
    Animals from the genus of slender-armed sea stars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Hexagrammo
    Fish from the greenling genus. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Holothuroi
    Animal from the sea slug genus. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Hydroida
    Animal from the hydroid order of Cnidarians. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Hydrolagus
    Fish from the family of Chimaeridae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Laminarial
    Algae from the order of brown algaes. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Majidae
    Crab from the family Majidae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Mediaster
    Sea star from the genus Mediaster. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Metridium
    Anemone from the genus Metridium. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Munida
    Squat Lobster of the genus Munida. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Nudibranch
    Soft bodied gastropod from the group Nudibranchia. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Octopus
    Cephalopod mollusc from the order Octopoda. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Ophiodon
    Fish from the genus Ophiodon. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Ophiurida
    Animal from the order of brittle stars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Paguroidea
    Animal from the superfamily of Hermit Crabs. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Parasticho
    Animal from the Sea Cucumber genus. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Pectinidae
    Animal from the group of Scallops. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Phaeophyco
    Algae from the group Brown Algae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Pisaster
    Sea Star from the genus Pisaster. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Pleuronect
    Fish from the genus of Flounders. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Porifera
    Animals from the phylum of Sponges. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Ptilosarcu
    Animal from the genus of Sea Pens. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Pycnopodia
    Animal from the genus of sunflower sea stars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Rajiformes
    Fish from the order of flattened cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Rhodophyco
    Algae from group of red algae. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Rossia
    Genus of Cephalopod. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Sebastes
    Fish from the genus of Rockfish. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Solaster
    Animal from the family of Sunstars. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Squalomorp
    Shark of the superorder Squalomorphii. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Stichaeida
    Fish from the family of Prickleback fish. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Strongyloc
    Sea Urchin from the genus Strongylocentrotus. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Subsellifl
    Animal from the Sea Whip family. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    tubeworm
    Animal from the phylum Phoronida. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Zoarcidae
    Fish from the family of Eelpouts. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Zostera_ma
    A matt of plants of the genus Zostera. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    0denotes absence of the species or feature
    1denotes presence of the species or feature
    Richness
    number of unique types observed at the location (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:9
    Units:unique types
    Resolution:1
    DEPTH
    depth of sea floor at the location of the observation. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-253.0
    Maximum:0.0
    Units:decimal meters below NAVD88 sea level
    Resolution:0.1
    SLOPE
    slope of the sea floor at the location of the observation. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:66.5
    Units:decimal degrees.
    Resolution:0.1
    VRM
    vector ruggedness at the location of the observation (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:0.0911
    Units:Unitless, measures terrain ruggedness as the variation in three-dimensional orientation of grid cells within a neighborhood. Vector analysis is used to calculate the dispersion of vectors normal (orthogonal) to grid cells within the specified neighborhood. This method effectively captures variability in slope and aspect into a single measure. Ruggedness values in the output raster can range from 0 (no terrain variation) to 1 (complete terrain variation). Typical values for natural terrains range between 0 and about 0.4.
    Resolution:0.0001
    CRUISE_ID
    USGS cruise identification (Source: USGS) identification number for USGS field data acquisition activity.
    LINE_ID
    transect line ID number assigned in the field (Source: USGS) unique identification number for video transect
    Longitude
    Longitude in NAD83 coordinate system (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-122.514976
    Maximum:-122.379062
    Units:Decimal Degrees
    Resolution:0.000001
    Latitude
    Latitude in NAD83 coordinate system (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.568494
    Maximum:47.828367
    Units:Decimal Degrees
    Resolution:0.000001

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Guy R. Cochrane
    • Andrew C. Ritchie
    • Timothy O. Hodson
    • Kristine J. Kull
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data were used to ground truth a supervised classification of multibeam echosounder (MBES) data into Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS) polygons. This project was conducted to map surficial geology and benthic habitat These data are intended for fisheries managers, science researchers, students, policy makers, and the public. These data can be used in GIS and statistical analysis projects, or other software to spatially identify geomorphologic biota, surficial lithology, and biotopes in the study area. Field activities were augmented through the Expanding Pacific Research and Exploration of Submerged Systems (EXPRESS) collaboration (https://www.usgs.gov/centers/pcmsc/science/express-expanding-pacific-research-and-exploration-submerged-systems?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2011 (process 1 of 1)
    The camera-sled observations are based on real-time video, where USGS and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife scientists recorded both the geologic and biologic character of the seafloor. Observations were recorded for a 10-second period once every minute. Onshore, the observation comma-delimited text file was converted to an ArcGIS shapefile and used as ground truth for geologic interpretation (see CMECS_OffshoreSeattle.shp, also available in this data release).
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Cochrane, Guy R., 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Cochrane, G.R., compiler, 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 935
    Folk, R.L., 1954, The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary Rock Nomenclature.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Folk, R.L., The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary Rock Nomenclature: J. Geol., v. 62, p. 344-359.
    Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2012, Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2012, Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard, 343 p.
    Cochrane, Guy R., 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Cochrane, G.R., compiler, 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 935

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Position of the towed camera are based on shipboard GPS. No corrections for layback were made. Depth values are from the digital elevation model (DEM) published along with this dataset. Values of slope, VRM, and rugosity are derived from the DEM. The accuracy of substrate and biota observations cannot be quantified.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Highly variable, on the order of 10 meters. Horizontal position given is ship position. Towed camera can be on the order of 10 meters distance from the ship during deployment.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Observation are from one-minute intervals. Some gaps in observations are due to technical problems or sediment dispersion covering the camera lens.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No checks for consistency were performed on this data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - CMGDS
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These data are available in comma-delimited text format (VideoObservations_OffshoreSeattle.csv) accompanied by CSDGM FGDC-compliant metadata.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with GIS or standard text-reading software.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 04-Feb-2022
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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