Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui
Abstract:
Chronology and time-series geochemistry data of a coral core collected from Olowalu, West Maui, Hawaii. The chronology is based on density banding, radiocarbon bomb-curve, and uranium thorium dating techniques. The geochemistry time-series data contains major and minor elements over the length of the coral life span, as measured from laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the field activities from which these data were derived is available online at: http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=A0413MU Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Prouty, Nancy G., and Gallagher, Christopher, 2017, Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui: data release DOI:10.5066/F72J69TH, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.6083000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.6083000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.8065000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.8065000
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 09-Jul-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition at time data were collected
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: comma-delimited text
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (1)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv
    Table containing results from elemental composition along the length of the coral core. (Source: Producer defined)
    Cumulative Distance
    Cumulative distance from the top of the core to the bottom of the core. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.23
    Maximum:2555.11
    Units:millimeter
    Resolution:0.01
    Chronology: Density
    Calendar age assigned to sample according to annual density band counts. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1716.00
    Maximum:2013.60
    Units:year.month
    Chronology: U-Th
    Calendar age assigned to sample according to uranium-thorium (U-Th) age dating. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1769.69
    Maximum:2013.60
    Units:year.month
    B:Ca
    boron to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.63
    Maximum:4497197.36
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg:Ca
    magnesium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.49
    Maximum:890.54
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Sr:Ca
    strontium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.95
    Maximum:16.29
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Ba:Ca
    barium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.76
    Maximum:6952.82
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    U:Ca
    uranium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:16.52
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Al:Ca
    aluminum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.17
    Maximum:224220950.16
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    P:Ca
    phosphorous to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11.96
    Maximum:613209.35
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    V:Ca
    vanadium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:45159.04
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr:Ca
    chromium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.19
    Maximum:5433843.67
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Mn:Ca
    manganese to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.15
    Maximum:102542.23
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe:Ca
    iron to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:74.20
    Maximum:166309.78
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Ni:Ca
    nickel to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.27
    Maximum:133856.50
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Cu:Ca
    copper to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.96
    Maximum:936691.15
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Zn:Ca
    zinc to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.65
    Maximum:103444.98
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Y:Ca
    yttrium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:11.92
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Mo:Ca
    molybdenum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:2132.91
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    La:Ca
    lanthanum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.53
    Maximum:5435.85
    Units:nanomol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Pb:Ca
    lead to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:66385.62
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01
    Olowalu_coral_chronology.csv
    Table containing results of age dating based on uranium-thorium and radiocarbon methods. (Source: Producer defined)
    Cumulative Distance
    Cumulative distance from the top of the core to the bottom of the core. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:23
    Maximum:297
    Units:millimeter
    Resolution:1
    238U
    Concentration of Uranium-238 isotope in sample in parts per billion (ppb). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Uranium-238 concentration was not calculated for every sample. (Source: standard value in analytical chemistry)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2256
    Maximum:2519
    Units:parts per billion (ppb)
    Resolution:1
    238U (error)
    Concentration of Uranium-238 isotope error in sample in parts per billion (ppb) reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Uranium-238 error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: standard value in analytical chemistry)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:5
    Units:parts per billion (ppb)
    Resolution:1
    232Th
    Concentration of Thorium-232 isotope in sample in parts per trillion (ppt). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-232 concentration was not calculated for every sample. (Source: standard value in analytical chemistry)
    Range of values
    Minimum:59
    Maximum:1592
    Units:parts per trillion (ppt)
    Resolution:1
    232Th (error)
    Concentration of Thorium-232 isotope error in sample in parts per billion (ppb) reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-232 error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: standard value in analytical chemistry)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per trillion (ppt)
    Resolution:1
    230Th:232Th (atomic ratio)
    Thorium-230:Thorium-232 atomic ratio x 10-6. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 230Th:232Th was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:1628
    Resolution:1
    230Th:232Th atomic ratio (error)
    Thorium-230:Thorium-232 atomic ratio error x10-6 reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 230Th:232Th error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:74
    Resolution:1
    delta-U-234 (measured)
    A measure of the ratio of Uranium-234:Uranium-238, reported in parts per thousand (per mil). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 234U:238U was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:144.9
    Maximum:146.6
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    delta-U-234 (measured, error)
    A measure of the ratio of Uranium-234:Uranium-238 error, reported in parts per thousand (per mil) . Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 234U:238U error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.2
    Maximum:1.6
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    230Th:238U AR
    Thorium-230:Uranium-238 Activity Ratio. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 230Th:238U AR was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0007
    Maximum:0.0024
    Resolution:0.0001
    230Th:238U AR (error)
    Thorium-230:Uranium-238 Activity Ratio error reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 230Th:238U AR (error) was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:0.0001
    Resolution:0.0001
    230Th age (uncorrected) (yr)
    Uncorrected Thorium-230 age (yr). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:64
    Maximum:232
    Units:year
    Resolution:1
    230Th age error (uncorrected, yr)
    Uncorrected Thorium-230 age (yr) error reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:7
    Units:year
    Resolution:1
    230Th age (corrected, yr)
    Corrected Thorium-230 age (yr). Corrected 230Th ages assume the initial 230Th:232Th atomic ratio of 4.4 ±2.2 x10-6. Those are the values for a material at secular equilibrium, with the bulk earth 232Th:238U value of 3.8. The errors are arbitrarily assumed to be 50 percent. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:50
    Maximum:231
    Units:year
    Resolution:1
    230Th age error (corrected) (yr)
    Corrected Thorium-230 age erro (yr) reported as 2-sigma composition. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:14
    Units:year
    Resolution:1
    delta-U-234 initial (corrected)
    A measure of the initial ratio of Uranium-234:Uranium-238, reported in parts per thousand (per mil). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 234U:238U was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:145
    Maximum:147
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    delta-U-234 initial error (corrected)
    A measure of the initial ratio of Uranium-234:Uranium-238 error, reported in parts per thousand (per mil). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as 234U:238U initial error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    230Th age (corrected, yr BP)
    Corrected Thorium-230 age (yr BP). BP stands for “Before Present” where the “Present” is defined as the year 1950 A.D. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-14
    Maximum:167
    Units:yr BP
    Resolution:1
    230Th age error (corrected, yr BP)
    Corrected Thorium-230 age (yr BP) error. BP stands for “Before Present” where the “Present” is defined as the year 1950 A.D. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Thorium-230 age error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Jaffey and others, 1971)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:14
    Units:yr BP
    Resolution:1
    Assigned date
    Assigned calendar date based on 230Th age and yr BP defined as 1950 A.D. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as assigned date was not calculated for every sample. (Source: produced defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1783
    Maximum:1964
    Units:yr A.D.
    Resolution:1
    Fraction Modern
    Fraction Modern is a measurement of the deviation of the carbon-14:carbon-12 ratio of a sample from "Modern." Modern is defined as 95 percent of the radiocarbon concentration (in AD 1950) of NBS Oxalic Acid I (SRM 4990B, OX-I) normalized to delta-C-13 =-19 per mil (Olsson, 1970). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Fraction Modern was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.9490
    Maximum:1.1480
    Resolution:0.0001
    Fraction Modern error
    Fraction Modern error is a measurement error of the deviation of the carbon-14:carbon-12 ratio of a sample from "Modern." Modern is defined as 95 percent of the radiocarbon concentration (in AD 1950) of NBS Oxalic Acid I (SRM 4990B, OX-I) normalized to delta-C-13 =-19 per mil (Olsson, 1970). Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Fraction Modern error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0030
    Maximum:0.0041
    Resolution:0.0001
    Delta-C-14
    The relative difference between the absolute international standard (base year 1950) and sample activity corrected for age and delta-Carbon-13. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Delta-Carbon-14 was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-51
    Maximum:148
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    Delta-C-14 error
    The error for the relative difference between the absolute international standard (base year 1950) and sample activity corrected for age and delta-Carbon-13. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as Delta-Carbon-14 error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:4.1
    Units:parts per thousand (per mil)
    Resolution:1
    Delta-C-14 age (yr BP)
    Radiocarbon age in year before present (yr BP) with present defined as 1950. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as radiocarbon was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:420
    Maximum:420
    Units:year before present (yr BP)
    Resolution:1
    Delta-C-14 age error (yr BP)
    Radiocarbon age error in year before present (yr BP) with present defined as 1950. Empty cells in the spreadsheet are common, as radiocarbon age error was not calculated for every sample. (Source: defined in Stuiver and Polach, 1977)
    Range of values
    Minimum:30
    Maximum:30
    Units:year before present (yr BP)
    Resolution:1
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: The first line of the csv file is a header line.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Nancy G. Prouty
    • Christopher Gallagher
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    L. Kinsley (Australian National University), L. Edwards and H. Cheng (University of Minnesota), and T. Guilderson (LLNL) for analytical assistance, and C. Storlazzi, J. Logan, and P. Dal Ferro (USGS) for field assistance.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    US

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Erosion and associated sedimentation are the most significant threats to Hawaii's terrestrial and marine resources. Given that regional-scale resilience of coral reefs to global climate change may be significantly influence by local water quality, there is the potential that compounding stressors will reduce the tolerance of corals to climate change perturbations. The Coral Reef Working Group (CRWG), made up of key state and federal partners involved in coral reef management, has identified Olowalu as a Hawaii Coral Reef Strategy Priority Site and adjacent to a proposed priority watershed. This information is valuable for resource managers in Hawaii trying to calculate trajectories of coral reef health related to future land-use and climate change, since both processes will affect the supply and storage of sediment to the reef flat.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    U-Th dates (source 1 of 4)
    Minnesota, University of, 2014, Uranium-Thorium age dating.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Samples were processed via total dissolution techniques, with isotope ratios measured on by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Cobb and others, 2003).
    coral radiocarbon ages (source 2 of 4)
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, 2017, Radiocarbon measurements.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Approximately 10 mg of acidified with orthophosphoric acid and evolved carbon dioxide was converted to graphite for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS; Vogel and others, 1987).
    elemental to calcium ratio (source 3 of 4)
    UCSC Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, 2017, Elemental composition of coral samples.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Elemental to calcium ratio as measured by laser ablation Inductively-coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; Sinclair and others, 1998).
    coral density values (source 4 of 4)
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013, Density banding.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    The cores were evaluated for annual density banding using Computed Tomography (CT) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution CT Scanning Facility (Crook and others, 2013).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 24-Mar-2017 (process 1 of 4)
    Results from the all lab analyses were combined into two comma-delimited text documents (Olowalu_coral_chronology.csv and Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv) for this data release. Person who carried out this activity:
    Nancy Prouty
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    United States

    831-460-7526 (voice)
    nprouty@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • All source contributions were used for this dataset
    Date: 25-Nov-2019 (process 2 of 4)
    Deleted extraneous text from attribute resolution tag. Updated Point of Contact and Metadata contact to PCMSC static contact info, and added Process Step contact information as needed. No data or data information were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    United States

    831-460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
    Date: 19-Oct-2020 (process 3 of 4)
    Edited metadata to add keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Oct-2021 (process 4 of 4)
    Edited metadata to eliminate duplicate E/A tag. No data were changed. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Users are advised to compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Susan Cochran
    Geologist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Cobb, K., Charles, C. D., Cheng, H., Kastner, M., and Edwards, R. L., 2003, U/Th-dating living and young fossil corals from the central tropical Pacific: Journal article Earth Planetary Science Letters, v. 210, 2003, p. 91-103, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

    Online Links:

    Crook, E.D., Cohen, A.L., Rebolledo-Vieyr, M., Hernandez, L., and Paytan, A., 2013, Reduced calcification and lack of acclimatization by coral colonies growing in areas of persistent natural acidification: Journal article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301589110, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C..

    Online Links:

    Jaffey, A.H., Flynn, K.F., Glendenin, L.E., Bentley, W.C., and Essling, A.M., 1971, Precision measurement of half-lives and specific activities of 235U and 238U: Journal article Physical Review C 4, American Physical Society, College Park, M.D..

    Online Links:

    Sinclair, D.J., Kinsley, L.P.J., and McCulloch, M., 1998, High resolution analysis of trace elements in corals by laser ablation ICP-MS: Journal article Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Olsson, I.U., 1970, Radiocarbon Variations and Absolute Chronology: Proceedings Proceedings of the 12th Nobel Symposium, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

    Vogel, J.S., Southon, J.R., and Nelson, D.E., 1987, Catalyst and binder effects in the use of filamentous graphite for AMS: Journal article Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 29, 40-56, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Stuiver, M., and Polach, H.A., 1977, Discussion reporting of 14C data: Journal article Radiocarbon 19(3), 1977, p. 355–363, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

    Online Links:

    Vogel, J.S., Southon, J.R., and Nelson, D.E., 1987, Catalyst and binder effects in the use of filamentous graphite for AMS: Journal article Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 29, 40-56, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Andrews, A.H., Siciliano, D., Potts, D.C., DeMartini, E.E., and Covarrubias, S., 2016, Bomb radiocarbon and the Hawaiian Archipelago: coral, otoliths, and seawater: Journal article Radiocarbon, v. 58, no. 3, 2016, p. 531-548, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

    Online Links:

    Barnes, D. J., and Lough, J.M., 1989, The nature of skeletal density banding in scleractinian corals: fine banding and seasonal patterns: Journal article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 126, Issues 2, 16 March 1989, Pages 119-134, Elsevier, Cambridge, MA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    All geochemistry data were calibrated against known standards.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The coral site position was determined by hand-held Garmin GPS. Horizontal accuracy is approximately 3 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the data set has not been conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Maui as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These chronology and geochemistry data are available in two .csv formatted files, Olowalu_coral_chronology.csv and Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv, respectively.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with Microsoft Excel or any text reader

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 26-Oct-2021
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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