Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

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Title:
Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California
Abstract:
This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in "Geology_OffshoreSaltPoint.zip," which is accessible from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreSaltPoint/data_catalog_OffshoreSaltPoint.html.
The morphology and the geology of the Offshore of Salt Point map area result from the interplay between local sea-level rise, sedimentary processes, oceanography, and tectonics. The offshore part of the map area extends from the shoreline to water depths of about 90 to 100 m on the mid-continental shelf; the shelfbreak occurs about 20 km farther offshore at water depths of about 200 m. The nearshore and inner shelf (to water depths of about 50 to 60 m) typically dips seaward about 1.0 to 1.5 degrees; the mid to outer shelf dips more gently, generally less than 0.5 degrees. Sea level has risen about 125 to 130 m over about the last 21,000 years (for example, Lambeck and Chappell, 2001; Peltier and Fairbanks, 2005), leading to broadening of the continental shelf, progressive eastward migration of the shoreline and wave-cut platform, and associated transgressive erosion and deposition. Land-derived sediment was carried into this dynamic setting, then subjected to full Pacific Ocean wave energy and strong currents before deposition or offshore transport. Tectonic influences impacting shelf morphology and geology are related to local faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence (see below).
Bedrock of the Eocene and Paleocene German Rancho Formation (unit Tgr) underlies much of the inner shelf, extending to water depths of as much as 60 m. Although onshore coastal outcrops of this unit are well bedded, seafloor outcrops imaged on high-resolution bathymetry have a hackly surface texture and abundant fractures. Embayments in the outer margin of the seafloor bedrock outcrops are commonly paired with the mouths of coastal watersheds and are inferred to have formed by fluvial erosion during the last sealevel lowstand. One of the more prominent embayments occurs about one kilometer north of Salt Point at the mouth of Miller Creek (fig. 1-2). These coastal watersheds are relatively small and steep, extending to a drainage divide just 2 to 3 km east of the shoreline, and are inferred sources of coarse-grained sediments. Immediately east of this onshore topographic divide, drainage along this part of the coast is captured by the northwest-flowing South Fork of the Gualala River (fig. 1-2), which runs parallel to the coast along the trace of the San Andreas fault.
Given relatively shallow water depths (0 to about 50 m) and exposure to high wave energy, modern nearshore to mid-shelf sediments are mostly sand (unit Qms) and a mix of sand, gravel, and cobbles (units Qmsc and Qmsd). The more coarse-grained sands and gravels (units Qmsc and Qmsd) are primarily recognized on the basis of bathymetry and high backscatter. Both Qmsc and Qmsd typically have abrupt landward contacts with bedrock (unit Tgr) and form irregular to lenticular exposures that are commonly elongate in the shore-normal direction. Contacts between units Qmsc and Qms are typically gradational. Unit Qmsd forms erosional lags in scoured depressions that are bounded by relatively sharp and less commonly diffuse contacts with unit Qms horizontal sand sheets. These depressions are typically a few tens of centimeters deep and range in size from a few 10's of sq m to more than one sq km.
Similar unit Qmsd scour depressions are common along this stretch of the California coast (see, for example, Cacchione and others, 1984; Hallenbeck and others, 2012) where surficial offshore sandy sediment is relatively thin (thus unable to fill the depressions) due to both lack of sediment supply and to erosion and transport of sediment during large northwest winter swells. Such features have been referred to as "rippled-scour depressions" (see, for example, Cacchione and others, 1984) or "sorted bedforms" (see, for example, Goff and others, 2005; Trembanis and Hume, 2011). Although the general areas in which both unit Qmsd scour depressions and surrounding mobile sand sheets occur are not likely to change substantially, the boundaries of the individual Qmsd depressions are likely ephemeral, changing seasonally and during significant storm events.
The offshore decrease in slope at mid-shelf water depths (about 60 m) approximately coincides with a transition to more fine-grained marine sediments (unit Qmsf), which extends to the outer (3-nautical-mile) limit of California's State Waters. Unit Qmsf consists primarily of mud and muddy sand and is commonly extensively bioturbated. These fine-grained sediments are inferred to have been derived from from the Russian River, which has its mouth about 15 km south of the map area. Both Drake and Cacchione (1985) and Sherwood and others (1994) have documented seasonal, mid-shelf, northwest-directed, bottom currens capable of transporting fine-grained, suspended sediment from the Russian River to the Offshore of Salt Point map area.
Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data (see Bathymetry--Offshore Salt Point, California and Backscattter--Offshore Salt Point, California, DS 781, for more information). The bathymetry and backscatter data were collected between 2006 and 2010.
References Cited
Cacchione, D.A., Drake, D.E., Grant, W.D., and Tate, G.B., 1984, Rippled scour depressions of the inner continental shelf off central California: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 54, p. 1,280-1,291.
Drake, D.E., and Cacchione, D.A., 1985, Seasonal variation in sediment transport on the Russian River shelf, California: Continental Shelf Research, v. 14, p. 495-514.
Goff, J.A., Mayer, L.A., Traykovski, P., Buynevich, I., Wilkens, R., Raymond, R., Glang, G., Evans, R.L., Olson, H., and Jenkins, C., 2005, Detailed investigations of sorted bedforms or "rippled scour depressions", within the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts: Continental Shelf Research, v. 25, p. 461-484.
Hallenbeck, T.R., Kvitek, R.G., and Lindholm, J., 2012, Rippled scour depressions add ecologically significant heterogeneity to soft-bottom habitats on the continental shelf: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v. 468, p. 119-133.
Lambeck, K., and Chappell, J., 2001, Sea level change through the last glacial cycle: Science, v. 292, p. 679-686, doi: 10.1126/science.1059549.
Manson, M.W., Huyette, C.M., Wills, C.J., Huffman, M.E., Smelser, G.G., Fuller, M.E., Domrose, C., and Gutierrez, C., 2006, Landslides in the Highway 1 corridor between Bodega Bay and Fort Ross, Sonoma County, California: California Geological Survey Special Report 196, 26 p., 2 plates, 38 maps, scale 1:12,000.
Peltier, W.R., and Fairbanks, R.G., 2005, Global glacial ice volume and Last Glacial Maximum duration from an extended Barbados sea level record: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 25, p. 3,322-3,337.
Sherwood, C.R., Butman, B., Cacchione, D.A., Drake, D.E., Gross, T.F., Sternberg, R.W., Wiberg, P.L., and Williams, A.J., III, 1994, Sediment transport events on the northern California continental shelf during the 1990-1991 STRESS experiment: Continental Shelf Research, v. 14, p. 1063-1099.
Trembanis, A.C., and Hume, T.M., 2011, Sorted bedforms on the inner shelf off northeastern New Zealand-Spatiotemporal relationships and potential paleo-environmental implications: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 31, p. 203-214.
Supplemental_Information:
Map political location: San Mateo County, California Compilation scale: 1:24,000 Base maps used are hillshades generated from IfSAR, LiDAR, and multibeam mapping both onshore and offshore (see Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Hartwell, S.R., Johnson, S.Y., and Manson, M.W., 2014, Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Golden, Nadine E., 2013, California State Waters Map Series Data Catalog: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.481291
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.277844
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.639335
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.479861
  3. What does it look like?
    <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreSaltPoint/images/Geology_OffshoreSaltPoint.jpg> (JPEG)
    Geology offshore Salt Point.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2006
    Ending_Date: 2010
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • GT-polygon composed of chains (873)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is WGS 1984 UTM Zone 10N.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D WGS 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    MapUnitPolys
    Polygons representing geologic / geomorphic map units (Source: This report)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    MapUnitAbb
    Map Unit abbreviation (Source: This report)
    ValueDefinition
    afArtificial fill and anthropogenic material
    QmsMarine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmsdMarine shelf scour depressions
    QmscCoarse-grained marine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmsfFine-grained marine shelf deposits
    TgrGerman Rancho Formation
    Shape_Area
    Area of feature in internal units squared. (Source: ESRI) Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • S.R. Hartwell
    • S.Y. Johnson
    • M.W. Manson
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Stephen Hartwell
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7814 (voice)
    (831) 427-4748 (FAX)
    shartwell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To expand geologic mapping to the seafloor within the California's State Waters, to update coastal geologic mapping, and to contribute to a uniform regional geologic database, which can be used in geographic information systems. Additionally, to provide a geologic map for the public and geoscience community to aid in assessments and mitigation of geologic hazards in the Salt Point coastal region and to provide sufficient geologic information for land-use and land-management decisions both onshore and offshore. This information is not intended for navigational purposes.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point (source 1 of 3)
    Bretz, Carrie K., Kvitek, Rikk G., Dartnell, Peter, and Phillips, Eleyne L., 2014, Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California: Scientific Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for bathymetry ("Bathymetry_OffshoreSaltPoint_metadata.txt") in DS 781 for source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded bathymetry data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded bathymetry data (2-meter resolution).
    Backscatter--Offshore of Salt Point (source 2 of 3)
    Bretz, Carrie K., Kvitek, Rikk G., Dartnell, Peter, and Phillips, Eleyne L., 2014, Backscatter--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California: Scientific Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for backscatter ("BackscatterA_8101_OffshoreSaltPoint_metadata.txt", "BackscatterB_Swath_OffshoreSaltPoint_metadata.txt" and "BackscatterC_7125_OffshoreSaltPoint_metadata.txt") in DS 781 for amplitude source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded amplitude data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded amplitude data (2-meter resolution).
    S-8-09-NC (source 3 of 3)
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), 2013, Subbottom survey data of field activity S-8-09-NC in Stinson Beach to Point Arena (CA) from 09/08/2009 to 09/30/2009: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG), Menlo Park, CA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: ASCII lat/long shot point files
    Source_Contribution:
    Digital seismic data used to interpret subsurface geologic structure
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2012 (process 1 of 7)
    Faults were mapped onto shot lines based on the latitude and longitude of seismic picks from field activity S-15-10-NC.
    Date: 2012 (process 2 of 7)
    Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data. Derivatives such as slope and curvature were generated from source rasters. Interpreted rasters include amplitude, hillshaded bathymetry (using various illumination angles and vertical exaggeration), slope, and curvature. Curvature was decomposed into profile and plan curvature for analysis purposes.
    Date: 2011 (process 3 of 7)
    The mapped area was extended to the shoreline by using digital orthophotos to interpret the region between the inner edge of the multibeam bathymetry and the approximate shoreline. The approximate shoreline was generated at the NAVD88 +1.46 m contour, defined as the operational MHW shoreline by Weber and others (2005). The resulting boundary was transformed to WGS 84 UTM Zone 10 North in ArcGIS 10 using the NAD83 to WGS84 (ITRF00) transformation algorithm. This boundary was then used to extend and trim both onshore and offshore geology in the print and PDF product. The transformed boundary is contained within the WGS84 "contours" feature class and identified as a water boundary in the associated representation rules.
    References Cited:
    California Geological Survey, 1974, Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone Maps of Annapolis and Plantation quadrangles, scale 1:24,000.
    Fuller, M.S., Haydon, W.D., Purcell, M.G., and Custis, K., 2002, Geologic and geomorphic features related to landsliding, Gualala River watershed, Sonoma and Mendocino counties, California: California Geological Survey Watershed Mapping Series, Map Set 5, Plate 1, Sheet 3 of 3, scale 1:24,000.
    Huffman, M.E., 1972, Geology for planning on the Sonoma County coast between the Russian and Gualala Rivers: California Division of Mines and Geology Preliminary Report 16, 38 p., 4 plates, scale 1:24,000.
    Manson, M.W., Huyette, C.M., Wills, C.J., Huffman, M.E., Smelser, G.G., Fuller, M.E., Domrose, C., and Gutierrez, C., 2006, Landslides in the Highway 1 corridor between Bodega Bay and Fort Ross, Sonoma County, California: California Geological Survey Special Report 196, 26 p., 2 plates, 38 maps, scale 1:12,000.
    Witter, R.C., Knudsen, K.L., Sowers, J.M., Wentworth, C.M., Koehler, R.D., Randolph, C.E., Brooks, S.K., and Gans, K.D., 2006, Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 06-1037, scale 1:24,000.
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 4 of 7)
    Added Distribution_Information section to metadata to facilitate data download. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 5 of 7)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 6 of 7)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 19-Oct-2020 (process 7 of 7)
    Edited metadata to add keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Polygons were primarily mapped by one of the following methods: (1) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution hillshaded bathymetry data from bathymetric lidar and sonar surveys (see Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California); (2) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution amplitude (backscatter) data from bathymetric sonar surveys (see Backscatter--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California); (3) interpretation of 2-meter interpretation of seismic-reflection-profile data (see field activity S-8-09-NC).
    Map Unit contact locations were interpreted typically at a scale of between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 using the above base data. Bathymetric sonar and LiDAR data have a horizontal accuracy greater than the resolution of the base data.
    Map unit contacts were digitized by heads-up screen digitization of line data on 2-meter-resolution DEMs described above. Horizontal accuracy is estimated to be between 2 and 5 meters depending on how clearly contacts can be resolved.
    Most digitized positions on the map are estimated to have better than 5 m horizontal accuracy. There is no elevation data in the database.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data are complete: no offshore features that could be accurately identified and represented at the compilation scale of 1:24,000 were eliminated or generalized. The smallest area represented is approximately 100 square meters. All geospatial database elements are attributed.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Map elements were visually checked for overshoots, undershoots, duplicate features, polygon closure, and other errors by the lead authors and by the GIS technician(s) who created the digital database. Review drafts of the map were reviewed internally by at least two other geologists for consistency with basic geologic principles and general conformity to USGS mapping standards.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints:
If physical samples or materials are available, constraints on their on-site access are described in "WR CMG Sample Distribution Policy" at URL: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/main/sample-dist-policy.html
Use_Constraints:
This information is not intended for navigational purposes.
Read and fully comprehend the metadata prior to data use. Uses of these data should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Where these data are used in combination with other data of different resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lowest resolution of all the data.
Acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey in products derived from these data. Share data products developed using these data with the U.S. Geological Survey.
This database has been approved for release and publication by the Director of the USGS. Although this database has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the data pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document these data in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Rd
    Menlo Park, CA
    USA

    (650) 329-4309 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 19-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Attn: Stephen R. Hartwell
400 Natural Bridges Drive
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-460-7814 (voice)
831-427-4748 (FAX)
shartwell@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/SeriesReports/DS_DDS/DS_781/SaltPoint/Geology_OffshoreSaltPoint_metadata.faq.html>
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