Backscatter B [Swath]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

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What does this data set describe?

Title: Backscatter B [Swath]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California
Abstract:
This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids depending on mapping system or processing method. The raster data file is included in "BackscatterB_Swath_DrakesBay.zip", which is accessible from https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/DrakesBay/data_catalog_DrakesBay.html. These data accompany the pamphlet and map sheets of Watt, J.T., Dartnell, P., Golden, N.E., Greene, H.G., Erdey, M.D., Cochrane, G.R., Johnson, S.Y., Hartwell, S.R., Kvitek, R.G., Manson, M.W., Endris, C.A., Dieter, B.E., Sliter, R.W., Krigsman, L.M., Lowe, E.N., and Chin, J.L. (J.T. Watt and S.A. Cochran, eds.), 2015, California State Waters Map Series—Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1041, pamphlet 36 p., 10 sheets, scale 1:24,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151041.
The acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California, was generated from backscatter collected by California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), and by Fugro Pelagos. Mapping was completed between 2007 and 2010, using a combination of 200-kHz and 400-kHz Reson 7125, and 244-kHz Reson 8101 multibeam echosounders, as well as 468-kHz SEA SWATHPlus interferometric system. These mapping missions combined to collect backscatter data from about the 10-m isobath to beyond the 3-nautical-mile limit of Californiaís State Waters. Within the acoustic-backscatter imagery, brighter tones indicate higher backscatter intensity, and darker tones indicate lower backscatter intensity. The intensity represents a complex interaction between the acoustic pulse and the seafloor, as well as characteristics within the shallow subsurface, providing a general indication of seafloor texture and composition. Backscatter intensity depends on the acoustic source level; the frequency used to image the seafloor; the grazing angle; the composition and character of the seafloor, including grain size, water content, bulk density, and seafloor roughness; and some biological cover. Harder and rougher bottom types such as rocky outcrops or coarse sediment typically return stronger intensities (high backscatter, lighter tones), whereas softer bottom types such as fine sediment return weaker intensities (low backscatter, darker tones). These data are not intended for navigational purposes.
Supplemental_Information:
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in Esri format, this metadata file may include some Esri-specific terminology.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Dartnell, Peter, and Kvitek, Rikk G., 2014, Backscatter B [Swath]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Golden, Nadine E., 2013, California State Waters Map Series Data Catalog: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.97
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.76
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.04
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.88
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/DrakesBay/images/BackscatterB_Swath_DrakesBay.jpg (JPEG)
    Acoustic backscatter imagery of Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2007
    Ending_Date: 2010
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: GeoTiff
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 8905 x 8900 x 1, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 10
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.00000
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.00
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.00.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The merged Reson 8101 acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8905
    Number of columns = 8900
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 502900
    Xmax = 520700
    Ymin = 4192300
    Ymax = 4210110
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 1
    Maximum value = 254
    Mean = 124.62
    Standard deviation = 23.47
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    The merged Reson 7125 acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8905
    Number of columns = 8900
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 502900
    Xmax = 520700
    Ymin = 4192448
    Ymax = 4210110
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 0
    Maximum value = 224
    Mean = 114.39
    Standard deviation = 26.88
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    The merged SWATHPlus acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8905
    Number of columns = 8900
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 502900
    Xmax = 520700
    Ymin = 4192300
    Ymax = 4210110
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 23
    Maximum value = 254
    Mean = 131.58
    Standard deviation = 29.45
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Peter Dartnell
    • Rikk G. Kvitek
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    US

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. These data can be used with geographic information systems or other software to identify seafloor features.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2010 (process 1 of 7)
    During the Fugro Pelagos and CSUMB mapping missions, an Applanix Position and Motion Compensation System for Marine Vessels (POS/MV, 320, v4) was used to accurately position the vessels during data collection, and it also accounted for vessels' motion such as heave, pitch, and roll (position accuracy, ±2 m; pitch, roll, and heading accuracy, ±0.02; heave accuracy, ±5%, or 5 cm). KGPS altitude data (Fugro Pelagos, StarFix HP & XP units; CSUMB, NavCom 2050) were used to account for tide cycle fluctuations and sound velocity profiles were collected with an Applied Microsystems SVPlus sound velocimeter. Soundings were corrected for vessel motion using the Applanix POS/MV data, for variations in water-column sound velocity using the AM SVPlus data, and for variations in water height (tides) using vertical-position data from the KGPS receivers.
    The multibeam backscatter data then were processed using Geocoder (Fugro Pelagos Modified Test Release 16) or Geocoder within Caris HIPS and SIPS. Within Geocoder, the backscatter intensities were radiometrically corrected (including despeckling and angle-varying gain adjustments), and the position of each acoustic sample was geometrically corrected for slant range. This processed imagery was stored as Georeferenced, Backscatter Rasters (GeoBARs). After GeoBARs were created for each line, they were mosaicked into 1m resolution images. Overlap between parallel lines was resolved using a priority table based on the distance of each sample from the ship track, with samples closest to- and furthest from- the ship track given the lowest priority. An anti-aliasing algorithm was also applied. The SWATHPlus backscatter data were processed using SXPTools v 2.0 (David Finlayson, USGS) and SEA Grid Processor v 3.02.19.0. SXPTools is a collection of command line programs that are used to enhance the quality of SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar data. The programs are primarily focused on enhancing the backscatter quality, but there is some benefit to the bathymetry as well. The SXPTools sxpegn command was used to equalize the backscatter amplitude, and the sxpmagic command was used to help fill gaps and remove artifacts near nadir. After processing with SXPTools, lines were imported into Grid Processor and mosaicked into a 1m resolution image georeferenced to UTM Zone 10 N, NAD_83(CORS96). The mosaic image for each survey block was exported as a GeoJpeg from Grid Processor and converted to GeoTiff using Adobe Photoshop or GIMP. In some cases memory limitations in Grid Processor required tiling a block mosaic into 2 or more sub-mosaics. Person who carried out this activity:
    Carrie Bretz
    Seafloor Mapping Lab, California State University Monterey Bay
    Projects Manager, GIS; Metadata Supervisor
    100 Campus Center, Bldg 13
    Seaside, CA
    USA

    (831) 582-4197 (voice)
    carrie_bretz@csumb.edu
    Date: 2012 (process 2 of 7)
    California Seafloor Mapping Project 1- and 2-m resolution backscatter imagery within this map were downloaded from California State University, Monterey Bay, Seafloor Mapping Lab (http://seafloor.csumb.edu/SFMLwebDATA.htm) and converted to grids. Backscatter grids of similar mapping systems were merged in a GIS and clipped to the boundary of the map area. Grids from different mapping systems were not merged together due to different mapping frequencies and processing techniques. Grids were projected horizontally to WGS-84 using ESRI ArcTools.
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 3 of 7)
    Added Distribution_Information section to metadata to facilitate data download. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 4 of 7)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 5 of 7)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 10-May-2018 (process 6 of 7)
    Metadata was modified to bring up to current USGS PCMSC standards. USGS Thesaurus and keywords were added, and Process Steps were refined. Minor typos were corrected. No data information was changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Geologist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
    Date: 07-Sep-2018 (process 7 of 7)
    Information for accompanying Open-File Report added to Abstract and Cross Reference sections. Point of Contact information was updated. Details about different Network Resource Name links was given in the Access Instructions section. Phone number for Metadata Contact was corrected. No data information was changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    United States

    831-460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Watt, Janet T., Dartnell, Peter, Golden, Nadine E., Greene, H. Gary, Erdey, Mercedes E., Cochrane, Guy R., Johnson, Samuel Y., Hartwell, Stephen R., Kvitek, Rikk G., Manson, Michael W., Endris, Charles A., Dieter, Bryan E., Sliter, Ray W., Krigsman, Lisa M., Lowe, Erik N., and Chin, John L., 2018, California State Waters Map Series--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California: Open-File Report 2015-1041, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Not applicable for raster data.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Estimated to be no less than 2 m, owing to water depth and total propagated uncertainties of the mapping systems, which include sonar system, position and motion compensation system, and navigation, as well as data processing that includes sounding cleaning, gridding, and datum transformations.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Not Applicable
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Complete
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Unspecified

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data. This information is not intended for navigation purposes.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Rd
    Menlo Park, CA
    USA

    (650) 329-4309 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The .zip file (https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/DrakesBay/data/BackscatterB_Swath_DrakesBay.zip) includes the .tfw, .tif, .tif.aux.xml, and .tif.ovr, files, as well as FGDC-compliant metadata for the BackscatterB_Swath data layer in the Drakes Bay and Vicinity region of California.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The downloadable data file has been compressed with the "zip" command and can be unzipped with Winzip (or other tool) on Windows systems. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the WinZip file and importing and viewing an Esri ArcMap TIFF. Users should download the ArcGIS Project File, DrakesBayGIS.mxd.zip, a compressed (with the "zip" command) version of the ArcMap document (.mxd) that has all the data layers loaded in the table of contents for “Drakes Bay and Vicinity“ and has all the data symbolized as on the map sheets. Download and save this ArcGIS project file, including all data layers, to the directory the user has created for this GIS.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Sep-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/cal_state_waters/BackscatterB_Swath_DrakesBay_metadata.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Thu Sep 20 10:26:03 2018