BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California
Abstract:
This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids depending on mapping system or processing method. The raster data files are included in "BackscatterB_Swath_PtReyes.zip", which are accessible from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshorePointReyes/data_catalog_PointReyes.html
The acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California, was generated from backscatter data collected by California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), and by Fugro Pelagos. Mapping was completed between 2007 and 2010, using a combination of 200-kHz and 400-kHz Reson 7125, and 244-kHz Reson 8101 multibeam echosounders, as well as 468-kHz SEA SWATHPlus interferometric system. These mapping missions combined to collect backscatter data from about the 10-m isobath to beyond the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. Within the acoustic-backscatter imagery, brighter tones indicate higher backscatter intensity, and darker tones indicate lower backscatter intensity. The intensity represents a complex interaction between the acoustic pulse and the seafloor, as well as characteristics within the shallow subsurface, providing a general indication of seafloor texture and composition. Backscatter intensity depends on the acoustic source level; the frequency used to image the seafloor; the grazing angle; the composition and character of the seafloor, including grain size, water content, bulk density, and seafloor roughness; and some biological cover. Harder and rougher bottom types such as rocky outcrops or coarse sediment typically return stronger intensities (high backscatter, lighter tones), whereas softer bottom types such as fine sediment return weaker intensities (low backscatter, darker tones). NOTE: the horizontal datum of the backscatter data (NAD83) differs from the horizontal datum of other layers in this DS (WGS84). These data are not intended for navigational purposes.
Supplemental_Information: None
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Watt, Janet T., Manson, Michael W., and Greene, H. Gary, 2014, BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Golden, Nadine E., 2013, California State Waters Map Series Data Catalog: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.09
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.89
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.10
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.94
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshorePointReyes/images/BackscatterB_Swath_OffshorePointReyes.jpg (GIF Offshore of Point Reyes map area)
    Acoustic backscatter imagery of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2007
    Ending_Date: 2010
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 10
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.00000
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.00
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.0
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.00 meters.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The merged Reson 8101 acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8871
    Number of columns = 8871
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 491688
    Xmax = 509430
    Ymin = 4198998
    Ymax = 4216740
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 1
    Maximum value = 254
    Mean = 130.98
    Standard deviation = 32.50
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    The merged Reson 7125 acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8871
    Number of columns = 8871
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 491688
    Xmax = 509430
    Ymin = 4198998
    Ymax = 4216740
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 0
    Maximum value = 254
    Mean = 113.79
    Standard deviation = 29.21
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    The merged SWATHPlus acoustic-backscatter grid was originally archived as an ESRI grid with the following attributes:
    Cell size = 2.0
    Number of rows = 8871
    Number of columns = 8871
    
    Data type = unsigned integer
    
    Boundary
    Xmin = 491688
    Xmax = 509430
    Ymin = 4198998
    Ymax = 4216740
    
    Statistics
    Minimum value = 1
    Maximum value = 254
    Mean = 130.48
    Standard deviation = 27.55
    
    Coordinate system description
    Projection  UTM
    Zone  10
    Datum  WGS84
    Units  meter
    
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Janet T. Watt
    • Michael W. Manson
    • H. Gary Greene
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Peter Dartnell
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Physical Scientist
    400 Natural Bridges Dr.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7415 (voice)
    (831) 427-4709 (FAX)
    pdartnell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To expand geologic mapping to the seafloor within the California's State Waters, to update coastal geologic mapping, and to contribute to a uniform regional geologic database, which can be used geographic information systems. Additionally, to provide a geologic map for the public and geoscience community to aid in assessments and mitigation of geologic hazards in the Point Reyes coastal region and to provide sufficient geologic information for land-use and land-management decisions both onshore and offshore. This information is not intended for navigational purposes.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2010 (process 1 of 5)
    During the Fugro Pelagos and CSUMB mapping missions, an Applanix Position and Motion Compensation System for Marine Vessels (POS/MV, 320, v4) was used to accurately position the vessels during data collection, and it also accounted for vessel's motion such as heave, pitch, and roll (position accuracy, +/-2 m; pitch, roll, and heading accuracy, +/-0.02; heave accuracy, +/-5%, or 5 cm). KGPS altitude data (Fugro Pelagos, StarFix HP & XP units; CSUMB, NavCom 2050) were used to account for tide cycle fluctuations and sound velocity profiles were collected with an Applied Microsystems SVPlus sound velocimeter. Soundings were corrected for vessel motion using the Applanix POS/MV data, for variations in water-column sound velocity using the AM SVPlus data, and for variations in water height (tides) using vertical-position data from the KGPS receivers. The multibeam backscatter data then were processed using Geocoder (Fugro Pelagos Modified Test Release 16) or Geocoder within Caris HIPS and SIPS. Within Geocoder, the backscatter intensities were radiometrically corrected (including despeckling and angle-varying gain adjustments), and the position of each acoustic sample was geometrically corrected for slant range. This processed imagery was stored as Georeferenced, Backscatter Rasters (GeoBARs). After GeoBARs were created for each line, they were mosaicked into 1-m or 2-m resolution images. Overlap between parallel lines was resolved using a priority table based on the distance of each sample from the ship track, with samples closest to- and furthest from- the ship track given the lowest priority. An anti-aliasing algorithm was also applied. The SWATHPlus backscatter data were processed using SXPTools v 2.0 (David Finlayson, USGS) and SEA Grid Processor v 3.02.19.0. SXPTools is a collection of command line programs that are used to enhance the quality of SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar data. The programs are primarily focused on enhancing the backscatter quality, but there is some benefit to the bathymetry as well. The SXPTools sxpegn command was used to equalize the backscatter amplitude, and the sxpmagic command was used to help fill gaps and remove artifacts near nadir. After processing with SXPTools, lines were imported into Grid Processor and mosaicked into 1-m or 2-m resolution image georeferenced to UTM Zone 10 N, NAD_83(CORS96). The mosaic image for each survey block was exported as a GeoJpeg from Grid Processor and converted to GeoTiff using Adobe Photoshop or GIMP. In some cases memory limitations in Grid Processor required tiling a block mosaic into 2 or more sub-mosaics. Person who carried out this activity:
    Carrie Bretz
    Seafloor Mapping Lab, California State University Monterey Bay
    Projects Manager, GIS; Metadata Supervisor
    100 Campus Center, Bldg 13
    Seaside, CA
    USA

    (831) 582-4197 (voice)
    carrie_bretz@csumb.edu
    Date: 2012 (process 2 of 5)
    California Seafloor Mapping Project 1- or 2-m resolution backscatter imagery within this map were downloaded from California State University, Monterey Bay, Seafloor Mapping Lab (http://seafloor.csumb.edu/SFMLwebDATA.htm) and converted to grids. Backscatter grids of similar mapping systems were merged in a GIS and clipped to the boundary of the map area. Grids from different mapping systems were not merged together due to different mapping frequencies and processing techniques. Grids were projected horizontally to WGS-84 using ESRI ArcTools. Person who carried out this activity:
    Pete Dartnell
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Physical Scientist
    400 Natural Bridges Dr.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7415 (voice)
    pdartnell@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 3 of 5)
    Modified Distribution_Information section in metadata to facilitate data download. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 4 of 5)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 5 of 5)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Not applicable for raster data.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Estimated to be no less than 2 m, owing to water depth and total propagated uncertainties of the mapping systems, which include sonar system, position and motion compensation system, and navigation, as well as data processing that includes sounding cleaning, gridding, and datum transformations.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Not Applicable
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Complete
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Unspecified

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints:
If physical samples or materials are available, constraints on their on-site access are described in "WR CMG Sample Distribution Policy" at URL: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/main/sample-dist-policy.html
Use_Constraints:
This database has been approved for release and publication by the Director of the USGS. Although this database has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the data pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain. Acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey and California State University, Monterey Bay, Seafloor Mapping Lab in products derived from these data. Share data products developed using these data with the U.S. Geological Survey.
This information is not intended for navigational purposes. Read and fully comprehend the metadata prior to data use. Uses of these data should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Where these data are used in combination with other data of different resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lowest resolution of all the data.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document these data in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Rd
    Menlo Park, CA
    USA

    (650) 329-4309 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 26-Apr-2018
Metadata author:
Peter Dartnell
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Physical Scientist
400 Natural Bridges Dr.
Santa Cruz, CA
USA

(831) 460-7415 (voice)
(831) 427-4709 (FAX)
pdartnell@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata ("CSDGM version 2") (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/cal_state_waters/BackscatterB_Swath_OffshorePointReyes_metadata.faq.html>
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