Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Bolinas Map Area, California

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Bolinas Map Area, California
Abstract:
This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. The vector data file is included in "Geology_OffshoreBolinas.zip," which is accessible from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreBolinas/data_catalog_OffshoreBolinas.html.
The continental shelf within California's State waters in the Bolinas area is relatively flat (less than 0.3 degrees) and shallow (less than 30 m) in the entire area, however the seafloor of the "Marin shelf" east of the San Andreas Fault (see below) is smooth and covered with sediment, whereas the seafloor of the "Bolinas shelf" west of this fault has extensive bedrock outcrop from the nearshore to depths of about 25 m and much less sediment cover. The morphology and geology of this shelf result from the interplay between local tectonics, sea-level rise, sedimentary processes, and oceanography. Tectonic influences are related to local faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence (see below). Sea level has risen about 125 to 130 m over about the last 21,000 years (for example, Lambeck and Chappel, 2001; Gornitz, 2009), leading to progressive eastward migration (a few tens of km) of the shoreline and wave-cut platform, and associated transgressive erosion and deposition (for example, Catuneanu, 2006). The Offshore of Bolinas map area is now subjected to full, and sometimes severe, Pacific Ocean wave energy and strong currents. Given their relatively shallow depths and exposure to high wave energy, modern shelf sediments are mostly sand (unit Qms). More coarse-grained sands and gravels (units Qmsc and Qmss) are primarily recognized on the basis of bathymetry and high backscatter (see Bathymetry--Offshore Bolinas, California and Backscattter A to E--Offshore Bolinas, California, DS 781, for more information). Unit Qmsc occurs in two areas, on the east flank of Bolinas shelf bedrock exposures, and as three mounds south of Bolinas near the outer boundary of California’s State Waters at water depths of about 25 m. The largest of these mounds is about 450 m long and 70 m wide, and has 80 cm of positive relief above the seafloor.
Unit Qmss is much more extensive and forms erosional lags in rippled scour depressions (for example, Cacchione and others, 1984) that are typically a few tens of centimeters deep and bounded by mobile sand sheets. The depressions occur in four distinct locations. (1) The first location lies adjacent to bedrock outcrops within 2 km of the shoreline south of Double Point (along the western edge of the map area) at water depths of 10 to 25 m. (2) The second unit Qmss location is about 2 to 6 km south of Bolinas Lagoon at similar water depths, along the eastern flank of the Bolinas shelf. (3) The third, more restricted location, occurs about 3 km southeast of Rocky Point at water depths of about 10 to 12 m along the eastern edge of the map area, adjacent to and offshore of small bedrock uplifts. (4) The fourth location, 2 km south of Stinson Beach, is notably different. The polygon on the map encloses a field that includes more than one hundred, much smaller (length less than 20 m) oval depressions and intervening sand flats, perhaps an originally much larger field that has been almost completely filled in by sediment.
Similar unit Qmss rippled-scour depressions are common along this stretch of the California coast where offshore sandy sediment can be relatively thin (thus unable to fill the depressions) due to both lack of river input and to significant erosion and transport of sediment during large northwest winter swells. Although the general areas in which both unit Qmss scour depressions and surrounding mobile sand sheets occur are not likely to change substantially, the boundaries of the unit(s) are likely ephemeral, changing seasonally and during significant storm events.
Areas where shelf sediments form thin (less than 2.5 m) veneers over low-relief Neogene bedrock (see below) occur in the western half of the map and are mapped as units Qms/Tsc (Santa Cruz Mudstone) and Qms/Tp? (Purisima Formation, queried). These hybrid units are recognized and delineated based on the combination of flat relief, continuity with moderate to high relief onshore or offshore bedrock outcrops, high-resolution seismic-reflection data (see field activities S-8-09-NC and L-1-06-SF), and in some cases moderate to high backscatter. The thin sediment layer is regarded as ephemeral and dynamic, and may or may not be present at a specific location based on storms, seasonal/annual patterns of sediment movement, or longer-term climate cycles. In a nearby, similarly high-energy setting, Storlazzi and others (2011) have described seasonal burial and exhumation of submerged bedrock in northern Monterey Bay.
The southeastern corner of the map area includes a portion of the outer flank of the horseshoe-shaped "San Francisco Bar" (unit Qmsb), which has formed at the mouth of the San Francisco ebb-tidal delta (Barnard and others, 2007; Dallas and Barnard, 2011). This delta-mouth bar is shaped by both tidal currents and waves, resulting in a variably hummocky, mottled, and rilled seafloor, and this surface texture is used as a primary criteria for mapping the unit and defining its contacts.
Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data (see Bathymetry--Offshore Bolinas, California and Backscattter A to E--Offshore Bolinas, California, DS 781, for more information). The bathymetry and backscatter data were collected between 2006 and 2010.
References Cited
Barnard, P.L., Eshelman, J., Erikson, L., and Hanes, D.M., 2007, Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: Summary of data collection 2004-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1217, 165 p.
Cacchione, D.A., Drake, D.E., Grant, W.D., and Tate, G.B., 1984. Rippled scour depressions of the inner continental shelf off central California: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v 54, p. 1280-1291.
Catuneanu, O., 2006, Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 375 p.
Dallas, K.L., and Barnard, P.L., 2011, Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco coastal system: Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 92, p. 195-204.
Gornitz, V., 2009, Sea level change, post-glacial, in Gornitz, V., ed., Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments: Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, pp. 887-893.
Lambeck, K., and Chappell, J., 2001, Sea level change through the last glacial cycle: Science, v. 292, p. 679-686.
Storlazzi, C.D., Fregoso, T.A., Golden, N.E., and Finlayson, D.P., 2011, Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along on emergent coastline as elucidated by repretitive sonar surveys, northern Monterey Bay, CA: Marine Geology, v. 289, p. 46-59.
Supplemental_Information:
Map political location: Marin County, California Compilation scale: 1:24,000 Base maps used are hillshades generated from IfSAR, LiDAR, and multibeam mapping both onshore and offshore (see Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Bolinas, California, California, DS 781, for more information).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Johnson, S.Y., Greene, H.G., Manson, M.W., Hartwell, S.R., Endris, C.A., and Watt, J.T., 2014, Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Bolinas Map Area, California:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Golden, Nadine E., 2013, California State Waters Map Series Data Catalog: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.78
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.58
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.96
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.81
  3. What does it look like?
    <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreBolinas/images/Geology_OffshoreBolinas.jpg> (JPEG)
    Geology and geomorphology offshore Bolinas.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2006
    Ending_Date: 2009
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • GT-polygon composed of chains (874)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is WGS 1984 UTM Zone 10N.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D WGS 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Geology_OffshoreBolinas
    Polygons representing geologic / geomorphic map units (Source: This report)
    OBJECTID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    MapUnitAbbrev
    Map Unit abbreviation (Source: This report)
    ValueDefinition
    QmsMarine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmssMarine shelf scour depressions
    QmscCoarse-grained marine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmsbMarine ebb-tidal bar deposits
    Qms/TpThin marine sediment sheet overlies Purisima Formation
    Qms/TscThin marine sediment sheet overlies Santa Cruz Mudstone
    TpPurisima Formation
    TscSanta Cruz Mudstone
    TuTertiary sediments, undivided
    KJfFranciscan Complex, undivided
    MapUnit
    short description of map unit (Source: This report) text description of map unit
    Shape_Length
    Length of feature in internal units. (Source: ESRI) Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape_Area
    Area of feature in internal units squared. (Source: ESRI) Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.
    RuleID
    Representation rule identifier (Source: This report) This field contains the representation rule in the ArcGIS file geodatabase which applies a solid color fill of a specified CMYK value to each polygon. Representation rules have the same name as the map unit abbreviation.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • S.Y. Johnson
    • H.G. Greene
    • M.W. Manson
    • S.R. Hartwell
    • C.A. Endris
    • J.T. Watt
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Stephen Hartwell
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7814 (voice)
    (831) 427-4748 (FAX)
    shartwell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To expand geologic mapping to the seafloor within the California's State Waters, to update coastal geologic mapping, and to contribute to a uniform regional geologic database, which can be used geographic information systems. Additionally, to provide a geologic map for the public and geoscience community to aid in assessments and mitigation of geologic hazards in the Bolinas coastal region and to provide sufficient geologic information for land-use and land-management decisions both onshore and offshore. This information is not intended for navigational purposes.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    DS 781 (source 1 of 4)
    Dartnell, Peter, Kvitek, Rikk G., and Bretz, Carrie K., 2013, Bathymetry--Offshore of Bolinas Map Area, California: Data Series DS 781, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for bathymetry ("Bathymetry_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt") in DS 781 for source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded bathymetry data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded bathymetry data (2-meter resolution).
    DS 781 (source 2 of 4)
    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for backscatter data ("BackscatterA_8101_2004_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt", "BackscatterB_8101_2007_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt", "BackscatterC_7125_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt", "BackscatterD_Snippets_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt", and "BackscatterE_Swath_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.txt") in DS 781 for amplitude source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded amplitude data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded amplitude data (2-meter resolution).
    L-1-06-SF (source 3 of 4)
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), 2013, Chirp and High-Resolution Mini-Sparker Seismic data of field activity L-1-06-SF in Offshore Golden Gate, San Francisco County, CA from 09/25/2006 to 10/03/2006: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG), Menlo Park, CA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: ASCII lat/long shot point files
    Source_Contribution:
    Digital seismic data used to interpret subsurface geologic structure
    S-8-09-NC (source 4 of 4)
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), 2013, Subbottom survey data of field activity S-8-09-NC in Stinson Beach to Point Arena (CA) from 09/08/2009 to 09/30/2009: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG), Menlo Park, CA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: ASCII lat/long shot point files
    Source_Contribution:
    Digital seismic data used to interpret subsurface geologic structure
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2012 (process 1 of 7)
    Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data. Derivatives such as slope and curvature were generated from source rasters. Interpreted rasters include amplitude, hillshaded bathymetry (using various illumination angles and vertical exaggeration), slope, and curvature. Curvature was decomposed into profile and plan curvature for analysis purposes.
    Date: 2011 (process 2 of 7)
    The mapped area was extended to the shoreline by using digital orthophotos to interpret the region between the inner edge of the multibeam bathymetry and the approximate shoreline. The approximate shoreline was generated at the NAVD88 +1.46 m contour, defined as the operational MHW shoreline by Weber and others (2005). The resulting boundary was transformed to WGS 84 UTM Zone 10 North in ArcGIS 10 using the NAD83 to WGS84 (ITRF00) transformation algorithm. This boundary was then used to extend and trim both onshore and offshore geology in the print and PDF product. The transformed boundary is contained within the WGS84 "contours" feature class and identified as a water boundary in the associated representation rules.
    Only data for offshore map units are released digitally in this publication. For onshore geology (see California Geological Survey (1974), Clark and Brabb (1997), Blake and others (2000), and Witter and others (2006).
    References Cited:
    Blake, M.C., Jr., Graymer, R.W., and Jones, D.L., 2000, Geologic map and map database of parts of Marin, San Francisco, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Sonoma counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 2337, scale 1:62,500.
    California Geological Survey, 1974, Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone Map of Bolinas quadrangle, scale 1:24,000.
    Clark, J.C., and Brabb, E.E., 1997, Geology of the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-456, scale 1:48,000.
    Weber, K.M., List, J.H., and Morgan, K.L., 2005, An operational Mean High Water datum for determination of shoreline position from topographic lidar data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1027, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1027/.
    Witter, R.C., Knudsen, K.L., Sowers, J.M., Wentworth, C.M., Koehler, R.D., Randolph, C.E., Brooks, S.K., and Gans, K.D., 2006, Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 06-1037, scale 1:24,000.
    Date: 2011 (process 3 of 7)
    Faults were mapped onto shot lines based on the latitude and longitude of seismic picks from field activity S-8-09-NC.
    Date: 2011 (process 4 of 7)
    Faults were mapped onto shot lines based on the latitude and longitude of seismic picks from field activity L-1-06-SF.
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 5 of 7)
    Added Distribution_Information section to metadata to facilitate data download. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 6 of 7)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 7 of 7)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Polygons were primarily mapped by one of the following methods: (1) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution hillshaded bathymetry data from sonar surveys (see Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Bolinas, California, California, DS 781, for more information); (2) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution amplitude (backscatter) data from bathymetric sonar surveys (see BackscatterA_8101_2004; BackscatterB_8101_2007; BackscatterC_7125; and BackscatterD_Snippets; and Backscatter E_Swath--Offshore Bolinas, California, DS 781, for more information); (3) interpretation of 2-meter interpretation of seismic-reflection-profile data (see field activities S-8-09-NC and L-1-06-SF).
    Map Unit contact locations were interpreted typically at a scale of between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 using the above base data. Bathymetric sonar data have a horizontal accuracy greater than the resolution of the base data.
    Map unit contacts were digitized by heads-up screen digitization of line data on 2-meter-resolution DEMs described above. Horizontal accuracy is estimated to be between 2 and 5 meters depending on how clearly contacts can be resolved.
    Most digitized positions on the map are estimated to have better than 5 m horizontal accuracy. There is no elevation data in the database.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data are complete: no offshore features that could be accurately identified and represented at the compilation scale of 1:24,000 were eliminated or generalized. The smallest area represented is approximately 100 square meters. All geospatial database elements are attributed.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Map elements were visually checked for overshoots, undershoots, duplicate features, polygon closure, and other errors by the lead authors and by the GIS technician(s) who created the digital database. Review drafts of the map were reviewed internally by at least two other geologists for consistency with basic geologic principles and general conformity to USGS mapping standards.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints:
If physical samples or materials are available, constraints on their on-site access are described in "WR CMG Sample Distribution Policy" at URL: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/main/sample-dist-policy.html
Use_Constraints:
This information is not intended for navigational purposes.
Read and fully comprehend the metadata prior to data use. Uses of these data should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Where these data are used in combination with other data of different resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lowest resolution of all the data.
Acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey in products derived from these data. Share data products developed using these data with the U.S. Geological Survey.
This database has been approved for release and publication by the Director of the USGS. Although this database has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the data pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document these data in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Rd
    Menlo Park, CA
    USA

    (650) 329-4309 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 26-Apr-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Attn: Stephen R. Hartwell
400 Natural Bridges Drive
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-460-7814 (voice)
831-427-4748 (FAX)
shartwell@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/cal_state_waters/Geology_OffshoreBolinas_metadata.faq.html>
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