Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California
Abstract:
This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The vector data file is included in "Geology_OffshoreSanGregorio.zip," which is accessible from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreSanGregorio/data_catalog_OffshoreSanGregorio.html. The continental shelf within California’s State waters in the San Gregorio map area is shallow (0 to ~55 m) and flat with a very gentle (less than 0.5 degrees) offshore dip. Shelf morphology and evolution result from the interplay between local tectonics and sedimentation as sea level rose about 125 to 130 m over the last ~ 21,000 years (Lambeck and Chappel, 2001). Shelf deposits are almost exclusively sand (unit Qms) at depths less than 60 m and transition to more fine grained, muddy sediment (unit Qmsf) at greater depths in the southwestern most part of the map area. The boundary between units Qms and Qmsf was determined based on seafloor sediment samples (Reid and others, 2006) and video observations (sheet 6) from the Offshore of San Gregorio and adjacent map area. This boundary likely shifts seaward or landward based on seasonal to decadal changes in sediment supply, sediment transport, and wave climate. More coarse-grained sands and gravels (units Qmss and Qmsc) are primarily recognized on the basis of high backscatter (sheet 3). Unit Qmsc occurs as a nearshore, shore-parallel bar at typical water depths between 5 and 10 meters. Unit Qmss forms erosional lags in rippled scour depressions (for example, Cacchione and others, 1984) at water depths of about 25 to 35 m, in contact with offshore bedrock uplifts and unit Qms. Although the general areas in which unit Qmsc and unit Qmss occur are not likely to change substantially, the boundaries of the unit(s) are likely ephemeral, changing seasonally and during significant storm events. Unit Qmss deposits are common along this stretch of the California coast where offshore sandy sediment can be relatively thin (thus unable to fill the depressions) due to both lack of river input and to significant sediment erosion and offshore sediment transport during large northwest winter swells. Areas where shelf sediments form thin (< 2.5 m or less) veneers over low relief, undivided Cretaceous and (or) Tertiary bedrock are mapped as units Qms/TKu and Qms/Tp. These areas are recognized based on the combination of flat relief, continuity with moderate to high relief bedrock outcrops, high-resolution seismic-reflection data (sheet 8), and in some cases moderate backscatter. These units are regarded as ephemeral and dynamic sediment layers that may or may not be present based on storms, seasonal/annual patterns of sediment movement, or climate cycles. Tertiary deposits mapped in the offshore include two units of the Purisima Formation (units Tp and Tpt). The Purisima units are characterized by high backscatter (sheet 3) and distinct bedding recognized in multibeam imagery and/or seismic-reflection data (sheet 8). These Tertiary rocks are underlain by or in fault contact with Upper Cretaceous basement rocks, including sedimentary rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation (unit Kpp). The Pigeon Point Formation is mapped on the basis of high backscatter, massive and (or) rugged texture on multibeam imagery (sheets 1, 2), and reflection-free character on seismic-reflection data (sheet 8). Offshore outcrops of the Pigeon Point Formation form the offshore Pigeon Point high, a major structural feature that extends ~30 km to the northwest and represents the northeast boundary of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin (McCulloch, 1987). Areas where bedrock is exposed on the seafloor but there is less certainty regarding age are mapped as Cretaceous and Tertiary, undivided (unit TKu). Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data (see sheets 1 and 2, SIM 3306). The bathymetry and backscatter data were collected between 2006 and 2010. References Cited Cacchione, D.A., Drake, D.E., Grant, W.D., and Tate, G.B., 1984. Rippled scour depressions of the inner continental shelf off central California: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v 54, p. 1280-1291. Lambeck, K., and Chappell, J., 2001, Sea level change through the last glacial cycle: Science, v. 292, p. 679–686. McCulloch, D.S., 1987, Regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Central California, in Scholl, D.W., Grantz, A., and Vedder, J.G., eds., Geology and resource potential of the continental margin of Western North America and adjacent ocean basins–Beaufort Sea to Baja California: Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources Earth Science Series, v. 6, p. 353–401. Reid, J.A., Reid, J.M., Jenkins, C.J., Zimmerman, M., Williams, S.J., and Field, M.E., 2006, usSEABED: Pacific Coast (California Oregon, Washington) offshore surficial-sediment data release: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 182, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/182/.
Supplemental_Information:
Map political location: San Mateo County, California Compilation scale: 1:24,000 Base maps used are hillshades generated from IfSAR, LiDAR, and multibeam mapping both onshore and offshore (see sheet 2, SIM 3306, for more information).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Watt, J.T., Greene, H.G., Hartwell, S.R., Endris, C.A., Ross, S.L., Phillips, E.L., and Dieter, B.E., 2013, Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cochrane, Guy R., Dartnell, Peter, Greene, H. Gary, Watt, Janet T., Golden, Nadine E., Endris, Charles A., Phillips, Eleyne L., Hartwell, Stephen R., Johnson, Samuel Y., Kvitek, Rikk G., Erdey, Mercedes D., Bretz, Carrie .K., Mansion, Michael W., Sliter, Ray W., Ross, Stephanie L., Dieter, Bryan E., and Chin, John L., 2014, California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California: Scientific Investigations Map SIM 3306, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.492163
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.401585
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.391508
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.229776
  3. What does it look like?
    <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreSanGregorio/images/Geology_OffshoreSanGregorio.jpg> (JPEG)
    Geology offshore San Gregorio.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 2006
    Ending_Date: 2010
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • GT-polygon composed of chains (167)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is WGS 1984 UTM Zone 10N.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0001
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D WGS 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    MapUnitPolys
    Polygons representing geologic / geomorphic map units (Source: This report)
    OBJECTID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    MapUnitAbbrev
    Map Unit abbreviation (Source: This report)
    ValueDefinition
    QmsMarine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmscCoarse-grained marine nearshore and shelf deposits
    QmsfFine-grained marine shelf deposits
    QmssMarine shelf scour depressions
    Qms/TpSediment-covered Purisima Formation
    Qms/TKuSediment-covered undifferentiated sedimentary deposits
    Qms/Tp?Sediment-covered Purisima Formation, questionable
    TpPurisima Formation
    Tp?Purisima Formation, questionable
    TptTahana Member of the Purisima Formation
    TKuUndifferentiated sedimentary deposits
    KppPigeon Point Formation
    Kpp?Pigeon Point Formation, questionable
    MapUnit
    short description of map unit (Source: This report) text description of map unit
    Shape_Length
    Length of feature in internal units. (Source: ESRI) Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape_Area
    Area of feature in internal units squared. (Source: ESRI) Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.
    RuleID
    Representation rule identifier (Source: This report) This field contains the representation rule in the ArcGIS file geodatabase which applies a solid color fill of a specified CMYK value to each polygon. Representation rules have the same name as the map unit abbreviation.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • J.T. Watt
    • H.G. Greene
    • S.R. Hartwell
    • C.A. Endris
    • S.L. Ross
    • E.L. Phillips
    • B.E. Dieter
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Stephen Hartwell
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7814 (voice)
    (831) 427-4748 (FAX)
    shartwell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To expand geologic mapping to the seafloor within California's State Waters, to update coastal geologic mapping, and to contribute to a uniform regional geologic database. Additionally, to provide a geologic map for the public and geoscience community to aid in assessments and mitigation of geologic hazards in the San Gregorio coastal region and to provide sufficient geologic information for land-use and land-management decisions both onshore and offshore. This information is not intended for navigational purposes

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    SIM 3306 (sheets 1, 2) (source 1 of 3)
    Bretz, Carrie K., Kvitek, Rikk G., Dartnell, Peter, and Phillips, Eleyne L., 2013, Bathymetry--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California: Scientific Investigations Map SIM 3306 (sheets 1, 2), U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for sheets 1, 2 ("Bathymetry_OffshoreSanGregorio_metadata.txt") in SIM 3306 for source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded bathymetry data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded bathymetry data (2-meter resolution).
    SIM 3306 (sheet 3) (source 2 of 3)
    Bretz, Carrie K., Kvitek, Rikk G., Dartnell, Peter, and Phillips, Eleyne L., 2013, Bathymetry--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California: Scientific Investigations Map SIM 3306 (sheet 3), U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    See metadata for sheet 3 ("BackscatterA_CSUMB_OffshoreSanGregorio_metadata.txt" and "BackscatterB_USGS_OffshoreSanGregorio_metadata.txt") in SIM 3306 for amplitude source data and postprocessing/reprocessing information.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital file of gridded amplitude data (ArcInfo GRID)
    Source_Contribution: Gridded amplitude data (2-meter resolution).
    S-15-10-NC (source 3 of 3)
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), 2013, Seismic-reflection data acquisition data of field activity S-15-10-NC in offshore Pescadero from 08/02/2010 to 08/04/2010: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) , Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG), Menlo Park, CA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: ASCII lat/long shot point files
    Source_Contribution:
    Digital seismic data used to interpret subsurface geologic structure
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2012 (process 1 of 7)
    Faults were mapped onto shot lines based on the latitude and longitude of seismic picks from field activity S-15-10-NC.
    Date: 2012 (process 2 of 7)
    Map unit polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data. Derivatives such as slope and curvature were generated from source rasters. Interpreted rasters include amplitude, hillshaded bathymetry (using various illumination angles and vertical exaggeration), slope, and curvature. Curvature was decomposed into profile and plan curvature for analysis purposes.
    Date: 2011 (process 3 of 7)
    The mapped area was extended to the shoreline by using digital orthophotos to interpret the region between the inner edge of the multibeam bathymetry and the approximate shoreline. The approximate shoreline was generated at the NAVD88 +1.46 m contour, defined as the operational MHW shoreline by Weber and others (2005). The resulting boundary was transformed to WGS 84 UTM Zone 10 North in ArcGIS 10 using the NAD83 to WGS84 (ITRF00) transformation algorithm. This boundary was then used to extend and trim both onshore and offshore geology in the print and PDF product. The transformed boundary is contained within the WGS84 "contours" feature class and identified as a water boundary in the associated representation rules. Only data for offshore map units are released digitally in this publication. For onshore geology (sheet 10, SIM 3306), see Brabb (1980), Brabb and others (1998), California Geological Survey (1982, 2002), Weber and Lajoie (1980), and Witter and others (2006). References Cited: Brabb, E.E., 1980, Preliminary Geologic Map of the La Honda and San Gregorio Quadrangles, San Mateo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 1980-0245, scale 1:24,000. Brabb, E.E., Graymer, R.W., and Jones, D.L., 1998, Geology of the Onshore Part of San Mateo County, California: A Digital Database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98–137, scale 1:62,500. California Geological Survey, 1982, Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone Map of Franklin Point quadrangle, scale 1:24,000. California Geological Survey, 2002, CD 2002–01, Fault Evaluation Reports prepared under the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, Region 1, Central California. Weber, K.M., List, J.H., and Morgan, K.L., 2005, An operational Mean High Water datum for determination of shoreline position from topographic lidar data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1027, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1027/. Weber, G.E., and Lajoie, K.R., 1980, Map of Quaternary Faulting along the San Gregorio Fault Zone, San Mateo and Santa Cruz Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 1980–0907, scale 1:24,000. Witter, R.C., Knudsen, K.L., Sowers, J.M., Wentworth, C.M., Koehler, R.D., Randolph, C.E., Brooks, S.K., and Gans, K.D., 2006, Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 06–1037, scale 1:24,000.
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 4 of 7)
    Added Distribution_Information section to metadata to facilitate data download. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 5 of 7)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 6 of 7)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 22-Jun-2018 (process 7 of 7)
    Corrected author spelling in Larger Work section Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Geologist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Polygons were primarily mapped by one of the following methods: (1) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution hillshaded bathymetry data from bathymetric lidar and sonar surveys (see sheets 1 and 2, SIM 3306); (2) interpretation of 2-meter-resolution amplitude (backscatter) data from bathymetric sonar surveys (see sheet 3, SIM 3306); (3) interpretation of 2-meter interpretation of seismic-reflection-profile data (see sheet 8, SIM 3306). Map Unit contact locations were interpreted typically at a scale of between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 using the above base data. Bathymetric sonar and LiDAR data have a horizontal accuracy greater than the resolution of the base data. Map unit contacts were digitized by heads-up screen digitization of line data on 2-meter-resolution DEMs described above. Horizontal accuracy is estimated to be between 2 and 5 meters depending on how clearly contacts can be resolved. Most digitized positions on the map are estimated to have better than 5 m horizontal accuracy. There is no elevation data in the database.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data are complete: no offshore features that could be accurately identified and represented at the compilation scale of 1:24,000 were eliminated or generalized. The smallest area represented is approximately 100 square meters. All geospatial database elements are attributed.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Map elements were visually checked for overshoots, undershoots, duplicate features, polygon closure, and other errors by the lead authors and by the GIS technician(s) who created the digital database. Review drafts of the map were reviewed internally by at least two other geologists for consistency with basic geologic principles and general conformity to USGS mapping standards.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints:
If physical samples or materials are available, constraints on their on-site access are described in "WR CMG Sample Distribution Policy" at URL: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/main/sample-dist-policy.html
Use_Constraints:
This information is not intended for navigational purposes. Read and fully comprehend the metadata prior to data use. Uses of these data should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Where these data are used in combination with other data of different resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lowest resolution of all the data. Acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey in products derived from these data. Share data products developed using these data with the U.S. Geological Survey. This database has been approved for release and publication by the Director of the USGS. Although this database has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the data pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use. Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document these data in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Rd
    Menlo Park, CA
    USA

    (650) 329-4309 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 22-Jun-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Attn: Stephen R. Hartwell
400 Natural Bridges Drive
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-460-7814 (voice)
831-427-4748 (FAX)
shartwell@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/cal_state_waters/Geology_OffshoreSanGregorio_metadata.faq.html>
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