Projected flood water depths on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Projected flood water depths on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands
Abstract:
Projected future wave-driven flooding depths on Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands for a range of climate-change scenarios.
This study utilized field data to calibrate oceanographic and hydrogeologic models, which were then used with climate-change and sea-level rise projections to explore the effects of sea-level rise and wave-driven flooding on atoll islands and their freshwater resources. The overall objective of this effort, due to the large uncertainty in future emissions (and thus climate change scenarios) that is largely irreducible, was to reduce risk and increase island resiliency by providing model simulations across a range of plausible future conditions. This effort focuses on Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). RMI is home to more than 1,100 low-lying islands on 29 atolls, yet the approach and findings presented in this study can serve as a proxy for atolls around the world, most of which have a similar morphology and structure, including on average, even lower land elevations, and are the home for numerous island nations and hundreds of thousands of people.
The primary goal of this investigation was to determine the influence of climate change and sea-level rise on wave-driven flooding and the resulting impacts to infrastructure and freshwater resources on atoll islands. First, we mapped the morphology and benthic habitats of the atoll to determine the influence of spatially-varying bathymetric structure and hydrodynamic roughness on wave propagation over the coral reefs that make up the atoll. Second, we analyzed historic meteorologic and oceanographic data to provide historical context for the limited in-situ data and comparison to previous seawater overwash and flooding events. These data were then used to calibrate and validate physics-based, dynamically-downscaled numerical models to project future atmospheric and oceanic forcing for a range of climate-change scenarios. Third, we made in-situ observations to better understand how changes in meteorologic and oceanographic forcing controlled wave-driven water levels, seawater flooding of the island, and the resulting hydrogeologic response. We then used those data to calibrate and validate a physics-based, numerical hydrodynamic model of the island. The hydrodynamic model was used to forecast future wave-driven island overwash and seawater flooding for a range of climate-change and SLR scenarios. The data provided here are the seawater flooding depths for three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 climate-change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)4.5 and RCP8.5, representing medium and high greenhouse concentration trajectory scenarios, respectively, and RCP8.5 plus icesheet collapse (RCP8.5i). The climate-change scenarios were incorporated into the model by increasing mean sea level based on the future sea-level rise and wave projections. The modeled time frame ranged from 2035 to 2105 at 10-yr time steps.
These data accompany the following publication: Storlazzi, C.D., Gingerich, S.B., van Dongeren, A., Cheriton, O.M., Swarzenski, P.W., Quataert, E., Voss, C.I., Field D.W., Annamalai, H., Piniak G.A., McCall, R., 2018, Most atolls will be uninhabitable by the mid-21st century due to sea-level rise exacerbating wave-driven flooding, Science Advances, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aap9741.
Supplemental_Information:
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in ESRI format, this metadata file may include some ESRI-specific terminology.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Storlazzi, Curt D., and Fregoso, Theresa A., 2018, Projected flood water depths on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands: data release DOI:10.5066/F7VD6XDB, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 167.452484
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 167.483303
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 9.411218
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 9.389429
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/59ef8172e4b0220bbd98d40f?name=RCP_85I_2105.jpg (JPEG)
    Wave-driven flood water depth for RCP scenario 85+ice sheet collapse, year 2105.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2018
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: GeoTIFF
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 4775 x 6740, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 58
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 165.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.5
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.5
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name:
      Mean Sea Level that was calculated using a temporary USGS water sensor located on a pier. See report for more detail.
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.01
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Water flood depth over island elevation.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: See report for more detail.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Curt D. Storlazzi
    • Theresa A. Fregoso
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    US

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Deltares, and University of Hawaii (UH) conducted a study to provide basic understanding and specific information on the impact of climate change and sea-level rise on Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, which is part of the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Test Site. The primary goal of this joint investigation was to determine the influence of climate change and sea-level rise on wave-driven flooding and the resulting impacts to infrastructure and freshwater resources on atoll islands.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    xyz file (source 1 of 1)
    Deltares, 2017, 24 model output datasets from Deltares, unpublished: Unpublished, Unpublished.

    Type_of_Source_Media: model outputs
    Source_Contribution: modeled xyz file used to create raster surface
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2016 (process 1 of 3)
    Convert xyz.csv file to points then a TIN. Convert TIN to Raster. Model Builder was used to batch convert 24 xyz.csv files to points using the ASCII 3D to feature class tool followed by the Create TIN tool. For the TIN, the height field was Z, with SF Type of Mass_points. Model Builder was used to batch convert TINS to rasters using the TIN to Raster tool. The output data type for the raster was FLOAT, the method LINEAR, and the Sampling Distance was CELLSIZE 0.5. Data sources used in this process:
    • xyz file
    Date: 29-Jun-2018 (process 2 of 3)
    Removed empty tag and corrected minor typo in metadata file. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Geologist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Sep-2018 (process 3 of 3)
    Corrected Point of Contact and Metadata Contact phone number prefix. No data were changed. Person who carried out this activity:
    Susan A Cochran
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    United States

    831-460-7545 (voice)
    scochran@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Storlazzi, Curt D., Gingerich, Stephen B., Dongeren, Ap van, Cheriton, Olivia M., Swarzenski, Peter W., Quataert, Ellen, Voss, Clifford I., Field, Donald W., Annamalai, Hariharasubramanian, Piniak, Greg A., and McCall, Robert, 2018, Most atolls will be uninhabitable by the mid-21st century due to sea-level rise exacerbating wave-driven flooding: Journal article Science Advances, American Academy for the Advancement of Science, online.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the horizontal positional information in the data set has not been conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the data set has not been conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These data are available in GeoTIFF format contained in a single zip file (Roi_Namur_RCP_surfaces.zip) which also includes CSDGM FGDC-compliant metadata.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with ArcGIS software.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 05-Sep-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA
US

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/pacific_islands/Roi_Namur_RCP_surfaces_metadata.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Mon Sep 10 17:43:52 2018