Coral bleaching data by site, West Hawaii, 2010-2011

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Coral bleaching data by site, West Hawaii, 2010-2011
Abstract:
Observations of bleached coral were documented by scuba divers along pre-determined transects and are presented here in comma-separated format. Included in the table are coral species observed, colony size, size of bleached area on colony, and seawater temperature.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the field activities from which these data were derived is available online at:
https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=K110BI https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=K210BI https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=B0611BI
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Grossman, Eric E, Marrack, Elizabeth C, Kramer, Lindsey K, and Most, Rebecca, 2019, Coral bleaching data by site, West Hawaii, 2010-2011: data release DOI:10.5066/F74X569K, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Grossman, Eric E, Marrack, Elizabeth C, Kramer, Lindsey K, and Most, Rebecca, 2019, Coral cover and health determined from seafloor photographs and diver observations, West Hawaii, 2010-2011: data release DOI:10.5066/F74X569K, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.03821
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.84901
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.96987
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.41493
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/59b18ed3e4b020cdf7d957c6?name=WestHawaiiCoralTransectsMap.jpg&allowOpen=true (JPG)
    map of transect locations
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 19-Jun-2010
    Ending_Date: 09-Nov-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition at time data were collected
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: comma-delimited text
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (97)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 1.0E-6. Longitudes are given to the nearest 1.0E-6. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    BleachingSummary_June2010.csv; BleachingSummary_Oct2010.csv; BleachingSummary_Oct2011.csv
    Tables of data. Not all attributes were collected in each dataset. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Transect
    Alphanumeric code in XX# format, where the characters designate the location and the number (1, 2, or 3) denotes the randomly placed transect at that location. Samples were not collected at every location during each time period, therefore datasets may not use all of the listed codes. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    AGAlula (near the mouth of Honaunau Harbor)
    FFFreeze Face
    HBHonaunau Bay
    HOHonaunau Outer
    KBKailua Bay
    KCKaloko Cut
    KOKaloko Outer
    KPKailua Pier
    KWKeawaiki
    KWNKeawaiki North
    KWSKeawaiki South
    NONoio Point
    PUPuako
    Date
    Date in MM/DD/YY format (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:06/19/10
    Maximum:11/09/11
    Latitude
    Latitude in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19.41493
    Maximum:19.96987
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-156.03821
    Maximum:-155.84901
    Units:decimal degrees
    Start_Depth_ft
    Depth at beginning of transect in feet below water surface at time of survey (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:22
    Units:feet
    Bearing
    Direction that the transect headed from the starting point in degrees, where 0 is due North (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:340
    Units:degrees
    Pmeandrina_observed
    Number of Porites meandrina colonies observed along transect. This parameter was not measured in October 2011 dataset. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:56
    Units:each
    Mcapitata_observed
    Number of Montipora capitata colonies observed along transect. This parameter was not measured in October 2011 dataset. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:13
    Units:each
    Pmeandrina_bleached
    Number of bleached Porites meandrina colonies observed along transect. This parameter was not measured in October 2011 dataset. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:1
    Units:each
    Mcapitata_bleached
    Number of bleached Montipora capitata colonies observed along transect. This parameter was not measured in October 2011 dataset. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3
    Units:each
    Temperature_F
    Ocean temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. In a few instances in the October 2011 data, temperature was not recorded. These are noted as “No data.”. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:78
    Maximum:81
    Units:degrees Fahrenheit
    Coral_Species_Bleached
    Specific coral species observed to be bleached along transect. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    McapitataMontipora capitata
    PlobataPorites lobata
    No Bleachingno coral bleaching was observed along transect
    Colony_Size_cm
    Size of bleached coral colony measured in centimeters and given in Length x Width x Height. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed; No data = no data were recorded. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) free text (LxWxH), NA, or no data recorded
    Distance_Along_Transect_m
    From the starting point, the distance along the transect where bleached coral was observed in meters. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed; No data = no data were recorded. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.2
    Maximum:48
    Units:meters
    Placement_Along_Transect
    Location of observed bleached coral species relative to the transect line as the diver was swimming from the beginning to the end of the transect. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    Leftobserved bleached coral species fell to the left of the transect line
    Centerobserved bleached coral species fell to the center of the transect line
    Rightobserved bleached coral species fell to the right of the transect line
    Bleaching_Extent
    Denotes the observed amount of bleaching of the coral colony. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    Partialthe coral colony was only partially bleached
    Completethe coral colony was completely bleached
    Bleached_Areas
    The number of bleached areas found on coral colonies noted as only partially bleached, or other information of note. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed; No data = no data were recorded. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) free text
    Lesion_Size_cm
    The maximum width in centimeters of lesions from bleaching found on coral colonies noted as only partially bleached, or other information of note. NA = not applicable as there were no colonies of bleached coral observed; No data = no data were recorded. This parameter was not measured in June 2010 or October 2010 datasets. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) free text
    Notes
    free text to document other information of interest (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) free text
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: The first line of the csv file is a header line.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Eric E Grossman
    • Elizabeth C Marrack
    • Lindsey K Kramer
    • Rebecca Most
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

As part of an integrated study to assess projected impacts of land-use and climate change on nearshore habitat conditions and coral health, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) initiated an investigation of nearshore water properties and coral health indicators along the west Hawaii Island coast. The project and data generated provide fundamental baseline data to track change and important boundary condition data to interpret characteristics of coral health related to water quality along a gradient in exposure to urban impacts and submarine groundwater discharge.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 09-Nov-2011 (process 1 of 1)
    Data were collected in June and October 2010 and in October/November 2011 by divers on scuba along three randomly selected swath transects at each site location. The location where divers descended at the beginning of each transect was noted using a portable GPS unit in a waterproof housing. Once at the seafloor, a bearing was noted for the direction the divers swam and distance from start to each station noted along a 10-m measuring tape. Data observed along the transects were noted on divers’ slates using underwater paper.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Stated horizontal accuracy of the Garmin GPS is +/- 3.2 m
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Stated vertical accuracy of the Suunto Dive Computer is +/- 0.3 m
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Different locations were visited and different parameters were measured in 2010 than in 2011. In 2011, additional metrics were measured that are not included in 2010 and focus was given to select sites, therefore the October 2011 data table has different columns than the June and October 2010 tables. In some instances in the October 2011 data, data were not obtained at select sites because of instrument malfunction or metrics associated with coral bleaching were absent. These are noted as “No data.” Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These data tables are available in comma-separated format (BleachingSummary_June2010.csv, BleachingSummary_Oct2010.csv, BleachingSummary_Oct2011.csv), along with a map of transect locations (KAHO_DR_Transects.png) and CSDGM FGDC-compliant metadata (BleachingSummary_metadata.xml).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with any text-reader software.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 14-Feb-2019
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/pacific_islands/hawaii/BleachingSummary_metadata.faq.html>
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