Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui
Abstract:
Chronology and time-series geochemistry data of a coral core collected from Olowalu, West Maui, Hawaii. The chronology is based on density banding, radiocarbon bomb-curve, and uranium thorium dating techniques. The geochemistry time-series data contains major and minor elements over the length of the coral life span, as measured from laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the field activities from which these data were derived is available online at: http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=A0413MU Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Prouty, Nancy G., and Gallagher, Christopher, 2017, Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series, West Maui: data release DOI:10.5066/F72J69TH, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.6083000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.6083000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.8065000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.8065000
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 09-Jul-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition at time data were collected
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: comma-delimited text
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (1)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv
    Table containing results from elemental composition along the length of the coral core. (Source: Producer defined)
    Cumulative Distance
    Cumulative distance from the top of the core to the bottom of the core. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.23
    Maximum:2555.11
    Units:millimeter
    Resolution:0.01 millimeter
    Chronology: Density
    Calendar age assigned to sample according to annual density band counts. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1716.00
    Maximum:2013.60
    Units:year.month
    Chronology: U-Th
    Calendar age assigned to sample according to uranium-thorium (U-Th) age dating. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1769.69
    Maximum:2013.60
    Units:year.month
    B:Ca
    boron to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.63
    Maximum:4497197.36
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 millimol per mol
    Mg:Ca
    magnesium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.49
    Maximum:890.54
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 millimol per mol
    Sr:Ca
    strontium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.95
    Maximum:16.29
    Units:millimol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 millimol per mol
    Ba:Ca
    barium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.76
    Maximum:6952.82
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    U:Ca
    uranium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:16.52
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Al:Ca
    aluminum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.17
    Maximum:224220950.16
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    P:Ca
    phosphorous to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11.96
    Maximum:613209.35
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    V:Ca
    vanadium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:45159.04
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Cr:Ca
    chromium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.19
    Maximum:5433843.67
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Mn:Ca
    manganese to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.15
    Maximum:102542.23
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Fe:Ca
    iron to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:74.20
    Maximum:166309.78
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Ni:Ca
    nickel to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.27
    Maximum:133856.50
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Cu:Ca
    copper to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.96
    Maximum:936691.15
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Zn:Ca
    zinc to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.65
    Maximum:103444.98
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Y:Ca
    yttrium to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:11.92
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    Mo:Ca
    molybdenum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:2132.91
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol
    La:Ca
    lanthanum to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.53
    Maximum:5435.85
    Units:nanomol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 nanomol per mol
    Pb:Ca
    lead to calcium ratio; BDL means below detection limit. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:66385.62
    Units:micromol per mol
    Resolution:0.01 micromol per mol

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Nancy G. Prouty
    • Christopher Gallagher
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    L. Kinsley (Australian National University), L. Edwards and H. Cheng (University of Minnesota), and T. Guilderson (LLNL) for analytical assistance, and C. Storlazzi, J. Logan, and P. Dal Ferro (USGS) for field assistance.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Nancy G. Prouty
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Geologist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7526 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    nprouty@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Erosion and associated sedimentation are the most significant threats to Hawaii's terrestrial and marine resources. Given that regional-scale resilience of coral reefs to global climate change may be significantly influence by local water quality, there is the potential that compounding stressors will reduce the tolerance of corals to climate change perturbations. The Coral Reef Working Group (CRWG), made up of key state and federal partners involved in coral reef management, has identified Olowalu as a Hawaii Coral Reef Strategy Priority Site and adjacent to a proposed priority watershed. This information is valuable for resource managers in Hawaii trying to calculate trajectories of coral reef health related to future land-use and climate change, since both processes will affect the supply and storage of sediment to the reef flat.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    U-Th dates (source 1 of 4)
    Minnesota, University of, 2014, Uranium-Thorium age dating.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Samples were processed via total dissolution techniques, with isotope ratios measured on by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Cobb and others, 2003).
    coral radiocarbon ages (source 2 of 4)
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, 2017, Radiocarbon measurements.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Approximately 10 mg of acidified with orthophosphoric acid and evolved carbon dioxide was converted to graphite for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS; Vogel and others, 1987).
    elemental to calcium ratio (source 3 of 4)
    UCSC Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, 2017, Elemental composition of coral samples.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    Elemental to calcium ratio as measured by laser ablation Inductively-coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; Sinclair and others, 1998).
    coral density values (source 4 of 4)
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013, Density banding.

    Type_of_Source_Media: carbonate coral samples
    Source_Contribution:
    The cores were evaluated for annual density banding using Computed Tomography (CT) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution CT Scanning Facility (Crook and others, 2013).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 24-Mar-2017 (process 1 of 1)
    Results from the all lab analyses were combined into two comma-delimited text documents (Olowalu_coral_chronology.csv and Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv) for this data release. Data sources used in this process:
    • All source contributions were used for this dataset
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Cobb, K., Charles, C. D., Cheng, H., Kastner, M., and Edwards, R. L., 2003, U/Th-dating living and young fossil corals from the central tropical Pacific: Journal article Earth Planetary Science Letters, v. 210, 2003, p. 91-103, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

    Online Links:

    Crook, E.D., Cohen, A.L., Rebolledo-Vieyr, M., Hernandez, L., and Paytan, A., 2013, Reduced calcification and lack of acclimatization by coral colonies growing in areas of persistent natural acidification: Journal article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301589110, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C..

    Online Links:

    Jaffey, A.H., Flynn, K.F., Glendenin, L.E., Bentley, W.C., and Essling, A.M., 1971, Precision measurement of half-lives and specific activities of 235U and 238U: Journal article Physical Review C 4, American Physical Society, College Park, M.D..

    Online Links:

    Sinclair, D.J., Kinsley, L.P.J., and McCulloch, M., 1998, High resolution analysis of trace elements in corals by laser ablation ICP-MS: Journal article Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Olsson, I.U., 1970, Radiocarbon Variations and Absolute Chronology: Proceedings Proceedings of the 12th Nobel Symposium, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

    Vogel, J.S., Southon, J.R., and Nelson, D.E., 1987, Catalyst and binder effects in the use of filamentous graphite for AMS: Journal article Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 29, 40-56, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Stuiver, M., and Polach, H.A., 1977, Discussion reporting of 14C data: Journal article Radiocarbon 19(3), 1977, p. 355–363, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

    Online Links:

    Vogel, J.S., Southon, J.R., and Nelson, D.E., 1987, Catalyst and binder effects in the use of filamentous graphite for AMS: Journal article Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 29, 40-56, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Andrews, A.H., Siciliano, D., Potts, D.C., DeMartini, E.E., and Covarrubias, S., 2016, Bomb radiocarbon and the Hawaiian Archipelago: coral, otoliths, and seawater: Journal article Radiocarbon, v. 58, no. 3, 2016, p. 531-548, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

    Online Links:

    Barnes, D. J., and Lough, J.M., 1989, The nature of skeletal density banding in scleractinian corals: fine banding and seasonal patterns: Journal article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 126, Issues 2, 16 March 1989, Pages 119-134, Elsevier, Cambridge, MA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    All geochemistry data were calibrated against known standards.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The coral site position was determined by hand-held Garmin GPS. Horizontal accuracy is approximately 3 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the data set has not been conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Maui as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These chronology and geochemistry data are available in two .csv formatted files, Olowalu_coral_chronology.csv and Olowalu_coral_chemistry.csv, respectively.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with Microsoft Excel or any text reader

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 17-Nov-2017
Metadata author:
Nancy G. Prouty
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Nancy G. Prouty
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA
United States of America

831-460-7526 (voice)
nprouty@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/pacific_islands/maui/Olowalu_coral_core_metadata.faq.html>
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