Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013
Abstract:
This part of the data release presents a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from bathymetry and topography data of the Elwha River delta collected in March 2013. Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal that included regular monitoring of coastal and nearshore bathymetry and topography. As part of this monitoring program, the USGS conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey in the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Elwha River delta, Washington (USGS Field Activity Number W-01-13-PS). Bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs), each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS receivers mounted on backpacks. DEM surfaces were produced from all available elevation data using linear interpolation.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information about the field activities from which these data were derived are available online at: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=W0113PS
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Stevens, Andrew W., Gelfenbaum, Guy, Warrick, Jonathan A., Miller, Ian M., and Weiner, Heather M., 2017, Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013: data release DOI:10.5066/F7RN3612, U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Stevens, Andrew W., Gelfenbaum, Guy, Warrick, Jonathan A., Miller, Ian M., and Weiner, Heather M., 2017, Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013: data release DOI:10.5066/F7RN3612, U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.584223
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.529822
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 48.157541
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 48.137131
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/58518e9ee4b0f99207c4f13e?name=ew13_mar_dem_5m.png&allowOpen=true (PNG)
    image map showing 5-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of Elwha River delta, color-coded to show elevation
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/58518e9ee4b0f99207c4f13e?name=ew13_mar_dem_1m.png&allowOpen=true (PNG)
    image map showing 1-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of Elwha River mouth, color-coded to show elevation
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 05-Mar-2013
    Ending_Date: 08-Mar-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition at time data were collected
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Esri ARC/INFO ASCII GRID
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Lambert Conformal Conic.
      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 47.5
      Standard_Parallel: 48.73333333333333
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -120.8333333333333
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 47.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.01
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.01
      Planar coordinates are specified in METERS
      The horizontal datum used is NAD83 (CORS96).
      The ellipsoid used is GRS_1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.01
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Attribute Table
    Table containing attribute information associated with the dataset (Source: Producer defined)
    Elevation
    Elevation relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 at the base station (-20.11 m above the reference ellipsoid). (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-19.05
    Maximum:5.93
    Units:meters

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Andrew W. Stevens
    • Guy Gelfenbaum
    • Jonathan A. Warrick
    • Ian M. Miller
    • Heather M. Weiner
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Andrew W. Stevens
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    2885 Mission St.
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    831-460-7424 (voice)
    astevens@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Data were obtained to assess the coastal geomorphic response following the removal of two dams on the Elwha River. These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. These data can be used with geographic information systems or other software to identify topographic and shallow-water bathymetric features.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    bathymetry data (source 1 of 2)
    Stevens, Andrew W., Gelfenbaum, Guy, Warrick, Jonathan A., Miller, Ian M., and Weiner, Heather M., 2017, Nearshore bathymetry data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, online.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital dataset
    Source_Contribution:
    Bathymetry data were combined with topography data, and then interpolated into a gridded surface
    topography data (source 2 of 2)
    Stevens, Andrew W., Gelfenbaum, Guy, Warrick, Jonathan A., Miller, Ian M., and Weiner, Heather M., 2017, Topography data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, online.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital dataset
    Source_Contribution:
    Topography data were combined with bathymetry data, and then interpolated into a gridded surface
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 19-Mar-2013 (process 1 of 1)
    Quality control was applied to raw topography and bathymetry data. Comparisons were performed to ensure internal consistency between the survey platforms. DEMs were produced by linear interpolation of all available elevation point data with the computer program MATLAB. Data were exported in Esri ARC/INFO ASCII GRID format for distribution. Data sources used in this process:
    • all sources cited were used
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), 2008, IHO standards for hydrographic surveys (5th ed.): International Hydrographic Bureau Special Publication 44, 28p., Monaco.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Repeatability tests were conducted across different survey platforms, but no comparisons to "true" values were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are created by interpolating between elevation measurements as much as 50 meters apart, for this reason we cannot evaluate the accuracy of each point in a DEM, only the original data from which it is generated. The horizontal accuracy of the individual points was assessed based on the combined uncertainty of GNSS base stations and kinematic (rover) data points. Manufacturer-reported accuracy for the differentially corrected horizontal positions for the Trimble R7, R8 and R10 receivers used to collect the topographic and bathymetric measurements is 0.8 cm + 0.5 ppm. Baselines from the GNSS base station were typically less than 5 km, suggesting a horizontal accuracy of survey-vessel positions to be 0.825 cm relative to the base station. The combined horizontal uncertainty from the base station coordinate solutions and rover trajectories is between 1.5 cm and 7 cm, with a mean horizontal uncertainty of 3 cm. Uncertainty in the horizontal positions associated with pitch and roll of the survey vessels and variable surveyor posture during the backpack surveys is unknown.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are created by interpolating between elevation measurements as much as 50 meters apart, for this reason we cannot evaluate the accuracy of each point in a DEM, only the original data from which it is generated. An estimated vertical accuracy of 5 cm for the topographic GNSS backpack survey platforms was estimated by combining uncertainty in the base station coordinates and the manufacturer reported vertical accuracy of 1.5 cm + 1 ppm for differential corrected kinematic data. Additional uncertainty in the final computed elevations in the bathymetry data is related to unmeasured variability in the speed of sound used to compute depths from bathymetric soundings and, thus, are depth dependent. Based on analysis of all available sound velocity casts, we estimate the uncertainty in the final elevations to be 0.6 percent of water depth. The total vertical uncertainty is calculated using the standard equation sigmat=sqrt(a^2+(b×d)^2), where sigmat is the total vertical uncertainty, a is the uncertainty of the GNSS vertical position, b is the depth-dependent uncertainty factor (0.006), and d is water depth (International Hydrographic Organization, 2008). Maximum water depths surveyed by the personal watercraft are approximately 18 m, yielding a maximum total vertical uncertainty of 12 cm.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All data fall within expected ranges.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator(s) of the dataset and in products derived from these data. This information is not intended for navigational purposes.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - Science Base
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    USA

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? DEM grids are available in Esri ARC/INFO ASCII GRID format (ew13_mar_dem_5m.asc; ew13_mar_dem_1m.asc), along with low-resolution browse graphics of each DEM in png format (ew13_mar_dem_5m.png; ew13_mar_dem_1m.png) and associated metadata (ew13_mar_dem.xml).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-Dec-2016
Metadata author:
Andrew W. Stevens
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Oceanographer
2885 Mission St.
Santa Cruz, CA
USA

831-460-7424 (voice)
astevens@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/westcoast/washington/elwha/ew13_mar_dem.faq.html>
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