Projected Seafloor Elevation Along the Florida Reef Tract From Deerfield Beach to Homestead, Florida-25 Years From 2014 Based on Historical Rates of Mean Elevation Change

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Projected Seafloor Elevation Along the Florida Reef Tract From Deerfield Beach to Homestead, Florida-25 Years From 2014 Based on Historical Rates of Mean Elevation Change
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted research to quantify the combined effect of all constructive and destructive processes on modern coral reef ecosystems by projecting future regional-scale changes in seafloor elevation for several sites along the Florida Reef Tract, Florida (FL) including the shallow seafloor along the coast of Miami, FL. USGS staff used historical bathymetric point data from the 1930's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Coast Survey, see Yates and others, 2017) and light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived data acquired in 2002 (Brock and others, 2006, 2007) to calculate historical seafloor elevation changes in the Upper Florida Keys (UFK) (Yates and others, 2017). Using those changes in seafloor elevation, annual rates of elevation change were calculated for 13 habitat types found in the UFK reef tract. The annual rate of mean elevation change for each habitat type was applied to a digital elevation model (DEM) extending from Deerfield Beach to Homestead, FL that was modified from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Miami coastal DEM (NOAA, 2015) to project future seafloor elevation (from 2014) along the Miami section of the Florida Reef Tract. Grid resolution for the DEM is 1/3 arc second (approximately 10 meters).
Supplemental_Information:
USGS lidar elevation measurements (used in Yates and others, 2017, 2018) were collected over the Upper Florida Keys using the first-generation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), a pulsed laser ranging system mounted on board an aircraft to measure ground elevation, vegetation canopy, and coastal topography. The system uses high-frequency laser beams directed at the Earth's surface through an opening in the bottom of the aircraft's fuselage. The laser system records the time difference between emission of the laser beam and the reception of the reflected laser signal in the aircraft.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Yates, Kimberly K., Zawada, David G., and Arsenault, Stephanie R., 20190328, Projected Seafloor Elevation Along the Florida Reef Tract From Deerfield Beach to Homestead, Florida-25 Years From 2014 Based on Historical Rates of Mean Elevation Change: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/P9UTAE37, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Yates, Kimberly K., Zawada, David G., Smiley, Nathan A., and Tiling-Range, Ginger, 20170420, Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems: Biogeosciences, Munich, Germany.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.311065
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.054028
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.320046
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.249954
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2019
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Multimedia presentation
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 11557 x 2776 x 1, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 9.259259E-5. Longitudes are given to the nearest 9.259259E-5. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84).
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) GEOID03
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.2
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    25_Year_Miami_ElevationSurface_MeanElevation.csv
    This file contains elevation statistics, provided in a comma CSV format, for each habitat type found in the UFK. These data were used to compute the 25-year (from 2014) projected seafloor elevation change in the Miami section of the Florida Reef Tract. (Source: USGS)
    Habitat types in Miami study site
    The habitat types found in the Miami section of the Florida Reef Tract. Habitat types are defined by the Unified Florida Reef Tract Map Version 2.0 and based on the Unified Classification (UC) system Class Level 2. (Source: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC))
    ValueDefinition
    Total study siteThe total Miami study site, includes 16 habitat types. Artificial, Land and Mangrove habitats were removed.
    Aggregate reefAggregate reef larger than 1 hectare (ha), contiguous reef, lacking sand channels.
    Colonized pavementContiguous to patchy pavement, lacking spur and groove channel formation, presence of macroalgae, hard coral, gorgonians, and other sessile invertebrates, dense enough to obscure underlying rock.
    Dredged and excavatedDredged and excavated areas.
    Individual or aggregated patch reefPatch reefs smaller than 1 ha, isolated reefs often with distinct halo or reef features covering >10% of the area.
    Not classifiedAreas where habitat has not been classified.
    PavementContiguous to patchy pavement, lacking spur and groove channel formations.
    Pavement with sand channelsAlternating linear sand and pavement formations, perpendicular to reef crest.
    Pavement with seagrassContiguous to patchy pavement, lacking spur and groove channel formations with seagrass.
    Reef rubbleUnconsolidated, dead, unstable coral rubble.
    RidgeLinear, shore-parallel, low-relief features, potentially ancient shoreline deposits.
    Scattered rock or coral in unconsolidated sedimentLess than 150 square meters, mostly sand, reef features covering <10% of the area.
    Seagrass continuousContinuous seagrass beds.
    Seagrass discontinuousDiscontinuous seagrass beds.
    Spur and grooveAlternating linear sand and coral formations, perpendicular to the reef crest.
    Tidal flatsTidal flats
    Unconsolidated sedimentUnconsolidated sediment
    Mean projected elevation change 25 years from 2002 in the Upper Florida Keys (m/25 years)
    The mean projected seafloor elevation change 25 years from 2002, in meters, derived from the Upper Florida Keys elevation change study. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.1992
    Maximum:0.072
    Units:meters
    Max elevation in the 25 year Miami seafloor projection DEM (m)
    Maximum projected seafloor elevation 25 years from 2014, in meters. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-4.48011
    Maximum:0.767863
    Units:meters
    Min elevation in the 25 year Miami seafloor projection DEM (m)
    Minimum projected seafloor elevation 25 years from 2014, in meters. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-58.405502
    Maximum:-2.3091
    Units:meters
    Mean elevation (m) in the 25 year Miami seafloor projection DEM (m)
    Mean projected seafloor elevation 25 years from 2014, in meters. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-18.086155
    Maximum:-0.67109
    Units:meters
    SD (m)
    Standard deviation, in meters (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.508227
    Maximum:10.909629
    Units:meters

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Kimberly K. Yates
    • David G. Zawada
    • Stephanie R. Arsenault
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Kimberly K. Yates
    Southeast Region: Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8059 (voice)
    kyates@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data were used to determine 25-year future seafloor elevation changes (from 2014) along the Miami section of the Florida Reef Tract, based on mean elevation change.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Miami DEM (source 1 of 3)
    National Centers for Environmental Information, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 20150121, Miami 1/3 Arc-Second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Digital Elevation Model
    Source_Contribution:
    The Miami DEM was used as the starting elevation dataset, which was modified to calculate future seafloor elevations.
    Habitat file (source 2 of 3)
    Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 20170113, Unified Florida Reef Tract Map Version 2.0: Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Vector digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    This shapefile was used to divide the DEM by habitat types using Unified Classification (UC) Class Level 2.
    Upper Florida Keys Projected Seafloor Elevation Change (source 3 of 3)
    Kimberly K. Yates, David G. Zawada, Stephanie R. Arsenault, 2018, Projected Seafloor Elevation Change in the Upper Florida Keys 25, 50, 75, and 100 Years From 2002: U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Tabular digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    This data release contains the UFK projected seafloor elevation change for 13 habitat types that were applied to the Miami DEM.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2018 (process 1 of 6)
    Step 1: The original Miami 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal DEM was downloaded from https://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/iso?id=gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.dem:5166. The network common data format (netCDF) DEM file was converted to a tagged image file format (TIF) using Blue Marble Global Mapper version 19.1.0. All remaining steps were completed with Esri ArcGIS Desktop Advanced version 10.6. Using the original TIF, a footprint of the DEM was created with the "Reclassify (Spatial Analyst)" tool in ArcToolbox by replacing all old data values with 1 and the "No Data" value with 0 to create a raster file. Then, the "Raster to Polygon (Conversion)" tool was used to create a footprint of the original Miami DEM by converting the raster file to a polygon shapefile (SHP).
    Date: 2018 (process 2 of 6)
    Step 2: The original Unified Florida Reef Tract Map version 2.0 polygon SHP file was downloaded from http://ocean.floridamarine.org/IntegratedReefMap/UnifiedReefTract.htm. Using Esri ArcGIS, the original habitat SHP file was modified using the "Clip (Analysis)" tool to clip the habitat SHP file to the extent of the original Miami DEM footprint (from Step 1) by specifying the habitat SHP file as the 'Input Features' and the DEM footprint SHP file as the 'Clip Features'. Then Artificial, Land, and Mangrove areas (ClassLv2) were removed from the habitat SHP file using the "Select by Attribute" tool to select the three habitat types and the "Editor Toolbox" to delete them.
    Date: 2018 (process 3 of 6)
    Step 3: The original Miami DEM TIF (from Step 1), was clipped to the extent of the modified habitat SHP file (from Step 2) using the "Clip (Data Management)" tool in Esri ArcGIS by specifying the Miami DEM TIF as the 'Input Raster' and the modified habitat SHP file as the 'Output Extent'. The clipped TIF was used to extract two shoreline contours with the "Contour List (Spatial Analyst)" tool by adding 'Contour values' for 0-meter (m) and -0.4 m contours. The shoreline contour SHP file was manually connected across inlets and gaps using the "Straight Segment" tool in the "Editor Toolbox" to draw straight lines between the seaward most points of channels or other breaks along the coastline. The backshore was removed from the contour SHP file by using the "Buffer (Analysis) " tool with a 'Distance Linear unit' of 1000 m. Then the shoreline contour was smoothed with the "Smooth Line (Cartography)" tool using the Polynomial Approximation with Exponential Kernel (PAEK) smoothing algorithm and a 50 m smoothing tolerance. Using the extended contour SHP file, a polygon SHP file was created using the "Feature to Polygon (Data Management)" tool by specifying the contour SHP file as the 'Input Features', to create the Coastal Clip SHP file. The clipped DEM TIF was modified further using the "Clip (Data Management)" tool to remove coastal land areas by adding the DEM TIF as the 'Input Raster' and the Coastal Clip SHP file as the 'Output Extent’, creating the Miami_ElevationSurface_OriginalClip TIF.
    Date: 2018 (process 4 of 6)
    Step 4: The clipped habitat SHP file (from Step 2) was modified by removing coastal land areas using the "Clip (Analysis)" tool with the habitat SHP file as the 'Input Features' and the Coastal Clip SHP file (from Step 3) as the 'Clip Features', creating the Miami_Habitat_OriginalClip TIF file.
    Date: 2018 (process 5 of 6)
    Step 5: Mean future elevation for each habitat type in the Miami_ElevationSurface_OriginalClip DEM was calculated by applying previously published mean elevation changes in the Upper Florida Keys (UFK) that were projected 25 years into the future from the year 2002 (Yates and others, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9CI9LNH). Mean projected elevation changes in the UFK were compiled by habitat type into a comma separated values table (CSV) file using Microsoft Excel 2016.
    Date: 2018 (process 6 of 6)
    Step 6: Using the Miami_Habitat_OriginalClip SHP file, in Esri ArcGIS, individual polygon SHP files were created for each habitat type using the "Select by Attribute" tool and exporting each habitat type as a separate SHP file. Individual DEMs were created from the Miami_ElevationSurface_OriginalClip TIF using the "Clip (Data Management)" tool to clip the full DEM to the extent of each habitat type SHP file by specifying the Miami_ElevationSurface_OriginalClip as the 'Input Raster' and the habitat type SHP file as the 'Output Extent'. The "Raster Calculator (Spatial Analyst)" tool was used to project future elevation change per habitat type by modifying individual habitat DEMs by adding or subtracting the corresponding 'Mean projected elevation change from 2002 Upper Florida Keys (m)' from the 25_Year_Miami_Seafloor_Projection_MeanElevation CSV file. For habitats present in the Miami_Habitat_OriginalClip SHP file, but not present in the UFK (Dredged/Excavated, Ridge and Tidal Flats), the mean elevation change value for the total UFK study site was applied. Individual habitat DEMs were merged together using the "Mosaic to New Raster (Data Management)" tool with the 'Pixel Type' set to 32_BIT_FLOAT, 'Number of Bands' set to 1 and the 'Mosaic Operator' set to MEAN to create the final 25_Year_Miami_Seafloor_Projection_DEM_MeanElevation TIF file.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Brock, John C., Wright, C. Wayne, Patterson, Matt, Nayegandhi, Amar, Patterson, Judd, Harris, Melanie S., and Mosher, Lance, 2006, EAARL Submarine Topography—Biscayne National Park: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1118, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Brock, John C., Wright, C. Wayne, Nayegandhi, Amar, Patterson, Matt, Wilson, Iris, and Travers, Laurenda J., 2007, EAARL Submarine Topography – Northern Florida Keys Reef Tract: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1432, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Datasets were visually compared (with other overlapping datasets, satellite images, and maps) by USGS staff in Esri ArcGIS for identification of anomalous elevations or data inconsistencies. Where elevation inconsistencies occurred, the most recent and/or highest resolution data set was selected for use in that region.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The horizontal accuracy of bathymetric and topographic features in the DEM (NOAA, 2015) is dependent upon DEM cell size and the accuracy of the input datasets used to determine corresponding cell values. Topography: 10 meters. Positional accuracy of input topographic datasets limits accuracy of corresponding cell values in DEM. U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (USGS NED) topography: 10 meters, Lidar: less than 1 meter. DEM cell-value relative-contribution factors: Lidar: 1000 to 10, Topographic DEM: 10, USGS NED: 1. Bathymetry: less than 1 meter to a few kilometers. Positional accuracy of input bathymetric datasets limits accuracy of corresponding cell values in DEM. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE): ~ 5 meters, Multibeam data: ranging from less than 1 meter to 10 meters . DEM cell-value relative-contribution factors: USACE and National Ocean Services (NOS) hydrographic surveys: 100, Multibeam: 1, Bathymetric lidar: 10, Bathymetric pre-surface: 1.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    The vertical accuracy of bathymetric and topographic features in the DEM (NOAA, 2015) is dependent upon the accuracy of the input datasets used to determine corresponding cell values. Topography: 9 centimeters to 1 meter. Vertical accuracy of input topographic datasets limits accuracy of corresponding cells in DEM. DEM cell-value relative-contribution factors: Lidar: 1000 to 10, Topographic DEM: 10, NED: 1. Bathymetry: less than 1 meter to 5 percent (%) of water depth. Vertical accuracy of input bathymetric datasets limits accuracy of corresponding cells in DEM. NOS hydrographic surveys: about 1% of water depth. DEM cell-value relative-contribution factors: USACE and NOS hydrographic surveys: 100, Multibeam: 1, Bathymetric lidar: 10, Bathymetric pre-surface: 1. Gridding interpolation to determine cell values between sparse soundings in deep water degrades the vertical accuracy of corresponding elevations.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract section. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record and Yates and others (2017) carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data cover the area specified for this project, without any known issues.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Kimberly K. Yates
    Southeast Region: Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8059 (voice)
    kyates@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-May-2019
Metadata author:
Kimberly K. Yates
Southeast Region: Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Research Oceanographer
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
United States

727-502-8059 (voice)
kyates@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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