Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, March 27, 1998

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, March 27, 1998
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On March 27, 1998, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HH60 Helicopter at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was conducted to collect data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can also be used as a baseline to assess future coastal change. The photographs provided are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. The photograph locations are an estimate of the aircraft's position and do not indicate the location of the features in the images. These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. ExifTool (version 4.0) was used to add the following to the header of each photograph: time of collection, GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. Photographs can be opened with any JPEG-compatible image viewer. All image times are recorded in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Supplemental_Information:
For a summary of field activity 98ACH02 please see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=98ACH02. Bounding coordinates for the oblique aerial survey are derived from the overall flight path found in the GPS data. Ancillary files included in this publication are: 98ACH02-LocationMaps.zip, 98ACH02-ProcessedNav.zip, 98ACH02-SupplementalFiles.zip, and 98ACH02-RawGPSNav.zip; in addition to the digitized oblique aerial image zip files.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Morgan, Karen L.M., 20181102, Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, March 27, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F7S75DHR, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -76.340546
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.045333
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.497889
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.324067
  3. What does it look like?
    https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7S75DHR/data/98ACH02-LocationMaps.zip (98ACH02-Survey-Map.jpg) (JPEG)
    Map of survey area during USGS field activity 98ACH02.
    https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7S75DHR/data/98ACH02-LocationMaps.zip (JPEG)
    Maps showing the extent of each area and 5-minute segment can be found in the 98ACH02-LocationMaps.zip file. The maps in this survey are: 98ACH02-Map-Area01.jpg, Area 1 from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Wallops Island, Virginia; 98ACH02-Map-Area02.jpg, Area 2 from Wallops Island, Virginia, to Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia; and 98ACH02-Map-Area03.jpg, Area 3 from Virginia Beach, Virginia, to Corolla, North Carolina. The flight path, divided into 5-minute segments, is represented by the alternating purple and yellow lines.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 27-Mar-1998
    Beginning_Time: 142820
    Ending_Date: 27-Mar-1998
    Ending_Time: 193259
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Raster and tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (1190)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0197878497. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0227728255. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal Degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    98ACH02-Flightpath.csv, 98ACH02-Photolocations.csv
    The "*Flightpath.csv" file contains the processed GPS information collected during the flight, while the "*Photolocations.csv" file contains a latitude position, longitude position, time, and image name for each image. (Source: USGS)
    PHOTO_ID
    Photograph identification number, using the filename format yyyy_mmdd_r###s##.jpg (Source: USGS) Oblique Images
    URL
    Path to low resolution version of the image. (Source: USGS) URL path defining the features.
    ZIPFILENAME
    Name of zip file containing the high-resolution the image. (Source: USGS) Zipfile name.
    LONGITUDE
    Longitude of photograph location, in decimal degrees (NAD83). (Source: USGS) Coordinates defining the features.
    LATITUDE
    Latitude of photograph location, in decimal degrees (NAD83). (Source: USGS) Coordinates defining the features.
    DATE_FLOWN
    Date image was captured, in yyyymmdd format. (Source: USGS) Date defining the features.
    TIME_UTC
    Time photograph was collected, in xxhxxmxxs format. Times were recorded in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), where "xx" is the number and "h" is hours, "m" is minutes, and "s" is seconds at the time of capture. (Source: USGS) Time defining the features.
    GEO_AREA
    The geographic area of the mission. (Source: USGS) States partially covered in the oblique photographic mission.
    STATES
    The states included in the survey area of the mission. (Source: USGS) States or regions partially covered in the oblique photographic mission.
    SURVEY
    USGS mission tracking number; also known as a field activity number. (Source: USGS) Mission number utilized by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology program’s data catalog, Compass, to track survey details and associated data.
    PRE_POST
    Identifies the flight as being pre-storm or post-storm. Baseline or Post-Storm status. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    PreFlight was prior to a storm.
    PostFlight was after a storm.
    STORM
    If the flight was conducted due to a storm, the name of the storm is listed. Name of Storm (or Baseline). (Source: USGS) The storm name is listed, if the flight was conducted pre- or post-storm, otherwise "Baseline" is entered.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Navigation files: The flight line navigation file is 98ACH02-Flightpath.csv, the photo locations are in 98ACH02-Photolocations.csv, and are contained within the 98ACH02-ProcessedNav.zip file. The raw GPS is in 98ACH02-RawGPSNav.txt, which is contained within the 98ACH02-RawGPSNav.zip file. These zip files can be found in the data download table. The files (.csv and .txt) are comma-delimited CSV files and an ASCII formatted text file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Graphic Image Files: The index map (98ACH02-Survey-Map.jpg) is a JPEG image. This map shows the baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, March 27, 1998. It also shows three areas, which show more detail and indicate how the full-size photographs are divided into each area. The area maps can be found in the 98ACH02-LocationMaps.zip file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Navigation files: These files (*.csv) are comma-delimited.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Karen L.M. Morgan
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Funding and support for this study were provided by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP). The author wishes to thank Lt. Tam Fletch (pilot) of the U.S. Coast Guard for his assistance with data collection. The author would also like to thank Janice Subino for her assistance with data post processing. This report benefited from the comments and review of Noreen A. Buster with the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC), St. Petersburg, FL.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To provide access to digital photographs taken as part of the March 27, 1998, baseline oblique aerial survey collected along the coast from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina, and to provide access to attribute data that documents the time and location where each photograph was taken.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 27-Mar-1998 (process 1 of 9)
    Image Acquisition: Photographs were taken with two Nikon F3 cameras, each with a fixed 50-millimeter lens and a Skylight filter. One camera shot the odd-numbered film rolls, and the other camera shot the even-numbered rolls. Both cameras were equipped with a Nikon MF-14 data back. Rolls were numbered by hand in the air. Film used was Kodak Ektachrome E100G. Commonly used shutter speeds were 1/250 seconds or 1/125 seconds. A constant shutter speed was attempted but may vary if there was a noticeable change in light levels. The f-stop was changed to compensate for changes in light levels. The Nikon MF-14 data back added day of the month, hour, and minute (UTC) to the lower right-hand corner of the photo. All photographs were taken from the the open door of the aircraft. Independent of all other equipment, a Rockwell Collins PLGR GPS recorded navigation fixes, at a 30-second interval, acquired from a National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) string during the flight. A Compix Titler unit provided video subtitles that include latitude, longitude, and time (Hour:Minute:Second). Navigation was provided to the video by a Trimble Centurion GPS receiver, and time was provided by the titler unit's internal clock, which had been synchronized with UTC time. The cameras' images are denoted by a "r###s##" in the filename. The images are labeled with the following filename format: yyyy_mmdd_r###s##.jpg, where yyyy denotes the year, mmdd denotes the month and day, r### is the roll number and s## is the slide number of the image. For example, image 1998_0327_r001s03.jpg was taken March 27, 1998, the first roll of the flight, the third slide. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 27-Mar-1998 (process 2 of 9)
    The video and still photography were shot out of the open door of the aircraft. The video files are not included in this publication. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 29-Mar-1998 (process 3 of 9)
    E6 Ektachrome slide processing was completed by Zebra Color Photo Lab in St. Petersburg, FL. Date, frame, and roll number were printed on slide mount. There is no roll number 4 in this data set. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 09-Aug-2006 (process 4 of 9)
    Slide Scanning and Processing: Slides were scanned using a Nikon Super CoolScan 5000 scanner and Nikon Scan 4 software. The slides were scanned using Digital Image Correction and Enhancement (ICE) technology at a resolution of 3,000 dots per inch (DPI) and files were saved as 18.6-megabyte tagged image file format (TIFF) images. The TIFF images were then converted to JPEG images at a resolution of 3000 dots per inch using Adobe Photoshop CC. ICE technology automatically removes artifacts, such as dust and scratches from scanned images. Only JPEG images are included in this data release. The photograph names provide information about the photograph's year, date, roll number, and slide number. For example, slide 1998_0327_r030s01 was taken March 27, 1998, and is the first slide for roll 30. Slide names (year_monthday_roll numberslide number) and time (hour, minute) were manually entered into a Microsoft Excel Ver. 15 spreadsheet. A Nikon MF-14 data back marked the time each photograph was acquired on the lower right corner of the image in day, hour, and minute format. It is assumed, for the purposes of location, that the photographs were taken at a constant rate during any given minute of flight. To assign a time value in seconds to each photograph, the number of photographs taken during each minute was evenly distributed across those 60 seconds. For example: if 15 photographs were taken during minute 19:00, researchers assumed that a picture was taken every 4 seconds. The photographs were then assigned the time values 19:00, 19:04, 19:08, and so on. It should be noted that the positions assigned to each photograph are an estimate of the aircraft position, not the location of the landmark photographed. Photos were then reviewed in Google Earth and adjustments to their positions were made by hand to compensate for pauses during acquisition. During this flight the photographer did not make an effort to get overlapping imagery. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 13-Feb-2017 (process 5 of 9)
    Navigation Files from GPS: Navigation files were extracted as comma-delimited American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text files. The Rockwell Collins PLGR recorded waypoint_name, projection, latitude (degrees, minute, seconds), longitude (degrees, minute, seconds), altitude, datum, heading, and elevation relative to mean sea level for the entire flight every 30 seconds; however, no time was recorded. Latitude and longitude from the Rockwell Collins PLGR navigation files were converted from degrees, minutes, and seconds to decimal degrees using a custom Perl script written by K. Morgan. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 24-Jan-2017 (process 6 of 9)
    Navigation File Interpolation from Video: Latitude, longitude (degree, decimal minutes) and time were manually extracted from the video using a custom Optical Character Recognition program written by script written by E. Dailey of the USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center. Latitude and longitude were converted to decimal degrees. Then the time was interpolated between these fixes to produce a 1-second time value record (hour:minute:second) for the entire survey and saved as the comma-separated value (CSV) file. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 13-Feb-2017 (process 7 of 9)
    Processed Navigation: The values from the 1-second time value record for the entire flight were merged with the time estimates for each image to produce a latitude, longitude and time record for each slide. The processed navigation file was saved as a comma-separated value (csv) file, 98ACH02-Photolocations.csv, using Microsoft Excel Ver. 15. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 07-Aug-2018 (process 8 of 9)
    Survey map creation: The survey maps provided in this archive were created with Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) ArcGIS 10.4 software and saved as Adobe Illustrator (*.ai) files. Survey maps were edited using Adobe Illustrator CC and exported in JPEG format. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 01-Mar-2016 (process 9 of 9)
    EXIF headers: Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) and International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) headers were populated from the command prompt using ExifTool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool) ExifTool was executed from a directory containing all photographs to be edited and a CSV file with information for each of the photographs. The metadata values for photograph creation include time, GPS latitude, GPS longitude, GPS position (latitude and longitude), keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact were added to each photograph's EXIF header using a Perl script written by K. Morgan. Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Best attempts were made to set the camera to UTC time on the GPS receivers at the beginning of each flight. The clock of the Compix Titler unit was also set to UTC at the same time. Human error during transcription of geographic position and time from the video is possible; however, no obvious errors were observed. Latitude, longitude, and time were linearly interpolated from known navigation (collected once every 30 seconds) and image time stamps (collected once every minute). Note: Latitude and longitude positions in the navigation files refer to the position of the aircraft, not the position of the landmarks photographed. Refer to the Process Steps below for more detail.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    An attempt was made to keep the same relative distance between the aircraft and the beach in order to maintain a constant field of view.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    During the flight film roll number four was incorrectly loaded into the camera. As a result, there is no data for roll number 4 in this data set. When the error was discovered, the aircraft backtracked and collection began again with film roll number 5. This dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract section. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data presented in this publication include the digitally scanned analog slide photographs in JPEG format with the Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) headers embedded with the individual photograph's location along the flight path of the baseline coastal oblique aerial photographic survey of the coast, taken from Fenwick Island State Park, Delaware, to Corolla, North Carolina. This mission was flown on March 27, 1998, aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HH60 Helicopter, tail number HH6002 aircraft. Crew members of the USGS in St. Petersburg, FL, included M. Dennis Krohn, Russell Peterson, and Dana Wiese; and Lt. Tam Fletch (pilot) of the U.S. Coast Guard. The GPS receiver used to provide navigation to the video titler unit was a Trimble Centurion, which is accurate to within 100 feet. Independent of all other equipment, a Rockwell Collins Precision Lightweight Global Positioning System Receiver unit, also accurate to within 100 feet, recorded navigation fixes. An attempt was made to keep the same relative distance between the aircraft and the beach in order to maintain a constant field of view. Still photography was collected along the coast during this survey. GPS Data Collection—Instrument: Trimble Centurion and Rockwell Collins Precision Lightweight Global Positioning System Receiver (PLGR), Data Collection Interval: 30 Seconds, Data File Format: Text, Number of files created: 1; Trimble data: recorded on video tape, PLGR data: text file, Computer/Software: none. The GPS units were used to record navigation fixes of the aircraft, not the position of the features imaged.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Karen L.M. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data were processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: CSV: Comma-separated values files representing table information collected during the flight. JPEG: Digitally scanned images of 35-mm analog slides. Images can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer. TXT: ASCII formatted metadata files. XML: Extensible Markup Language formatted metadata files. in format CSV, JPEG, TXT, XML
      Network links: https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7S75DHR
    • Cost to order the data: None.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 02-Nov-2018
Metadata author:
Karen L.M. Morgan
USGS
Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

727-502-8000 (voice)
kmorgan@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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