Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014)

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014)
Scientists from the South West Florida Management District (SWFWMD) acquired and analyzed over 20 years of seasonally-sampled hydrochemical data from five first-order-magnitude (springs that discharge 2.83 m3 s-1 or more) coastal springs located in west-central Florida. These data were subsequently obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for further analyses and interpretation. The spring study sites (Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, Kings Bay, Rainbow, and Weeki Wachee), which are fed by the Floridan Aquifer system and discharge into the Gulf of Mexico were investigated to identify temporal and spatial trends of pH, alkalinity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 flux.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Barrera, Kira, and Robbins, Lisa, 20170217, Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014): U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F7WW7FVW, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.949523926065
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.378234863587
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 29.12778958461
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 28.221744489074
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1991
    Ending_Date: 2014
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    SpringsCoastCarbonateData.csv, SpringsCoastCarbonateData.xlsx
    Southwest Florida Water Management District hydrochemical data aggregated by spring group and season from 1991-2014 (Source: USGS)
    Site Id
    The name of the sample collection location (Source: USGS) A textual identifier of the sample collection location, denoted as either: spring group (Weeki Wachee, Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, Kings Bay, Rainbow), or coastal site.
    The year and season of sample collection: (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:The year and season of sample collection: 1 = winter, 2 = spring, 3 = summer, 4 = fall
    Calcium (Dissolved) mg/L
    The concentration of calcium in a water sample, measured in milligrams per liter (mg/l) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:milligrams per liter (mg/l)
    Nitrate-Nitrite (N) mg/L
    The concentration of Nitrate-Nitrite in a water sample, measured in milligrams per liter (mg/l) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:milligrams per liter (mg/l), value of -9999 denotes data not collected
    pH (Total) SU
    The acidity of a water sample on the seawater scale (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Standard Units (SU)
    Alkalinity (Total) umol/kg
    A measure of the total buffering capacity of water (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:micromoles per kilogram of seawater (umol/kg)
    Temperature (Total) Deg. (C)
    The in situ temperature of a water sample (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Degrees Celsius (C)
    Salinity (psu)
    A measure of the salinity of a water sample (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Practical salinity units (psu)
    Atmospheric CO2 (ppm)
    A measure of the concentration of CO2 in the air (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Parts per million (ppm)
    Wind AVG (mph)
    Average wind speed (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Miles per hour (mph)
    pCO2 (microatm)
    A measure of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in gas phase in equilibrium with a water sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Microatmospheres (microatm)
    CO2 Flux (mmol/m2/d)
    A measure of carbon dioxide gas exchange between air-water interface (Source: USGS)
    Range of values

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Kira Barrera
    • Lisa Robbins
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Kira Barrera
    US Geological Survey
    600 4th St. South
    St. Petersburg, Fl

    727-502-8044 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

The goal of this research was to determine whether the spring systems demonstrate significant changes in carbonate system parameters through time and space, and to identify the potential effects of spring-fed discharge into the Gulf of Mexico.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2015 (process 1 of 6)
    Spring hydrochemical data were collected and analyzed by the South West Florida Management District (SWFWMD) and then subsequently obtained by the USGS from the Water Management Information System (WMIS) database ( Hydrochemical data from stations associated with each of the five study springs and coastal study sites were aggregated by site, and subsequently aggregated seasonally. Spring stations that were sampled at irregular intervals throughout the study period were excluded from analysis. Spring water temperature was the only parameter with occasional missing values. Missing values were estimated by averaging the three most recent seasonal equivalents.
    Date: 2015 (process 2 of 6)
    Meteorological data (temperature and wind speed) was obtained from the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) database (
    Date: 2015 (process 3 of 6)
    Atmospheric CO2 measurements from the Mauna Loa Observatory were obtained (
    Date: 2015 (process 4 of 6)
    The partial pressure of CO2 was calculated using the inputs of total alkalinity (TA) and pHTotal pairs (converted from pHNBS using Dickson 1984; Lewis and Wallace 1998), temperature, and salinity (converted from conductivity) using the CO2calc program v.4.0.1 (Robbins et al. 2010), the dissociation constants of carbonic acid from Millero (2010) and HSO-4 from Dickson (1990), and total borate from Uppström (1974). Air-water CO2 fluxes were also calculated utilizing CO2calc and the gas transfer velocity constant of Raymond and Cole (2001), wind speed, atmospheric pCO2 and water temperature.
    Date: 28-Mar-2018 (process 5 of 6)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized by correcting variations of theme keyword thesauri and updating/adding keywords. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Arnell S. Forde
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    Date: 13-Oct-2020 (process 6 of 6)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Barnett, V., Lewis, T., 1994, Outliers in Statistical Data: John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

    Online Links:

    Dickson, A. G., 1984, pH scales and proton-transfer reactions in saline media such as sea water: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Online.

    Online Links:

    Dickson, A. G., 1990, Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15 K: Deep Sea Research, Online.

    Online Links:

    Lewis, E., and D. W. R. Wallace, 1998, Program developed for CO2 system calculations: ORNL/CDIAC-105, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.

    Online Links:

    Robbins, L. L., M. E.Hansen, J. A. Kleypas, and S. C. Meylan, 1998, CO2calc:A user-friendly seawater carbon calculator for windows, Max Os X, and iOS (iPhone): USGS., Online.

    Online Links:

    Millero, F. J., 2010, Carbonate constants for estuarine waters: Marine and Freshwater Research, Online.

    Online Links:

    Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole., 2001, Gas exchange in rivers and estuaries: choosing a gas transfer velocity: Estuaries and Coasts, Online.

    Online Links:

    Uppström, L. R., 1974, The boron/chlorinity ratio of deep- sea water from the Pacific Ocean: Research Oceanography, Online.

    Online Links:

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Utilizing the empirical rule (Barnett and Lewis, 1994), as a method for quality assurance and control of data, those values greater than three standard deviations from the mean were identified as outliers and removed from the dataset.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data set is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Kira Barrera
    600 4th St. South
    St. Petersburg, Fl

    727-502-8044 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? SpringsCoastCarbonateData.csv, SpringsCoastCarbonateData.xlsx
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 13-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
Kira Barrera
US Geological Survey
Physical Scientist
600 4th St. N
St. Petersburg, Fl

727-502-8044 (voice)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:18:32 2021