Photomicrograph Images of Sediment Samples Collected at Crocker Reef, Florida, 2013-2014

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Photomicrograph Images of Sediment Samples Collected at Crocker Reef, Florida, 2013-2014
Abstract:
Understanding the processes that govern whether a coral reef is accreting (growing) or dissolving are fundamental to questions of reef health and resiliency. A total of 52 surficial sediment samples were collected within a 1-km x 1-km area around Crocker Reef in the Florida Keys, USA, between 2013 and 2014. Samples 1-35 were collected in July 2013 and samples 36-52 were collected in July 2014. The samples were processed using conventional, published techniques (see process step section) to yield grain size and mineralogical data. The dataset, CRKR2013-2014_SEDIMENT_Images.zip contains photomicrograph images that correspond to each sediment sample. These images also include additional, survey-specific EXchangable Image File format (EXIF) header information.
Supplemental_Information:
Sediment analyses, except for mineralogy, were performed at the Eckerd College Sedimentology Laboratory by Christopher S. Moore under the guidance of Dr. Gregg Brooks (see Poppe et al., Gibbs 1974, Folk 1965, Milliman 1974, and Dean 1974 listed in Cross Reference section). Mineralogical analyses were performed under the direction of Dr. William Benzel at the USGS Central Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center, located in Denver, Colorado. The data were collected under Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary permit FKNMS-2013-097.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 20161104, Photomicrograph Images of Sediment Samples Collected at Crocker Reef, Florida, 2013-2014: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F7V40SBR, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.5359189100
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.5209581100
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.9167055000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.9033566400
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 20-Jul-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Image
      This is a Raster data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983 (2011).
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Sediment sample photomicrographs: Each image is saved in a Portable Network Graphics(.png) format, and ranges in size from 0.7 MG to 1.5 MG. Each image EXIF header contains: GPSLatitude, GPSLongitude, GPSDateStamp, GPSLatitudeRef, GPSLongitudeRef, Artist, Copyright, Comment, CopyrightNotice, Credit, Contact, Keywords, and Caption. Information is duplicated in some tags. This was done because different software packages access different tags.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    To extract the information from the image headers using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 10.2.5.0): exiftool -csv -f -filename -GPSDateStamp -GPSLongitude -GPSLatitude -n -Artist -Credit -Comment -Keywords -Caption -Copyright -CopyrightNotice -Contact directoryname/*.jpg > out.csv. The -csv flag writes the information out in a comma-delimited format. The -n option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Acknowledgment of the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected. Sharing of new data layers developed directly from these data would also be appreciated by the U.S. Geological Survey staff. Users should be aware that comparisons with other datasets for the same area from other periods may be inaccurate because of inconsistencies resulting from changes in photointerpretation, mapping conventions, and digital processes over time. These data are not legal documents and are not to be used as such.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    David Zawada
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8132 (voice)
    727 502-8181 (FAX)
    dzawada@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET

Why was the data set created?

Sediment data were collected to support the Reefscape Characterization task of the USGS Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/), which is focused on geochemical, geologic, and metabolic processes that affect carbonate precipitation and dissolution of coral reefs. Benthic composition, topographic relief, areal extent, and temporal stability are critical factors that contribute to the value of a given marine habitat. To provide context for the data collected in the other tasks, the focus of this task is to characterize physical aspects of the project study sites. Characterizations of the Crocker Reef study area include a habitat classification map, sediment distribution, and vertical temperature profiles. Sediment samples were acquired during USGS field activity number 13CRE02 in 2013 and 2014-315-FA in 2014.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 20-Jul-2013 (process 1 of 5)
    Samples were collected by hand while SCUBA diving and placed in sealable, 1-gallon-sized plastic bags. Wet samples were dehydrated to remove water and salts within 6 hours of collection by rinsing with 95% denatured alcohol, allowing samples to settle, decanting the alcohol, and repeating this process two additional times. Samples were then allowed to air dry prior to analysis for grain size and composition. Person who carried out this activity:
    Dave Zawada
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8132 (voice)
    dzawada@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET
    Date: 07-Aug-2013 (process 2 of 5)
    Grain size was measured via settling-tube for sand-sized fractions (Gibbs, 1974), and pipette for mud-sized fractions (Folk, 1965). Calcium carbonate content was determined by the acid leaching method (Milliman, 1974). Total organic matter (TOM) was measured by loss on ignition (LOI) at 550 degrees Celsius for > 2.5 hours (Dean, 1974). Person who carried out this activity:
    Kimberly Yates
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8059 (voice)
    dzawada@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 10:00-6:00 ET
    Date: 01-Mar-2014 (process 3 of 5)
    X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to determine the mineralogy of the sediment samples. Photomicrographs were also taken of each sample. Person who carried out this activity:
    William Benzel
    U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO
    Physical Scientist
    Bldg. 810, Entrance E-11, MS - 973
    Denver, CO
    USA

    303 236-2444 (voice)
    wbenzel@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 MT
    Date: 16-Sep-2016 (process 4 of 5)
    Additional Exif header information was added to images using ExifTool by Phil Harvey (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil.exiftool). A Java program was developed by USGS staff to make the Exif header editing process faster and more automated. The tags used to populate the headers are: GPSLatitude, GPSLongitude, GPSDateStamp, GPSLatitudeRef, GPSLongitudeRef, Artist, Copyright, Comment, CopyrightNotice, Credit, Contact, Keywords, and Caption Person who carried out this activity:
    Dave Zawada
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8132 (voice)
    dzawada@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET
    Date: 03-Oct-2016 (process 5 of 5)
    Metadata created in Notepad++. Person who carried out this activity:
    Dave Zawada
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8132 (voice)
    dzawada@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Poppe, L.J., Eliason, A.H., Fredericks, J.J., Rendigs, R.R., Blackwood, D., and Polloni, C.F., 2000, Chapter 1: Grain-Size Analysis of Marine Sediments-Methodology and Data Processing: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-358.

    Online Links:

    Dean, W.E., 1974, Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition: comparison with other methods: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology v. 44, no. 1, p. 242-248.

    Online Links:

    Folk, R.L., 1965, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks: Hemphill Publishing Company Austin p. 37-38.

    Gibbs, R.J., 1974, A settling tube for sand-sized analysis: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology v. 44, no. 2, 583-588.

    Milliman, J.D., 1974, Marine Carbonates: Recent sedimentary carbonates, pt. 1 N/A, Springer, New York, NY.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    GPS positional data were collected with a Garmin GPSMAP 1040xs receiver. Manufacturer specifies an accuracy to within 15 meters 95% of the time and within 5 to 10 meters (16 to 33 feet) under normal conditions.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Within 15 m
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the dataset has either not been conducted, or is not applicable
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All collected sediment samples were analyzed and results reported in this data release.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data cover area specified for this project without known issues.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Dave Zawada
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727 502-8132 (voice)
    Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? CRKR2013-2014_SEDIMENT_Images.zip
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. Is there some other way to get the data?
    Contact U.S. Geological Survey for details.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 26-Mar-2019
Metadata author:
Dave Zawada
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
Research Oceanographer
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

727 502-8132 (voice)
dzawada@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: M-F, 9:00-5:00 ET
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/CRKR2013-2014_SEDIMENT_IMG_metadata.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Tue Mar 26 11:06:58 2019