Data for evaluating the Sr/Ca temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Data for evaluating the Sr/Ca temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea
Abstract:
Massive corals are used as environmental recorders throughout the tropics and subtropics to study environmental variability during time periods preceding ocean-observing instrumentation. However, careful testing of paleoproxies is necessary to validate the environmental-proxy record throughout a range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Ecosystems Studies project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/), we tested the hypothesis that the coral Siderastrea siderea faithfully records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the Sr/Ca record throughout the subtropical (Florida, USA) seasonal cycle along 350 km of reef tract. The datasets included in this data release are comprised of data collected between 2009 and 2013. Coral samples were analyzed from thirty-nine corals growing in 3- to 4-meter water depths at Fowey Rocks (Biscayne National Park), Molasses Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, FKNMS), Sombrero Reef (FKNMS), and Pulaski Shoal (Dry Tortugas National Park). Temperatures were recorded with Onset® HOBO® Water Temp Pro V2 (U22-001) data loggers in duplicate at each site. Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, calcification rate, and select underwater temperature data are provided here. The results of this experiment are interpreted in Kuffner et al. (in review). A larger temperature dataset, including the data provided here, is found in another data release Kuffner (2015), and a larger calcification-rate dataset is interpreted in Kuffner et al. (2013).
Supplemental_Information:
Scientific research permits: The data collected under the Biscayne National Park permits: BISC-2009-SCI-0019; BISC-2010-SCI-0035; BISC-2011-SCI-0025; accession number BISC-228. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary permits: FKNMS-2008-062-A1; FKNMS-2010-068; FKNMS-2010-122. Dry Tortugas National Park permits: DRTO-2009-SCI-0009; DRT0-2011-SCI-0004; accession number DRTO-274. To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS field activity number (FAN): 09CBC01, 09CBC02, 09CBC03, 09CBC04, 09CBC05, 10CBC01, 10CBC02, 10CBC03, 10CBC04, 11CBC01, 11CBC02, 11CBC03, 12CBC02, 12CBC03, 12CBC04, 13CBC01, 13CBC02. Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Kuffner, Ilsa B., 20161103, Data for evaluating the Sr/Ca temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F7XP732P, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Kuffner, Ilsa B., Roberts, Kelsey E., Flannery, Jennifer A., Morrison, Jennifer M., and Richey, Julie N., Unpublished material, Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (G-Cubed) 2016-Volume 20, Issue 11.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.7728
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.0956
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.59047
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.62687
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 16-Aug-2009
    Ending_Date: 15-May-2012
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Growth_SST_Sr_Mg_39_corals.csv, Growth_SST_Sr_Mg_39_corals.xlsx
    These files contain attribute information for the dataset evaluating the Sr/Ca temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea including coral growth rates, underwater temperature where coral was growing, and mean values for geochemical data. To view the data in a tab-delimited format arranged by column, please use the Excel spreadsheet. (Source: USGS)
    Coral_ID
    Coral identification number (Source: USGS) Coral identification numbers were arbitrarily assigned.
    Site
    Site name is a three-letter abbreviation for the off-shore reef in the Florida Keys where the coral was grown during the study (Source: USGS) FWY = Fowey Rocks, MLR = Molasses Reef, SMK = Sombrero Key Reef, and PLS = Pulaski Shoal
    LE_dye
    Linear extension rate (mm / year) measured with alizarin Red S staining (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.4
    Maximum:5.0
    Units:millimeters per year (mm / year)
    LE_geo
    Linear extension rate (mm / year) measured using geochemical data (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.7
    Maximum:5.4
    Units:millimeters per year (mm/year)
    Cal_avg
    Annual average calcification rate (mg / day / cm2 planar surface area) measured by buoyant weight (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.40
    Maximum:6.53
    Units:Milligrams per day per square centimeter of planar surface area (mg / day / cm2)
    MgCa
    Mean magnesium to calcium ratio (mmol Mg / mol Ca) during year between stain lines (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.22
    Maximum:5.70
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of magnesium to moles of calcium (mmol Mg / mol Ca)
    SrCa
    Mean strontium to calcium ratio (mmol Sr / mol Ca) during year between stain lines (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.82
    Maximum:9.22
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of strontium to moles of calcium (mmol Sr / mol Ca)
    Sr_max
    Maximum strontium to calcium ratio (mmol Sr / mol Ca) during year between stain lines (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.97
    Maximum:9.34
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of strontium to moles of calcium (mmol Sr / mol Ca)
    Sr_min
    Minimum strontium to calcium ratio (mmol Sr / mol Ca) during year between stain lines (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.69
    Maximum:9.16
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of strontium to moles of calcium (mmol Sr / mol Ca)
    SST_avg
    Mean sea-surface temperature at coral location during year between stain lines (degree Celsius) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25.4
    Maximum:27.0
    Units:Celsius
    SST_min
    Minimum monthly sea-surface temperature at coral location during year between stain lines (degree Celsius) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.3
    Maximum:23.6
    Units:Celsius
    SST_max
    Maximum monthly sea-surface temperature at coral location during year between stain lines (degree Celsius) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:30.1
    Maximum:31.0
    Units:Celsius
    PassQA
    Answer to question “did coral pass quality control assessment” (yes or no) (Source: USGS) Answer to question “did coral pass quality assessment (QA)” (yes or no). Reason for not passing QA is either geochemical and or photographic evidence of diagenesis (e.g., secondary calcification) or linear extension rate below 1.66 mm per year.
    SrCa_MgCa_all_drill_paths.csv, SrCa_MgCa_all_drill_paths.xlsx
    These files contain attribute information for the dataset evaluating the Sr/Ca temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea and include coral geochemical data for all drill paths. When viewing, SrCa_MgCa_all_drill_paths.csv, please note that “NAN” stands for “not a number” (value was deemed erroneous and omitted). To view the data in a tab-delimited format arranged by column, please use the Excel spreadsheet. (Source: USGS)
    Coral_ID
    Coral identification number (Source: USGS) Coral identification numbers were arbitrarily assigned.
    Site
    Site where coral was growing during the study (FWY = Fowey Rocks, MLR = Molasses Reef, SMK = Sombrero Key Reef, and PLS = Pulaski Shoal) (Source: USGS) FWY = Fowey Rocks, MLR = Molasses Reef, SMK = Sombrero Key Reef, and PLS = Pulaski Shoal
    Drill_path_number
    Drill path number is an arbitrarily assigned number for a particular sequence of drilling points across the coral slab. (Source: USGS) There were up to three drilling paths per coral slab arbitrarily labeled "1," "2," and "3."
    Date_est
    Estimated date (decimal year) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2009.542
    Maximum:2012.458
    Units:Year to the nearest one-hundredth decimal place. The geochemical values corresponding to these points in time represent approximately two weeks to two months of coral growth, depending upon the number of samples per annual growth band.
    SrCa_mmol_mol
    Strontium to calcium ratio (mmol Sr / mol Ca); NAN = “not a number” (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.672
    Maximum:9.352
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of strontium to moles of calcium (mmol Sr / mol Ca)
    MgCa_mmol_mol
    Magnesium to calcium ratio (mmol Mg / mol Ca); NAN = “not a number” (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.765
    Maximum:11.661
    Units:Ratio of millimoles of magnesium to moles of calcium (mmol Mg / mol Ca)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The entity and attribute information provided here describes the tabular data associated with the dataset. Please review the detailed descriptions that are provided (the individual attribute descriptions) for information on the values that appear as fields/table entries of the dataset.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    The entity and attribute information was generated by the individual and/or agency identified as the originator of the dataset. Please review the rest of the metadata record for additional details and information.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Ilsa B. Kuffner
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Acknowledgment of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL
    U.S.A.

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Data were obtained to test the hypothesis that the coral Siderastrea siderea faithfully records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the Sr/Ca record throughout the subtropical (Florida, USA) seasonal cycle along a 350-km longitudinal gradient. These data will be used to improve quality control protocols for using Sr/Ca as a proxy for sea-surface temperatures and the inferences about past climate variability that are the product of these types of studies.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 01-May-2011 (process 1 of 1)
    The United States Geological Survey collected the Siderastrea siderea coral slabs used in this study in May 2011 and May 2013. Coral colonies with ID numbers in the 100s were monitored for growth from summer 2010 to May 2011. Corals with ID numbers in the 200s were monitored from May 2011 to May 2013. Mean calcification rates were quantified by weighing the corals using the buoyant weight technique (see Kuffner et al. 2013) every spring and autumn. Corals were stained with alizarin Red S to mark annual timestamps in the skeletons. At the end of monitoring, 4-mm slabs were sliced from the central growth axis of each coral. Annual linear extension rates were determined by scanning the slabs on a flatbed scanner and using iSolution Capture® version 3.1 image analysis software (IMTi-Solution Inc., Vancover, BC Canada) to measure the distance between the stain lines and distance from the last stain line to the surface of the coral. Linear extension rate data reported here are means of the two years adjusted to a 365-day year. Linear extension rate estimated using the geochemical (Sr/Ca) data was calculated by averaging the distances (mm) between the Sr/Ca maxima (corresponding with lowest estimated temperatures). Coral slabs underwent quality assessment for evidence of diagenesis (e.g., secondary calcification) and low growth rates, and those that did not pass were removed from the study (see Kuffner et al. [in review] for details). Subsampling of coral slabs for estimating Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca values was done using a tri-axial micromill by removing skeletal samples along a continuous thecal wall with a 0.5 mm drill-bit and 0.5 mm forward increment. Between 88 and 237 μg of subsampled skeletal powder was weighed out for each sample from each of the corals and was acidified using ultrapure 2% HNO3 in order to obtain sample solutions with a target Ca concentration of 20 ppm. A PerkinElmer 7300 dual view inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to make the Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca determinations. The average corrected internal gravimetric standard (IGS) precision was at or better than 0.013 mmol per mol for Sr/Ca, and 0.046 mmol per mol for Mg/Ca. The Sr/Ca records were converted to SST using the calibration equation Sr/Ca = -0.043*SST + 10.11. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jennifer Flannery
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Geology Science Center
    Chemist
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, Florida
    U.S.A.

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    jflannery@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Kuffner, Ilsa B., Roberts, Kelsey E., Flannery, Jennifer A., Morrison, Jennifer M., and Richey, Julie N., Unpublished material, Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (G-Cubed) 2016-Volume 20, Issue 11.

    Online Links:

    • 10.1002/ggge.xxxxx

    Kuffner, I.B., T.D. Hickey, and J.M. Morrison, 2013, Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract: Coral Reefs Volume 32, pages 987-997.

    Online Links:

    Kuffner, I. B., 2015, Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.: Lancet U.S. Geological Survey data release doi: 10.5066/F71C1TZK.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL
    U.S.A.

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Growth_SST_Sr_Mg_39_corals.csv, Growth_SST_Sr_Mg_39_corals.xlsx, SrCa_MgCa_all_drill_paths.csv, SrCa_MgCa_all_drill_paths.xlsx
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 18-Mar-2019
Metadata author:
Ilsa B. Kuffner
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Research Marine Biologist
600 4th Street South
Saint Petersburg, Florida
U.S.A.

727-502-8048 (voice)
ikuffner@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/Coral_growth_geochem_metadata.faq.html>
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