P25_Oct2012_Oct2014: Hurricane Sandy Beach Response and Recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and Beach Profile Data, October 2012 to October 2014.

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
P25_Oct2012_Oct2014: Hurricane Sandy Beach Response and Recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and Beach Profile Data, October 2012 to October 2014.
Abstract:
This spreadsheet consists of Fire Island, NY pre- and post- storm cross-shore profiles collected from October 2012 to October 2014. This dataset contains a set of cross-shore profiles covering 16 dates from October 28 2012 to October 07 2014. As part of the assessment of beach and dune morphologic change associated with Hurricane Sandy and the series of winter storms that followed, DGPS elevation data were collected along ten shore-perpendicular profiles extending from just inland of the crest of the dune to the low-tide swash zone. Profile elevations were surveyed one day prior to landfall (October 28, 2012), three and four days immediately after the storm (November 01/02 2012), and at monthly and bi-monthly intervals for 24 months (to October 2014) in order to capture both the initial impact of the event and the ongoing recovery of the beach system. Monitoring is ongoing, and this data series will be updated as future surveys are completed.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 20150325, P25_Oct2012_Oct2014: Hurricane Sandy Beach Response and Recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and Beach Profile Data, October 2012 to October 2014.: USGS Data Series Publication DS 931, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: None
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Hapke, Cheryl J., Brenner, Owen, Hehre, Rachel, and Reynolds, B.J., 20130827, Coastal Change from Hurricane Sandy and the 2012-13 Winter Storm Season-Fire Island, New York: USGS Open File Report 2013-1231, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Hapke, C.J., Brenner, Owen, Hehre, Rachel, and Reynolds, B.J., 2013, Coastal change from Hurricane Sandy and the 2012-13 winter storm season-Fire Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20131231, 37 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1231/.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.986157
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.985514
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.690380
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.689523
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 28-Oct-2012
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Transverse Mercator.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    P25_Oct2012_Oct2014
    Cross-shore profile data (Source: USGS)
    Date
    Date of elevation survey in the format mm/dd/yyyy. (Source: USGS) Character string of length 10
    Elevation (m NAVD88)
    Elevation of the data point in meters above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.68
    Maximum:6.84
    Distance Along Profile (m)
    Distance of point data along a cross-shore profile. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.49
    Maximum:106.52

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mounted a substantial effort in response to Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) including an assessment of the morphological impacts to the beach and dune system at Fire Island, New York. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after U.S. landfall were used to quantify change in several focus areas.
In conjunction with the recurrent continuous alongshore data, cross-shore profile surveys were collected to assess the positional changes to dune, beach, and swash zone morphology and to calculate beach volume and volume change. Beach volumes were calculated by integrating the area below each profile using the lowest elevation value common to all surveys at each profile.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    DGPS DATA (source 1 of 1)
    Survey, US. Geological, 20140801, FIIS DGPS data:.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Field collected cross-shore data were collected approximately along existing profile locations.
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Hapke, Cheryl J., Brenner, Owen, Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre), and Reynolds, B.J., 20130827, Coastal Change from Hurricane Sandy and the 2012-13 Winter Storm Season: Fire Island, New York: USGS Open File Report 2013-1231, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Hapke, C.J., Brenner, Owen, Hehre, Rachel, and Reynolds, B.J., 2013, Coastal change from Hurricane Sandy and the 201213 winter storm seasonFire Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20131231, 37 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1231/.
    Type_of_Source_Media: .csv file
    Source_Contribution:
    Tabular DGPS data (collected in ASCII format) was converted to vector digital data and edited using ESRI ArcMap v 10.0 to publish cross-shore profile data relatable to a existing set of cross-shore profiles.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 01-Aug-2014 (process 1 of 6)
    FIELD COLLECTED DATA TO SHAPEFILE CONVERSION
    (1)For each date/series of cross-shore data points, import tabular data into ArcMap: File >> Add Data >> Add XY Data
    (2)Select X:easting, Y: northing and Z:NAVD88 and lastly
    (3)The resulting file is an eventlayer; right click and export layer to a new shapefile; For example the data for October 28th 2012 is exported as Oct282012_ALL.shp For the following set of steps, profile P07, which was collected on 28 Oct 2012 will be used as an example to explain the files/steps generated. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • DGPS DATA
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • cross-shore shapefile (ex: Oct282012_ALL.shp)
    Date: 10-Aug-2014 (process 2 of 6)
    EDITS TO cCROSS-SHORE DATA
    (1)Cross-shore profiles are edited to create unique shapefiles for each date and cross-shore profile location. For example, from the file Oct282012_ALL.shp data for each profile location will be selected and exported to generate 10 new shapefiles for each profile location (P07-P11, P22-P26) ex:P07_Oct282012.shp.
    (2)From this selection, the profile data is cleaned to remove any long shore data and reduce the profile data to one continuous line (often the cross-shore data is collected in two parallel paths, both up and down the beach face).
    (3)Cross-shore data is saved as: P07_Oct282012EDITS.shp Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • cross-shore shapefile (ex: Oct282012_ALL.shp)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • edited cross-shore shapefile (ex: P07_Oct282012EDITS.shp)
    Date: 20-Aug-2014 (process 3 of 6)
    PROFILE TRANSLATION: Prior to collection, the start position of cross-shore profile data is determined using a hand held GPS with a map of an existing original profile. The field team attempts to follow the cross-shore position of this original profile. However, a review of the cross-shore data collection shows the filed collected data can vary widely (10-40m) from the original profile. So a method was developed to "translate" a distance along original profile measurements to the new cross-shore data, so all profile data (new and old) could be plotted together.
    CALCULATE DISATANCE ALONG ORIGINAL PROFILE:
    (1)Transects spaced 1m apart were generated, using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS version 4.3, Thieler et al, 2009) cast from a baseline oriented roughly parallel to the cross-shore data and perpendicular to the shoreline, such that the transects would then parallel prominent features of the beach - dune crest, berm crest etc. The transects intersect the original profile and all subsequent cross-shore profiles, covering the entire area of original and new data collection. File saved as Profile Name_trans, or P07_trans.shp
    (2)Points were created at the intersection of the original profile and the transects: ArcToolbox>>Analysis Tools>>Overlay>>Intersect>> Inputs: Original Profile and transects, Join Attributes: ALL, XY Tolerance: 0.2 m, Output Type: POINT, OUTPUT file P07_trans_intersect.shp (point shapefile).
    (3)Calculate the distance of each transect intersection point along the original profile (profiles converted to routes: Linear Referencing Tools>>Create route) Distance along route (DAR) will be calculated and saved into attribute MEAS: ArcToolbox >>Linear Referencing Tools>>Locate features along routes: Input: P07_trans_intersect.shp, Input Route Features: original profile (route), Output Event Table: P07_intersect_DAR.
    (4)Join P07_intersect_DAR table to P07_trans.shp and add a new field to P07_trans to copy MEAS to: DistalRout. This file will be used for the following steps.
    ADD DISTANCE ALONG PROFILE TO CROSS-SHORE DATA:
    (1)Use spatial join to join P07_trans.shp and the cross-shore profile data P07_Oct282012EDITS.shp into a new shapefile, P07_Oct282012dist.shp. This will merge all the attributes of each dataset together. In the process of the join, an additional field Distance is automatically added to P07_Oct282012dist.shp, which indicates the distance of the cross-shore data points to the transect. As the point spacing of the field collected data is denser than the 1m transect spacing, multiple points in P07_Oct282012dist.shp will display the same value for DistAlRout.
    (2)Open P07_Oct282012dist.dbf in Microsoft Excel, and edit to contain ONLY site, easting, northing, NAVD88, DistAlRout, and Distance. A new field Date is added to the first column, and manually entered to reflect the date of the data (ie. 10/28/2012). All other fields are deleted.
    (3)Use Excel tools (Data>>Sort) to sort the data by DistAlRout and (adding a level) Distance.
    (4)Remove duplicates(Data>>Remove Duplicates) in DistAlRout (as described there are more than one data point for each DistAlRout value) and save file as and excel 97-2003 workbook extension .xls (.xlsx can not be opened in ArcMap): P07_Oct282012dist.xls
    (5)Using ESRI ArcMap v10.0, add XY data (File>>Add Data>> Add XY data) and select P07_Oct282012dist.xls with X: easting, Y:northing and Z: NAVD88. Save resultant event layer to a new shapefile P07_28Oct2012.shp
    (6)Repeat this step for all cross-shore profile dates at each profile location.
    References: Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan, 2009, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1278. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Edited cross-shore shapefile (ex:P07_Oct282012EDITS.shp) and transect file modified with distance along original profile (ex: P07_trans.shp)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Cross-shore shapefiles with distance along original profile (ex: P07_28Oct2012.shp)
    Date: 01-Sep-2014 (process 4 of 6)
    Append all dates from each location to one shapefile: ArcToolbox>>Data Management Tools>>General>>Append: select all dates for each profile location (ex: P07_28Oct2012.shp, P07_01Nov2012.shp, P07_04Nov2012.shp, P07_01Dec2012.shp etc. to P07_29Jun2014.shp) and save to a new shapefile (ex: P07_Oct2012_Jun2012.shp) Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Cross-shore point shapefiles with distance along route for each date (ex: P07_28Oct2012.shp, P07_01Nov2012.shp, P07_04Nov2012.shp, P07_01Dec2012.shp etc. to P07_29Jun2014.shp)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Cross-shore point shapefiles for all dates (ex: P07_Oct2012_Jun2012.shp)
    Date: 01-Nov-2014 (process 5 of 6)
    Shapefiles exported from ArcCatalog and .dbf edited to reduce attributes to: Date, Elevation (m NAVD88) and Distance along Profile(m). File is then saved as a Microsoft Excel 2010 workbook, extenstion .xlsx. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727)-502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Cross-shore point shapefiles with distance along route for each date (ex: P07_28Oct2012.shp, P07_01Nov2012.shp, P07_04Nov2012.shp, P07_01Dec2012.shp etc. to P07_29Jun2014.shp)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Cross-shore point shapefiles for all dates (ex: P07_Oct2012_Jun2012.shp)
    Date: 13-Mar-2017 (process 6 of 6)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, A., 2009, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.3 - An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change: Open-File Report 2008-1278, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Current version of software at time of use was 4.3
    Morton, R. A., and Miller, T. L., 2005, National assessment of shoreline change: Part 2: Historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast: Open-File Report 2005-1401, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: none
    Hapke, C. J., Reid, D., Richmond, B. M., Ruggiero, P., and List, J., 2006, National assessment of shoreline change: Part 3: Historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the sandy shorelines of the California coast: Open-File Report 2006-1219, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: none
    Plant, N. G., Holland, K. T., and Puleo, J. A., 20021120, Analysis of the scale of errors in nearshore bathymetric data: Marine Geology Volume 191, Issues 1-2, Pages 71-86., ELSERVIER, Online.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The data provided here is a compilation of cross-shore profiles that were derived using USGS-specific field collection methods over the course of 24 months following hurricane Sandy which made landfall in New Jersey on October 29 2012. Vertical attributes were automatically generated in the field, and addtional attributes are added as needed.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    To estimate vertical uncertainties that result from slight variations in the path along which data were collected from one survey to another, a variance methodology (Plant et al., 2002) was developed by creating an interpolated continuous 2-D beach surface from the raw GPS xyz data for each survey date. Individual profile elevation data are compared to the interpolated surface and a RMSE error was calculated based on the elevation differences between the interpolated surface and the data points. Average vertical error for individual surveys ranged from 2-11cm with an average error for all surveys and profile locations of 4.9cm (RMSE = 5.3). Equipment limitations contribute an additional 1.4cm of vertical uncertainty on average for all survey dates (RMSE = 3.4), resulting in an approximate profile uncertainty of 6.3 cm for reported profile elevation data.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This cross-shore profile series is complete and contains all available segments derived from Pre- and Post-Sandy data collection efforts. These data adequately represented the cross-shore position of each transect at the time of the survey.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Cross-shore profiles were quality checked for accuracy.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    rehenderson@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data: USGS Data Series Publication 931
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This dataset contains 16 sets of cross-shore profiles, from October 28 2012 to October 07 2014 for Fire Island, NY. in format Excel file (XLSX) (version 10)
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0931/ds931_data-downloads.html
    • Cost to order the data: None


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-Mar-2017
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida
Attn: Rachel E. Henderson (Hehre)
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone (voice)
rehenderson@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1600 Eastern Time
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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