Florida Keys Corals: A Photographic Record of Changes from 1959 to 2015

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Florida Keys Corals: A Photographic Record of Changes from 1959 to 2015
Abstract:
This data release contains time-series photographs taken of corals and coral habitats in the Florida Keys between 1959 and 2015 at Carysfort Reef and Grecian Rocks (a total of six sites). The original intent was to show coral reef recovery after Hurricane Donna devastated the area in 1960. Corals, especially elkhorn and staghorn coral, grew prolifically after the storm until the late 1970s, then began to decline, with the maximum period of decline centered around 1983 and 1984. These time-series photographs, showing the same individual coral colonies year after year, document the decline in coral health observed at these locations, mirroring patterns seen region-wide across the western Atlantic. A selection of the photographs was previously published (in low resolution) in Lidz and others (2006), wherein findings and conclusions related to these data were discussed.
Lidz, B. H., Reich, C. D., Peterson, R. L., and Shinn, E. A. (2006). New maps, new information: Coral reefs of the Florida Keys. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(2), 260-282, https://doi.org/10.2112/05A-0023.1
Supplemental_Information:
ExifTool (version 4.0) was used to add the following to the header of each photograph: time of collection, GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Shinn, Eugene A., and Kuffner, Ilsa B., 20171206, Florida Keys Corals: A Photographic Record of Changes from 1959 to 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F7S46QWR, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Lidz, B.H., Reich, C.D., Peterson, R.L., and Shinn, E.A., 2006, New maps, new information: Coral reefs of the Florida Keys: Journal of Coastal Research, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.30626944
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.21159167
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.22205833
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.09450278
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1959
    Ending_Date: 2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    FL_corals-photo-record.zip
    This file contains photographic images in tagged image file format (TIFF) of the seafloor collected with underwater cameras at six sites located in two focal areas, Carysfort Reef and Grecian Rocks, approximately 10 miles off of the coast of Key Largo, Florida. The file names include the name of the site, the name of the reef area, and the calendar year when the photograph was taken. (Source: USGS)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The entity and attribute information provided here describes the photographic images associated with the dataset. Please review the description and lineage sections of this metadata record for detailed information on the content of these images.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    The entity and attribute information was generated by the individual and/or agency identified as the originator of the dataset. Please review the rest of the metadata record for additional details and information.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Eugene A. Shinn
    • Ilsa B. Kuffner
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Acknowledgment of Eugene A. Shinn and the U.S. Geological Survey as data sources would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL
    U.S.A.

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The original purpose of taking these photographs was to show coral reef recovery after Hurricane Donna devastated the area in 1960. Corals, especially elkhorn and staghorn coral, grew prolifically after the storm until the late 1970s, then began to decline, with the maximum period of decline centered around 1983 and 1984. Thus, these time-series photographs, showing the same individual coral colonies year after year, document the decline in coral health observed at these locations, mirroring patterns seen region-wide across the western Atlantic.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2015 (process 1 of 3)
    The coral-reef field sites were visited opportunistically by the first author (E.A. Shinn) and photographs were taken underwater at depths of approximately 1 to 3 meters using various underwater cameras reflecting the technology available at the time. Film photographs were developed into Kodak Kodachrome slides. Person who carried out this activity:
    Eugene A. Shinn
    University of South Florida, College of Marine Science
    140 Seventh Avenue South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-553-1158 (voice)
    eugeneshinn@mail.usf.edu
    Date: 25-Sep-2017 (process 2 of 3)
    Kodak Kodachrome slides were later digitally scanned on a Nikon Super Coolscan 5000 ED at 4,000 dots per inch (dpi) resolution (114.25 pixels per millimeter). A slide is 1.375” (35 mm) by .891” (23 mm). The digital scans and digital photographs taken in-situ were subsequently color corrected using Adobe Photoshop CC version 17.0.1 (http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop.html) and Macphun Luminar Neptune (https://macphun.com/luminar) to adjust for the truncated underwater light regime and enhance contrast and brightness. The in-situ digital images of the reef sites are included in the data release download file, FL_corals-photo-record.zip. Person who carried out this activity:
    Betsy Boynton
    Cherokee Nation Technologies contracted to U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8118 (voice)
    bboynton@usgs.gov
    Date: 25-Oct-2016 (process 3 of 3)
    EXIF headers: Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) and International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) headers were populated from the command prompt using ExifTool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool, 2012) as part of the post-survey processing using a Perl script written by Karen Morgan, USGS, St. Petersburg, FL. ExifTool added the following data to the EXIF header: time of collection, GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. Person who carried out this activity:
    Betsy Boynton
    Cherokee Nation Technologies contracted to U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8118 (voice)
    bboynton@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL
    U.S.A.

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Dec-2017
Metadata author:
Ilsa B. Kuffner
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Geology Science Center
Research Marine Biologist
600 4th Street South
Saint Petersburg, Florida
U.S.A.

727-502-8048 (voice)
ikuffner@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/FL_corals-photo-record_metadata.faq.html>
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