Title:Gulf of Mexico Sediment Trap Foraminifera Data Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a sediment trap (McLane PARFLUX 78H) mooring in the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.5 °N and 90.3°W, water depth 1150 meters [m]) in January 2008 to collect seasonal time-series data on the flux and assemblage composition of planktic foraminifers. The trap was positioned in the water column at a depth of 700 m on the mooring cable to enable the collection of deeper dwelling species of planktic foraminifera. The trap contains 21 collection cups that were programmed to rotate every 7 to 14 days (resulting in weekly to biweekly sampling resolution). Upon retrieval, samples were subsequently wet split into four aliquots using a precision rotary splitter, stored in buffered deionized water, and refrigerated. A quarter split was wet sieved over a 150-micron (μm) sieve and subsequently wet picked for all foraminifers. In samples containing fewer than 300 foraminifers in the first quarter split, an additional split was processed and picked in its entirety. The counts were then summed. All planktic foraminifers were identified to the species level. This report gives information on the raw counts and foraminifera flux (tests m−2 day−1) through May 2014. Flux was calculated based on the total number of foraminifera for each sub-sample, the fraction of the total sample used, the duration (days) the sediment trap was opened and collecting data for a given sample, and the aperture area of the sediment trap (0.5 meter-squared [m2]). The sediment trap mooring is currently deployed, and foraminifera data will be updated as new samples are processed.
Field Activity Numbers (FANs) are unique identifiers assigned by the USGS to provide more information about the activities conducted in the field for a study. Refer to the data files for a complete list of associated FANs for this data release. Please visit the Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) field activity webpage for more information about each FAN related to this dataset. To view field activity details for any of the datasets included in this data release, replace the FAN (09CEV02) in the following url with the FAN of interest (for example, 10CEV01): https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=09CEV02. This data release (Reynolds and Richey, 2023) includes data from previously published releases by Reynolds and others (2018) and Richey and others (2019). The raw counts and flux data were withdrawn from those two data releases, as the sediment trap foraminifera flux were incorrectly calculated per 0.5 m2 area instead of 1 m2. The corrected data has been provided in this data release and will continue to be updated as more samples are collected.
Reynolds, Caitlin E., and Richey, Julie N., 20230911, Gulf of Mexico Sediment Trap Foraminifera Data:.
This is part of the following larger work.
Reynolds, Caitlin E., and Richey, Julie N., 20230911, Gulf of Mexico Sediment Trap Foraminifera Data: U.S. Geological Survey data release doi:10.5066/P9O76R8R, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.
The entity and attribute descriptions for the GMT_foraminifera_data_Flux and GMT_foraminifera_data_RawCounts datasets (.xlsx and .csv) included in this data release (Reynolds and Richey, 2023) are detailed in a data dictionary (Data_Dictionary_GMT_foraminifera.docx). A copy of the data files and data dictionary are included in the data zip file (GMT_foraminifera_data.zip). These metadata are not complete without this file, and users should refer to the Data Dictionary when viewing the data files.
Originator:Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Publication_Date:2022 Title:Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:ONLINE_REFERENCE Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Washington, D.C. Publisher:Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Sediment trap studies help scientists better understand the environmental factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, ocean circulation, nutrient supply, etc.) that control the chemical composition, ecology, and life history of planktonic organisms living in the water column. These planktonic organisms, preserved in ocean sediments as microfossils or molecular fossils, can be used to reconstruct oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico over the past few centuries to the past few millions of years. Scientists at the USGS use a long-running sediment trap (since 2008) in the northern Gulf of Mexico to calibrate foraminifera, biomarker, and other micropaleontological proxies for use in climate reconstructions.
Type: field and laboratory
A McLane PARFLUX Mark 78 automated sediment trap was deployed in early January 2008 at approximately 27.5 °N and 90.3 °W, in about 1,150 meters (m) of water. The trap was positioned in the water column at a depth of 700 m on the mooring cable to guarantee the collection of deeper dwelling species of planktic foraminifers. The trap was equipped with 21 collection cups mounted on a rotating plate that was programmed to rotate every 7 to 14 days (representing a 1- or 2-week collection period). Following retrieval of samples from January 2008 to late May 2009, sample cups were filled with a buffered formalin solution made with seawater filtered at 0.44 micrometers (μm) and with an ambient salinity of approximately 33 psu (practical salinity unit). Following retrieval of samples from September 2009 through 2014, sample cups were filled with a density-gradient solution with a salinity of approximately 44 psu. Formalin (3.7 percent) and sodium borate were added to the density-gradient solution to poison and preserve the samples for all years (2008-2014) of the study. Further details on this methodology can be found in Tedesco and others (2009).
Reynolds, C.E., Richey, J.N., Fehrenbacher, J.S., Rosenheim, B.E., and Spero, H.J., 20180406, Globorotalia truncatulinoides Sediment Trap Data in the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.
Type_of_Source_Media:comma-delimited text Source_Contribution:
The G. truncatulinoides raw counts and flux dataset (Raw_Counts_and_Flux_Data.csv) was obtained from version 1.0 of the data release and the sediment trap foraminifera flux and counts were corrected to a 1 m2 area.
Richey and others (2019) (source 2 of 2)
Richey, J.N., Thirumalai, T., Khider, D., Reynolds, C.E., Partin, J., and Quinn, T.M., 20190211, Globigerinoides ruber Sediment Trap Data in the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.
Sediment-trap samples were processed and analyzed at the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C., under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were wet split into four aliquots using a precision rotary splitter, stored in buffered de-ionized water, and refrigerated.
A quarter split was wet sieved over a 150-μm sieve and subsequently wet picked for all foraminifers. In samples containing fewer than 300 foraminifers in the first quarter split, an additional quarter split was processed and picked. The counts were then summed. All planktic foraminifers were identified to species level. Species taxonomy, descriptions, photos, and references can be found online at Young and others (2017). The species counts are reported as flux in tests per square meter per day (tests m–2 day–1). Flux was calculated by multiplying the individual species counts by number of splits, then dividing by the total duration of the sampling period, which was typically 7 or 14 days, and multiplying by 2 to account for the aperture area of the sediment trap (0.5m2).
Date: 29-Jun-2023 (process 2 of 2)
The G. truncatulinoides raw counts and flux (Raw_Counts_and_Flux_Data) and the G. ruber flux datasets (G_ruber_Flux) were obtained from version 1.0 of the data releases and the sediment trap foraminifera flux and counts were corrected to a 1 m2 area. These corrected data from Reynolds and others (2018) and Richey and others (2019) were collated into this data release (Reynolds and Richey, 2023) and withdrawn from their original publications, respectively.
Data sources used in this process:
Tedesco, K.A., Spear, J.W., Tappa, Eric, and Poore, R.Z., 2009, Seasonal Flux and Assemblage Composition of Planktic Foraminifera from the Northern Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1293, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
How accurate are the geographic locations?
The geographic location of the sediment trap and seawater samples were obtained using a Global Positioning System (GPS) aboard a research vessel. A formal accuracy assessment of the horizontal positional information in the data set has not been conducted or is unknown.
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product name is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.