2008-2017 Globigerinoides ruber Sediment Trap Data Collected from the Gulf of Mexico

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
2008-2017 Globigerinoides ruber Sediment Trap Data Collected from the Gulf of Mexico
Abstract:
This data release includes results of a high-resolution (1–2 weeks) and long-term sediment trap time series collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico. This dataset allows for a detailed assessment of the seasonal distribution, size, morphological variability and geochemistry of co-occurring pink and white chromotypes of the shallow-water foraminifera, Globigerinoides ruber. The flux of both chromotypes is highly correlated, and both represent mean annual conditions in the marine surface mixed layer. Under modern climatic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico, USGS researchers found no significant offset in the Magnesium/Calcium (Mg/Ca) and delta Oxygen-18 (d18O) of co-occurring pink and white G. ruber (Richey and others, 2019). Furthermore, findings show the d18O and delta Carbon-13 (d13C) among the two morphotypes (sensu stricto and sensu lato) of both pink and white G. ruber to be indistinguishable. The test size distribution within the population varies seasonally, with the abundance of large individuals increasing (decreasing) in summer (winter).
Supplemental_Information:
To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS FAN: 08CEV01–08CEV04, 09CEV01, 09CEV02, 10CEV01, 10CEV04, 11CEV01, 11CEV03, 12CEV01, 12CEV02, 13CEV01, 13CEV03, 2015-302-FA, 2015-334-FA, 2016-320-FA, 2017-302-FA, and 2017-349-FA. Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Reynolds, Caitlin, 20190211, 2008-2017 Globigerinoides ruber Sediment Trap Data Collected from the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/P9KK7UD6, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Richey, Julie N., Thirumalai, Kaustubh, Khider, Deborah, Reynolds, Caitlin E., Partin, Judson W., and Quinn, Terrence M., 20190206, Considerations for Globigerinoides ruber (White and Pink) Paleoceanography: Comprehensive Insights From a Long‐Running Sediment Trap: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Volume34, Issue3, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C..

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -90.3
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -90.3
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.5
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.5
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 07-Jan-2008
    Ending_Date: 10-Dec-2017
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Mixed_Layer_d18Osw-salinity.csv
    Comma Separated Values (CSV) file containing delta Oxygen-18 (d18O) and salinity attribute information for the surface mixed layer samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico between 2008 and 2017. (Source: USGS)
    Cruise
    Gulf of Mexico sediment trap cruise number. Each cruise is assigned a number 1-20. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:GMT 1
    Maximum:GMT 20
    Water Depth (m)
    Measured depth of water, in meters (m), from the surface down to the seafloor. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:109
    Date
    Date, in M/D/YY format, when samples were collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1/7/08
    Maximum:12/10/17
    Salinity (psu)
    Salinity, measured in practical salinity units (PSU). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:34.42
    Maximum:36.54
    d18Osw
    Calculated d18O of seawater. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.74
    Maximum:1.48
    1s d18Osw
    1 sigma of calculated d18O of seawater. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.10
    Entire_Water_Column_d18Osw-salinity.csv
    CSV file containing delta Oxygen-18 (d18O) and salinity attribute information associated with the entire water column. (Source: USGS)
    Cruise
    Gulf of Mexico sediment trap cruise number. Each cruise is assigned a number 1-20. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:GMT 1
    Maximum:GMT 20
    Water Depth (m)
    Measured depth of water (m). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:1142
    Date
    Date sample collected in M/D/YY (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1/7/08
    Maximum:12/10/17
    Salinity (psu)
    Salinity, measured in psu. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:34.42
    Maximum:36.76
    d18Osw
    Calculated d18O of seawater. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.09
    Maximum:1.48
    1s d18Osw
    1 sigma of calculated d18O of seawater. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0.26
    Down_Core_G_ruber_geochem.csv
    Table containing Globigerinoides ruber geochemistry (delta Oxygen-18 and delta Carbon-13) attribute information from sediment trap samples collected within the Gulf of Mexico. Note that multicores were collected and analyzed in October 2013 prior to this data release, associated FAN is 13CEV03. (Source: USGS)
    Foraminifer
    Co-occurring chromotypes of the shallow-water foraminifera, Globigerinoides ruber where collected and assessed from sediment data acquired during various surveys. G. ruber pink or G. ruber white were used in each analysis. (Source: USGS) Refers to the specific type of foraminifer used.
    Depth (cm)
    Depth, in centimeters (cm), of core sampled, from October 2014, associated FAN is 13CEV03. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.25
    Maximum:4.75
    Year
    Year sediment sample was deposited based on radio carbon dating of the G. ruber shell. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1942
    Maximum:2011
    Number of Samples
    Number of samples used for analysis (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:4
    Mean Mg/Ca
    Mean of measured Mg/Ca in mmol/mol (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.56
    Maximum:5.01
    1s Mg/Ca
    1 sigma of measured Mg/Ca in mmol/mol. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0.36
    Mean d13Cc
    Mean measured d13C of carbonate (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.34
    Maximum:1.42
    1s d13Cc
    1 sigma of measured d13C of carbonate. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.57
    Mean d18Oc
    Mean measured d18O of carbonate (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.67
    Maximum:-0.96
    1s d18Oc
    1 sigma of measured d18O of carbonate. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.47
    G_ruber_MgCa.csv
    Calculated Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) for each associated foraminifer. (Source: USGS)
    Foraminifer
    Refers to G. ruber white or G. ruber pink foraminerifa specimens used for analysis. (Source: USGS) Refers to the specific type of foraminifer used.
    Trap Date
    Mid-week date the sediment trap samples were collected in M/D/YY format. nan represents no data were collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3/17/10
    Maximum:1/8/13
    Days
    Total number of days the sediment trap was open and collecting samples. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:77
    Schrag Mg/Ca (mMol/Mol)
    Measured Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) Schrag corrected. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.15
    Maximum:6.73
    G_ruber_Isotopes.csv
    Isotopic measurements of d13C and d18O for each individual foraminifer from the Gulf of Mexico sediment trap. (Source: USGS)
    Foraminifer
    Indicates if G. ruber pink or G. ruber white was used in analysis. (Source: USGS) Refers to the specific type of foraminifer used.
    Date
    The mid-week collection date when sediment trap samples were collected. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1/31/10
    Maximum:11/24/12
    # Days
    Total number of days the sediment trap was opened and collecting samples. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:78
    d13C PDB
    Measured d13C of the samples. PDB represents Pee Dee Belemnite. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.73
    Maximum:1.04
    d18O PDB
    Measured d18O of the samples. PDB represents Pee Dee Belemnite. nan represents no data collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-3.03
    Maximum:-0.24
    G_ruber_Flux.csv
    Data for all G. ruber pink and white including raw count of individuals, percent of the total assemblage, and flux (tests per meter squared per day). (Source: USGS)
    GMT Cruise
    Sediment trap cruise number (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:14
    Cup
    Sediment trap cup number (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:21
    Days
    Number of days sediment trap cups were left open (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:18
    Mid-Week Date
    Mid-week date of sediment trap collection in D/MM/YY (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1/18/08
    Maximum:5/25/14
    G. ruber pink Percent of Total Assemblage (%)
    Total percent of foraminifers in sediment trap sample (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:60
    G. ruber white Percent of Total Assemblage (%)
    Total percent of foraminifers in sediment trap sample (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:42
    G. ruber pink Flux (tests m-2day-1)
    Total flux of foraminifers in sediment trap sample. The flux, tests m-2day-1, represents tests per meter squared per day. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:191
    G. ruber white Flux (tests m-2day-1)
    Total flux of foraminifers in sediment trap sample. The flux, tests m-2day-1, represents tests per meter squared per day. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:238
    CTD_Data.csv
    CTD data collected at the Gulf of Mexico sediment trap site, temperature (°C), salinity (psu), and oxygen (mg/l) with depth. (Source: USGS)
    Date
    Date of CTD collection on M/D/YY (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1/7/08
    Maximum:6/2/14
    Depth (m)
    Depth of CTD from the surface to the seafloor, in meters (m) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:1156.8
    Temperature (°C)
    Temperature, in degrees Celsius, collected along with depth on the CTD probe. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.33
    Maximum:31.20
    Salinity (psu)
    Salinity collected with depth on the CTD (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:31.25
    Maximum:36.81
    Oxygen (mg/l)
    Oxygen collected with depth on the CTD (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.87
    Maximum:10.26
    Carbonate_Chem.csv
    Measured carbonate chemistry of the dataset including salinity (psu), temperature (°C), TCO2 (umol/kg) and TA (mol/kg). (Source: USGS)
    Cruise
    Sediment trap cruise number. GMT refers to Gulf of Mexico sediment trap. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:20
    Depth (m)
    Depth of data collected from the water surface down to the seafloor, in meters (m). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:50
    Date
    Date of samples collected in M/D/YY (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2/6/13
    Maximum:12/10/17
    Salinity (psu)
    Measured salinity of sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:35.98
    Maximum:36.54
    Temp (°C)
    Measured temperature (°C) of sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:21.78
    Maximum:27.37
    TCO2 (umol/kg)
    Measured TCO2 of sample (total carbon dioxide), collected in micromoles per kilogram. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2030.4
    Maximum:2102.7
    TA (mol/kg seawater)
    Measured TA of sample (total alkalinity), collected in micromoles per kilogram of seawater. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2381.4
    Maximum:2413.7
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The entity and attribute information provided here describes the tabular data associated with the dataset. Please review the detailed descriptions that are provided (the individual attribute descriptions) for information on the values that appear as fields/table entries of the dataset.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    The entity and attribute information was generated by the individual and/or agency identified as the originator of the dataset. Please review the rest of the metadata record for additional details and information.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Caitlin Reynolds
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

Why was the data set created?

Using paired Mg/Ca and d18O, USGS scientists evaluated the performance of a suite of published equations for calculating sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and isotopic composition of seawater (d18Osw). In addition, new linear relationships between salinity and d18Osw for the surface mixed layer and the entire water column are presented. Results are based on 17 sampling trips to the Gulf of Mexico from 2008 to 2017.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2018 (process 1 of 2)
    From 2008 to 2017, USGS staff conducted 17 surveys within the Gulf of Mexico, onboard the research vessel (R/V) Pelican, to collect sediment trap and seawater samples that would allow researchers to 1) evaluate the performance of previously-published equations for calculating SST, SSS and isotopic composition, and 2) determine linear relationships between salinity and d18Osw for the water column and surface mixed layer. All data were processed between 2008 and 2018. For elemental analyses, 30–60 foraminifera from the 212–425 micrometer (um) size fraction were lightly crushed, homogenized, and cleaned according to a modified version of the Barker and others (2003) protocol. Briefly, the cleaning procedure included two Milli-Q water rinses, two methanol rinses, an oxidation step with a modified buffered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution following Russell and others (2004) for recently living foraminifer (1:1 solution of 0.1 normal sodium hydroxide [N NaOH] and 30% H2O2), and a dilute acid leach (0.001 molar solution [M] nitric acid). A reductive cleaning step was not performed, as these foraminifers were not subject to diagenetic Iron-Manganese (Fe-Mn) oxide coatings often found on foraminifera from sediment cores. Cleaned foraminiferal samples collected from 2011–2013 were dissolved in nitric acid to achieve a target calcium concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm). Acidified samples were analyzed on a PerkinElmer 7300 DV inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) at the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, FL, USA. Mg/Ca was corrected for instrumental drift using the internal gravimetric standard (IGS) method devised by Schrag (1999). The average corrected IGS precision for Mg/Ca was 0.024 millimoles per mole (mmol/mol-1) (1σ, n = 1315). A calcium carbonate (CaCO3) standard (homogenized powder of ECRM-751) analyzed for Mg/Ca was used to test for any potential matrix effects, it had an average corrected precision of 0.096 mmol/mol-1 (1σ, n = 123). Researchers analyzed the JCt-1 standard used in an inter-laboratory comparison study of Mg/Ca and determined an average Mg/Ca was 1.228 ± 0.037 mmol/mol-1 (n = 10, 1σ). Samples from 2010 were cleaned according to the Barker and others (2003) procedure in a laminar flow clean bench and analyzed for Mg/Ca and Barium/Calcium (Ba/Ca), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at Texas A&M, College Station, Texas, USA on a Thermo Scientific Element XR High Resolution ICP-MS. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on aliquots of 6–8 whole foraminifera shells (212–425 um), on a Thermo-Finnigan MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to a Kiel IV Carbonate Device housed in the Analytical Laboratory for Paleoclimate Studies (ALPS) at the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. The 1s precision of stable isotopic measurements in this study were based on multiple analyses of an in-house carbonate standard (n = 24) and equaled 0.03‰ for d13C and 0.06‰ for d18O, consistent with long-term precision for this instrumental set-up (0.06‰ for d13C and 0.08‰ for d18O). All stable isotope values are reported relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). Seawater samples were collected from Niskin bottles during CTD casts on research cruises to deploy and recover the sediment trap. Seawater was sampled immediately following sediment collection and sealed in crimp top glass vials. The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater was measured on a Gasbench coupled to a MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer at the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA, where the long-term precision of replicate measurements of an in-house standard was 0.12 ‰ and 2 ‰ for d18O and d2H, respectively (2σ). Samples collected after 2010 were analyzed for both hydrogen (d2H) and oxygen (d18O) composition on a Picarro L2130-I Isotopic Liquid Water Analyzer (Picarro, Inc. Santa Clara, CA) at the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. All isotopic values are given relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). The long-term precision of replicate measurements of an in-house standard on the Picarro L2130-I was 0.13 ‰ and 0.59 ‰ for d18O and d2H, respectively.
    Date: 13-Oct-2020 (process 2 of 2)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    S, Barker, M, Grieves, and H, Elderfield, 2003, A study of cleaning procedures used for foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometry: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Malden, Massachusetts.

    AD, Russell, B, Honisch, HJ, Spero, and DW, Lea, 2004, Effects of seawater carbonate ion concentration and temperature on shell U, Mg, and Sr in cultured planktonic foraminifera: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    DP, Schrag, 1999, Rapid analysis of high-precision Sr/Ca ratios in corals and other marine carbonates: Paleoceanographic Currents, Malden, Massachusetts.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the horizontal positional information in the data set has not been conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    A formal accuracy assessment of the vertical positional information in the dataset has either not been conducted or is not applicable.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None. Please see 'Distribution Info' for details.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be acknowledged as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Caitlin Reynolds
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8046 (voice)
    creynolds@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? CTD_data.csv; Down_Core_G_ruber_geochem.csv; Entire_Water_Column_d18O-salinity.csv; G_ruber_Flux.csv; G_ruber_Isotopes.csv; G_ruber_MgCa.csv; Mixed_Layer_d18Osw-salinity.csv; Carbonate_Chem.csv
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Distributor assumes no liability for misuse of data. This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Caitlin Reynolds
Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

727-502-8046 (voice)
creynolds@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/G_ruber_metadata.faq.html>
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