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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Title: CTD_casts
Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be undersaturated in late summer months, when ice melt is at its greatest extent. However, few comprehensive datasets of carbonate system parameters in the Arctic Ocean exist. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and University of South Florida (USF) collected high-resolution measurements of pCO2, pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and carbonate (CO3-2) from the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin that fill critical information gaps concerning Arctic carbon variability. A Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) was used to collect over 22,000 measurements of air and sea pCO2, pH, and DIC along a 9,450-km trackline during August 2010. In addition, 240 discrete surface water samples were taken. These data are being used to characterize and model regional pCO2, pH, and carbonate mineral saturation state. A high-resolution, three-dimensional map of these results will be presented.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Robbins, Lisa L., Yates, Kimberly K., Gove, Matthew D., Knorr, Paul O., Wynn, Jonathan, Byrne, Robert H., and Liu, Xuewu, 2012, CTD_casts: Data Series 741, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.94
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -126.92
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 82.53
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.02
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 01-Aug-2010
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (10)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest .0174. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0174. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is WGS_1984_Orthographic.
      The ellipsoid used is GCS_WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000000000000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563000030000.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    ArcMap Shapefile. (Source: ArcMap 10.0)
    Feature ID. (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Units:Automatically generated sequential unique whole numbers.
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    Station number. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Units:Ordinal positive integers.
    Date in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Time (24-hour clock) in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Minimum:12:00:00 AM
    Maximum:12:00:00 AM
    Units:hh:mm:ss AM/PM
    Latitude in decimal degrees (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude in decimal degrees. (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Units:decimal degrees
    Water depth in meters. (Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
    Range of values
    Apparatus used to measure water depth. (Source: User-defined.) EM 122 is a multibeam echosounder manufactured by Kongsberg Maritime.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Lisa L. Robbins
    • Kimberly K. Yates
    • Matthew D. Gove
    • Paul O. Knorr
    • Jonathan Wynn
    • Robert H. Byrne
    • Xuewu Liu
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida

    727-803-8747 x3005 (voice)
    727-803-2032 (FAX)
    Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST

Why was the data set created?

Data collected on the August 2010 Arctic cruise will be used to create regional maps of seawater carbonate parameters, including pCO2 flux/change maps, and derivative maps on saturation state. Maps depicting pCO2 and carbonate saturation states over large latitudinal and nearshore to offshore gradients are needed for the Arctic, where significant decline of carbonate ecosystems, habitats, and calcifying organisms are predicted over the next decade. The data will allow the USGS to map variations in ocean chemistry along designated tracks and will be used in models to predict future Arctic Ocean saturation states.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 12-Mar-2012 (process 1 of 3)
    Final data Data sources used in this process:
    • CTD_casts
    Date: 15-Mar-2017 (process 2 of 3)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    Date: 13-Oct-2020 (process 3 of 3)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are collected along tracklines (2-D) and therefore are inherently incomplete. There are no data collected between tracklines.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    These data were collected in the field and have not been checked for internal consistencies.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Please acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center as a data source in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected by users of this data set.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal Marine and Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida

    727-803-8747 x3005 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This CD publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: ArcGIS (.dbf, .prj, .sbn, .sbx, .shp, .shx) Size: .0262
      Media you can order: CD (format CD-R)
    • Cost to order the data: Free

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 13-Oct-2020
Metadata author:
Paul O. Knorr
U.S. Geological Survey
Research Associate
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, Florida

727-803-8747 (voice)
727-803-2032 (FAX)
Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/HLY1002_CTD_casts.faq.html>
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