USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2011: Discrete Underway data

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2011: Discrete Underway data
Abstract:
Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be undersaturated in late summer months when ice melt is at its greatest extent. However, few comprehensive data sets of carbonate system parameters in the Arctic Ocean exist. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and University of South Florida (USF) collected high-resolution measurements of pCO2, pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and carbonate (CO3-2) from the Canada Basin that fill critical information gaps concerning Arctic carbon variability. A Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) was used to collect approximately 9,000 measurements of air and sea pCO2, pH, and DIC along a 11,447-km trackline in August and September 2011. In addition, over 500 discrete surface water samples were taken. These data are being used to characterize and model regional pCO2, pH, and carbonate mineral saturation state. A high-resolution, three-dimensional map of these results will be presented.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Robbins, Lisa L., Yates, Kimberly K., Knorr, Paul O., Wynn, Jonathan, Lisle, John, Buczkowski, Brian, Moore, Barbara, Mayer, Larry, Armstrong, Andrew, Byrne, Robert H., and Liu, Xuewu, 2012, USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2011: Discrete Underway data: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 748, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 142.92
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -119.186
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 88.44
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 59.99
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 01-Aug-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (228)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000000000000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563000030000.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    HLY1102_Discrete_Underway.csv
    Discrete underway seawater samples that were analyzed onboard during the HLY 2011 cruise. (Source: USGS)
    Date_(UTC)
    Date in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8/18/2011
    Maximum:9/27/2011
    Units:dd/mm/yyyy
    Time_(UTC)
    Time (24-hour clock) in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Minimum:00:00
    Maximum:23:59
    Units:hh:mm
    Sample_ID
    Sample identification number. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:515
    Latitude_(Decimal_Degrees)
    Latitude in decimal degrees (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Minimum:59.99
    Maximum:88.44
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_(Decimal_Degrees)
    Longitude in decimal degrees (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-179.99
    Maximum:179.99
    Units:decimal degrees
    SST_(Celsius)
    Intake Sample Temperature, degrees Celsius, measured using the USCGC Healy's SBE3 remote temperature probe. This value is the sea surface temperature. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.69
    Maximum:8.36
    Units:Celsius
    Salinity_(PSU)
    Salt content, in Practical Salinity Units, measured using the USCGC Healy's SBE45 instrument. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19.11
    Maximum:32.6
    Units:Practical Salinity Units (PSU)
    pH_(total)_at_25C
    pH of seawater, total scale. (Source: User-Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7.59
    Maximum:7.81

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Lisa L. Robbins
    • Kimberly K. Yates
    • Paul O. Knorr
    • Jonathan Wynn
    • John Lisle
    • Brian Buczkowski
    • Barbara Moore
    • Larry Mayer
    • Andrew Armstrong
    • Robert H. Byrne
    • Xuewu Liu
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    USA

    727-803-8747 x3005 (voice)
    727-803-2032 (FAX)
    727-803-2032
    Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST

Why was the data set created?

Data collected on the August 2011 Arctic Cruise will be used to create regional maps of seawater carbonate parameters, including pCO2 flux/change maps, and derivative maps on saturation state. Maps depicting pCO2 and carbonate saturation states over large latitudinal and nearshore to offshore gradients are needed for the Arctic, where significant decline of carbonate ecosystems, habitats, and calcifying organisms are predicted over the next decade. The data will allow the USGS to map variations in ocean chemistry along designated tracks and will be used in models to predict future Arctic Ocean saturation states.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 23-Mar-2012 (process 1 of 3)
    Discrete Surface Samples
    Discrete water samples were collected while underway following protocols outlined in Dickson and others (2007). Surface water samples were collected for measurement of pH, total alkalinity/total carbon, nutrients (NH4, silica, PO4, and NO2+N), stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition, elemental analysis, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Water samples were removed from the sampling port of the vessel's flow-through seawater system in the main laboratory. More than 515 pH discrete samples were measured underway. Generally, when the ship was traveling at 2-4 knots (kn), pH samples were collected every 2 h and analyzed. The remainder of the samples were taken every 6 h. When the ship traveled faster (~12 kn), pH samples were taken every hour and the rest of the suite of samples were taken every 4 h. Particulate organic carbon samples were collected twice daily. The results of the land-based analyses of total alkalinity/total carbon, nutrients (NH4, silica, PO4, and NO2+N), stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition, elemental analysis, DOC, and POC, as well as profile data, will be reported when analyses are completed. Data sources produced in this process:
    • HLY1102_Discrete_Underway.csv
    Date: 15-Mar-2017 (process 2 of 3)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 07-Aug-2018 (process 3 of 3)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized by adding theme keyword thesauri and associated keywords. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Arnell S. Forde
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    aforde@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are collected along tracklines (2-D) and are therefore inherently incomplete. Geologic details between lines must be inferred.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The QA/QC process looked for internal consistencies in the data by calculating the results using CO2SYS and back checking with the collected data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Please acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center as a data source in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected by users of this data set.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal Marine and Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    USA

    727-803-8747 x3005 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Aug-2018
Metadata author:
Paul O. Knorr
U.S. Geological Survey
Research Associate
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, Florida
USA

727-803-8747 (voice)
727-803-2032 (FAX)
pknorr@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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