USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2012: Discrete Underway Laboratory data

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2012: Discrete Underway Laboratory data
Abstract:
Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be undersaturated in late summer months when ice melt is at its greatest extent; however, few comprehensive datasets of carbonate system parameters in the Arctic Ocean exist. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and University of South Florida (USF) collected high-resolution measurements of pCO2, pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and carbonate (CO3-2) from the Canada Basin to fill critical information gaps concerning Arctic carbon variability. A Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) was used to collect approximately 1,800 measurements of pH and DIC along an 11,965-km trackline in August and September 2012. In addition, over 500 discrete surface water samples were taken. These data are being used to characterize and model regional pCO2, pH, and carbonate mineral saturation state. A high-resolution, three-dimensional map of these results will be presented.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Robbins, Lisa L., Wynn, Jonathan, Knorr, Paul O., Onac, Bogdan, Lisle, John, McMullen, Kate, Yates, Kimberly K., Byrne, Robert H., and Liu, Xuewu, 2014, USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2012: Discrete Underway Laboratory data: Data Series 862, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, Fla.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -175.100802
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 157.354060
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.076734
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.037156
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 01-Aug-2012
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (34)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 8.98315284119521e-009. Longitudes are given to the nearest 8.98315284119521e-009. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.00.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    HLY1202_Discrete_Lab.csv
    Discrete underway seawater samples that were analyzed in an onshore-laboratory after the HLY 2012 cruise. (Source: user-defined)
    Date_(UTC)
    Date in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Minimum:x/x/2012
    Maximum:x/x/2012
    Units:dd/mm/yyyy
    Time_(UTC)
    Time (24-hour clock) in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    Range of values
    Minimum:00:00
    Maximum:23:59
    Units:hh:mm
    Sample_ID
    Sample identification number. Sample numbers correspond to HLY1202_Discrete_Underway.csv Sample_ID numbers. (Source: user-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:627
    Latitude_(Decimal_Degrees)
    Latitude in decimal degrees (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Minimum:83.49
    Maximum:88.4
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_(Decimal_Degrees)
    Longitude in decimal degrees (Source: WGS 84)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-175.95
    Maximum:-154.73
    Units:decimal degrees
    SST_(Celsius)
    Seawater Surface Temperature, degrees Celsius, measured using the USCGC Healy's SBE3 remote temperature probe. This value is the sea surface temperature. (Source: user-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.535
    Maximum:3.701
    Units:Celsius
    Salinity_(PSU)
    Salt content, in Practical Salinity Units, measured using the USCGC Healy's SBE45 instrument. (Source: user-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:24.456
    Maximum:30.979
    Units:Practical Salinity Units (PSU)
    DIC_(µmol_kg-L-sw)
    Dissolved inorganic carbon content of seawater in micromoles per kilogram. (Source: user-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1686.6
    Maximum:1944
    Units:micromoles per kilogram
    TA_(µmol_kg-L-sw)
    Total alkalinity seawater in micromoles per kilogram. (Source: user-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1760.11
    Maximum:2047.7
    Units:micromoles per kilogram.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Lisa L. Robbins
    • Jonathan Wynn
    • Paul O. Knorr
    • Bogdan Onac
    • John Lisle
    • Kate McMullen
    • Kimberly K. Yates
    • Robert H. Byrne
    • Xuewu Liu
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Oceanographer
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    USA

    727-502-8005 (voice)
    727-502-8182 (FAX)
    lrobbins@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST

Why was the data set created?

Data collected onboard the United States Coast Guard Cutter (USCGC) Healy during the 2012 Arctic Cruise will be used to create regional maps of seawater carbonate parameters, including pCO2 flux/change maps, and derivative maps on saturation state. Maps depicting pCO2 and carbonate saturation states over large latitudinal and nearshore to offshore gradients are needed for the Arctic, where significant decline of carbonate ecosystems, habitats, and calcifying organisms are predicted over the next decade. The data will allow the USGS to map variations in ocean chemistry along designated tracks and will be used in models to predict future Arctic Ocean saturation states.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 11-Jul-2012 (process 1 of 2)
    Seawater samples were collected from the sampling manifold of the shipboard flow-through seawater system in 300-mL borosilicate glass biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) bottles. Samples were preserved by adding 100 microliters of a saturated solution of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and were sealed with a ground glass stopper lightly coated with Apiezon grease. Samples were transported to the USGS Carbon Chemistry Lab in St. Petersburg, Fla. Total alkalinity samples were analyzed using an Ocean Optics USB 2000 spectrophotometer, bromol cresol purple indicator dye, and the methods of Yao and Byrne (1998). Total carbon was analyzed using coulometric methods of Dickson and others (2007). Precision and accuracy for these methods was 1 micromole/kg for TA and TCO2. Person who carried out this activity:
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal Marine and Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    USA

    727-502-8005 (voice)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • HLY1202_Discrete_Lab.csv
    Date: 15-Mar-2017 (process 2 of 2)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are collected along tracklines (2-D) and are therefore inherently incomplete. Geologic details between lines must be inferred.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The QA/QC process looked for internal inconsistencies in the data by taking the results calculated using CO2SYS and comparing them with the collected data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Please acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center as a data source in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected by users of this dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Lisa Robbins
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal Marine and Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    USA

    727-502-8005 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: CSV Size: .010
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0862/
    • Cost to order the data: Free, if obtained online.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 15-Mar-2017
Metadata author:
Paul O. Knorr
U.S. Geological Survey
Research Associate
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, Florida
USA

727-502-8000 (voice)
727-502-8182 (FAX)
pknorr@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8am to 5pm M-F EST
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/HLY1202_Discrete_Underway_Lab.faq.html>
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