Late Pleistocene coral ages and elevations from south Florida

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Late Pleistocene coral ages and elevations from south Florida
Abstract:
This data release compiles Uranium-series (U-series) data and descriptive collection information (such as sample/core identifier, location, elevation, etc.) for late Pleistocene coral subsamples from coral reef cores previously collected throughout the Florida Keys (Florida) by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers. The samples were collected under scientific research permits from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) and U.S. National Park Service (NPS) and all samples are currently recorded in the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center’s (SPCMSC) Geologic Core and Sample Database (Williams and others, 2013) and archived at the center’'s Core Laboratory Archive.
Supplemental_Information:
Field Activity Numbers (FANs) are unique identifiers assigned by the USGS to provide more information about the activities conducted in the field for a study. The following field activities are related to this dataset: 1976-300-FA, 1978-300-FA, 1981-302-FA, 1990-302-FA, 1992-302-FA, 2002-302-FA, 2004-304-FA, 2014-321-FA, 2015-314-FA, 2015-325-FA, and 2016-332-FA. Please visit the Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) field activity webpage for more information about each FAN. To view a particular field activity, replace the FAN (1976-300-FA) in the following url: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=1976-300-FA. FANs are listed for each sample/core in the center'’s geologic core and sample database (Williams and others, 2013).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Hsia, Scarlette, Toth, Lauren T., Mortlock, Richard A., Stathakopoulos, Anastasios, and Kerans, Charles, 20240621, Late Pleistocene coral ages and elevations from south Florida:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Hsia, Scarlette, Toth, Lauren T., Mortlock, Richard A., Stathakopoulos, Anastasios, and Kerans, Charles, 20240621, U-series Ages and Elevation Data of Late Pleistocene Corals From the Florida Keys: U.S. Geological Survey data release doi:10.5066/P9EJBYKZ, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.9200
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.1267
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.4240
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.4348
    Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Florida Keys Reef Tract, Monroe County, Florida, USA
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 28-Jul-1976
    Ending_Date: 22-Aug-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (34)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Late_Pleistocene_coral_data_from_south_Florida_and_uncertainties
    Comma-separated values file (.csv) and Microsoft Excel file (.xlsx) containing the U-series data and descriptive collection information (such as sample/core identifier, location, elevation, etc.) for late Pleistocene coral subsamples from coral reef cores collected throughout the Florida Keys. (Source: USGS)
    Sample ID
    Unique identifier for each coral reef core subsample dated in this study. (Source: USGS) Sample IDs were generated by abbreviating information about the subregion where the sample was collected, the site name, the core number, and a unique letter or number for each sample was collected in the core and are formatted as: Subregion abbreviation-Site abbreviation-Core number-Sample letter and/or number, example: BP-PR-1-A.
    USGS Core ID
    The unique identifier for each coral reef core that was subsampled in this study, as defined in Toth and others (2018). (Source: USGS) Core IDs were assigned in Toth and others (2018) using abbreviated information about the subregion, site, and core number and are formatted as: Subregion abbreviation-Site abbreviation-Core number, example: BP-PR-1
    Latitude
    The approximate latitude (in decimal degrees) where the coral reef core was collected. Refer to the Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on the horizontal positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:24.4348
    Maximum:25.424
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    The approximate longitude (in decimal degrees) where the sample was collected. Refer to the Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on the horizontal positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-82.92
    Maximum:-80.1267
    Units:decimal degrees
    Water depth (m)
    The water depth in the location where the core was collected as recorded in the field. Negative values indicate that the sample was collected subaerially. Refer to the Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on the vertical positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.2
    Maximum:11.29
    Units:meters
    Depth in core (m)
    Approximated depth in the core (measured from the top of the core) of where the sample was collected, in meters (m). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.83
    Maximum:16.15
    Units:meters
    Depth MSL (m)
    The depth, in meters, of the sample relative to mean sea level (MSL), calculated by adding the depth of the sample in the core from the depth of the reef surface where the core was collected. Refer to the Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on vertical positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.83
    Maximum:20.72
    Units:meters below mean sea level (MSL)
    Water depth uncertainty (2-sigma)
    An approximate 2 standard error (2 sigma) uncertainty associated with estimated water depth where the core was collected. For four cores (LK-MG-2, LK-MG-3, UK-GR-3, and UK-GR-4), there were disagreements in the recorded water depth between field notes, notes on the core box, and/or previous publications describing the cores. As a result, a conservatively high 1 m water depth uncertainty was assigned. The elevations of two other cores (LK-WS-3 and UK-CR-2) were surveyed with high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment in the field, so benchmark uncertainties (0.004 and 0.015 m) were assigned in place of the water depth uncertainty. Refer to the Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on vertical positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004
    Maximum:1
    Units:meters
    Tidal uncertainty (2-sigma)
    An approximate 2-standard error (2 sigma) uncertainty associated with estimated water depth where the core was collected due to when in the tidal cycle the water depth was measured. The tidal uncertainty was estimated as one-half the total tidal range reported for the nearest tidal datum except for the three cores that were surveyed with GPS, for which we assumed no tidal uncertainty. Refer to the Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report section for more information on vertical positional accuracy. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0.33
    Units:meters
    Proportion of interval recovered
    The estimated proportional recovery of reef substrate within a particular interval of the core. This value was calculated by dividing the measured surface area of core constituents in an interval by the theoretical surface area of that interval based on the interval length and width as described in Toth and Stathakopoulos (2019). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.1
    Maximum:0.85
    Units:fractional proportion
    Sampling uncertainty (2-sigma)
    An estimate of the 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty to account for the fact that it is not possible to determine the exact position of a sample within a recovered interval of a core (i.e., the material in the interval can shift either during or after coring). This uncertainty was estimated to be one-half the porosity of that interval (i.e., 1-proportional recovery). Calculated using formula: (length of sampled interval - (percent recovery for a given interval multiplied by the length of the sampled interval))/2. For most, used 5 feet (ft) as length of sampled interval based upon core barrel length in noted studies (Toth and others, 2018). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.107
    Maximum:2.000
    Units:meters
    Non-vertical drilling uncertainty (2-sigma)
    An estimate of the 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in depth of the same in the core based on the possibility that the core did not have exactly vertical penetration into the reef. The uncertainty is estimated to be 0.02 m per meter of core penetration. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.037
    Maximum:0.323
    Units:meters
    Sample thickness uncertainty (2-sigma)
    An estimate of the 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty associated with the thickness of the sample dated, estimated as one-half the sample thickness of 0.01 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005
    Maximum:0.005
    Units:meters
    Total uncertainty in depth MSL (2-sigma)
    The total 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the depth of the samples relative to mean sea level (MSL) calculated as the root-sum-square of all the other elevation uncertainties. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.397
    Maximum:2.246
    Units:meters
    Taxon
    The taxa of the dated coral sample. Corals were generally identified to the species level, but some taxa could only be identified to the genus level. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    Orbicella spp.The sample was collected from an Orbicella spp. coral skeleton. Includes corals belonging to the genus Orbicella (O. faveolata, O. franksi, and O. annularis).
    Acropora palmataThe sample was collected from an Acropora palmata coral skeleton.
    Pseudodiploria strigosaThe sample was collected from a Pseudodiploria strigosa coral skeleton.
    Porites astreoidesThe sample was collected from a Porites astreoides coral skeleton.
    Pseudodiploria clivosaThe sample was collected from a Pseudodiploria clivosa coral skeleton.
    Siderastraea sidereaThe sample was collected from a Siderastraea siderea coral skeleton.
    % Calcite
    The percentage (%) of the coral sample composed of secondary calcite. This is an indicator of diagenetic alteration. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:<0.2
    Maximum:1.7
    Units:percentage
    U-Th age
    The measured 230Th (U-Th) age of the coral sample used as age of the sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7992
    Maximum:113116
    Units:years before 1950
    U-Th age uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) analytical uncertainty of the 230Th age. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:784
    Units:years
    U-Th age BP
    The 230Th (U-Th) age of the coral sample used as age of the sample before present (where present is 1950). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7921
    Maximum:113045
    Units:years
    U-Th age BP uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) analytical uncertainty of the 230Th age in years before present (1950). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:784
    Units:years
    238U (ppm)
    The measured concentration of the isotope 238U in the sample in parts per million (ppm). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.3515
    Maximum:3.3438
    Units:parts per million (ppm)
    238U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) analytical uncertainty of the measured 238U of the sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0007
    Maximum:0.0018
    Units:parts per million (ppm)
    232Th (pg/g)
    The measured concentration of the isotope 232Th in the sample in picograms per gram (pg/g). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.99
    Maximum:7239.07
    Units:picograms per gram (pg/g)
    Th232 uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) analytical uncertainty of the measured 232Th of the sample. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0245
    Maximum:33.578
    Units:picograms per gram (pg/g)
    234U/238U
    The 234U/238U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.1083
    Maximum:1.1558
    Units:ratio
    234U/238U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the 234U/238U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0003
    Maximum:0.0013
    Units:ratio
    234U initial
    Corrected initial ?234U (234U initial). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:143.8
    Maximum:214.4
    Units:ratio
    234U initial uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) corrected initial ?234U (234U initial). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.6
    Maximum:2.2
    Units:ratio
    230Th/234U
    The 230Th/234U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0708
    Maximum:0.6583
    Units:ratio
    230Th/234U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the 230Th/234U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0001
    Maximum:0.0034
    Units:ratio
    230Th/238U
    The 230Th/238U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.081
    Maximum:0.7609
    Units:ratio
    230Th/238U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the 230Th/238U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0002
    Maximum:0.0038
    Units:ratio
    230Th/232U
    The 230Th/232U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:432
    Maximum:226479
    Units:ratio
    230Th/232U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the 230Th/232U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:685
    Units:ratio
    238U/232U
    The 238U/232U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1412
    Maximum:367827
    Units:ratio
    238U/232U uncertainty (2-sigma)
    The 2-standard error (2-sigma) uncertainty in the 238U/232U activity ratio. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:977
    Units:ratio

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Scarlette Hsia
    • Lauren T. Toth
    • Richard A. Mortlock
    • Anastasios Stathakopoulos
    • Charles Kerans
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    SPCMSC researchers would like to thank collaborators at Rutgers University and University of Texas at Austin for their contributions with this data release.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Lauren T. Toth
    U.S. Geological Survey, SOUTHEAST REGION
    Research Physical Scientist
    600 4Th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    US

    727-502-8029 (voice)
    727-502-8182 (FAX)
    ltoth@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data were collected for a study aimed at estimating Late Pleistocene relative sea level in south Florida.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2022 (process 1 of 1)
    Coral subsamples were collected from sections of coral reef cores previously collected throughout the Florida Keys, predicted to contain Pleistocene-aged material based on a depositional Pleistocene-Holocene boundary (i.e., a soilstone crust), previously dated samples that were determined to be radiocarbon dead, or depositional textures or diagenetic textures indicative of pre-Holocene material. A tile saw with a diamond blade was used to collect small pieces of internal coral aragonite free of visually observable diagenesis for dating. Those samples were sonicated in warm deionized water to remove any detrital material. Subsamples of each coral core were powdered and analyzed for evidence of secondary alteration to calcite by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the Department of Chemistry at Rutgers University (Philips XPert Powder Diffractometer) or at the USGS in Denver, Colorado. Only subsamples with <0.2‰ calcite was used for Uranium-Thorium (U-Th) dating. U-Th isotopes were measured using the ThermoScientific NEPTUNEPLUS Multi-collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometrometer (MC-ICP-MS) at the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Rutgers University following the methods described in Mortlock and others (2005), which were revised in Abdul and others (2016). All dates and activity ratios were calculated using half-lives published in Cheng and others (2013). These data were used to estimate ages before present (relative to 1950) with 2? uncertainties.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Williams, Breanna N., Schreppel, Heather A., Reich, Christopher D., Smith, Kathryn E.L., Tiling-Range, Ginger, Stalk, Chelsea A., Douglas, Steven H., Dadisman, Shawn V., Flocks, James G., Toth, Lauren T., and Stathakopoulos, Anastasios, 20130725, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's geologic core and sample database: Esri, ArcGIS Online.

    Online Links:

    Mortlock, Richard A., Fairbanks, Richard G., Chiu, Tzu-chien, and Rubenstone, James, 20050201, 230Th/234U/238U and 231Pa/235U ages from a single fossil coral fragment by multi-collector magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Volume 69, Issue 3, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Pages 649-657
    Abdul, Nicole A., Mortlock, Richard A., Wright, James D., and Fairbanks, Richard G., 20160220, Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata: Paleoceanography Volume 31, Issue 2, American Geophysical Union (AGU), Online.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Pages 330-344
    Cheng, Hai, Edwards, R. Lawrence, Shen, Chuan-Chou, Polyak, Victor J., Asmerom, Yemane, Woodhead, Jon, Hellstrom, John, Wang, Yongjin, Kong, Xinggong, Spötl, Christoph, Wang, Xianfeng, and Alexander, E. Calvin Jr., 20130623, Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U–Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Earth and Planetary Science Letters Volumes 371-372, Elsevier, Online.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Pages 82-91
    Toth, Lauren T., Stathakopoulos, Anastasios, and Kuffner, Ilsa B., 20180426, Descriptive core logs, core photographs, radiocarbon ages, and accretion data from Holocene reef cores collected throughout the Florida Keys reef tract: U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Toth, Lauren T., and Stathakopoulos, Anastasios, 20190521, The absolute and relative composition of Holocene reef cores from the Florida Keys reef tract: U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    For more information about the horizontal positional accuracy for each coral reef core used in this study, please refer to the original collection using the CMGDS FAN page for a core’s given field activity. To view a particular field activity, replace the FAN (1976-300-FA) in the following url: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=1976-300-FA. FANs are listed for each sample/core in the center'’s geologic core and sample database (Williams and others, 2013).
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Sample elevations were determined by combining reported water depths with estimated depths downcore. For cores for which water depth was determined in the field with underwater depth gauges, a water depth uncertainty of 0.5 meter (m) was assigned. For four cores (LK-MG-2, LK-MG-3, UK-GR-3, and UK-GR-4), there were disagreements in the recorded water depth between field notes, notes on the core box, and/or previous publications describing the cores. As a result, a conservatively high 1 m water depth uncertainty was assigned. The elevations of two other cores (LK-WS-3 and UK-CR-2) were surveyed with high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment in the field, so benchmark uncertainties (0.004 and 0.015 m) were assigned in place of the water depth uncertainty. The tidal uncertainty was estimated as one-half the total tidal range reported for the nearest tidal datum, except for the three cores that were surveyed with GPS, for which it was assumed that there was no tidal uncertainty. To account for the fact that it is not possible to determine the exact position of a sample within a recovered interval of a core (i.e., the material in the interval can shift either during or after coring), the “sampling depth uncertainty” was estimated as one-half the porosity of that interval (i.e., 1-proportional recovery). A non-vertical drilling uncertainty, estimated as 0.02 m per m of core penetration, and a sample thickness uncertainty of 0.005 or one-half the estimated sample thickness of 0.01, were also included. These uncertainties were combined by root-sum-square to estimate a total elevation uncertainty for each sample.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The data set is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints None
Use_Constraints Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: USGS SPCMSC Data Management
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    gs-g-spcmsc_data_inquiries@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Late_Pleistocene_coral_data_from_south_Florida_and_uncertainties.csv, Late_Pleistocene_coral_data_from_south_Florida_and_uncertainties.xlsx
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 21-Jun-2024
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: USGS SPCMSC Data Management
600 4th Street South
Saint Petersburg, FL
United States

727-502-8000 (voice)
gs-g-spcmsc_data_inquiries@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001.1-1999)

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