Benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Mississippi Sound salt marshes and estuaries

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Mississippi Sound salt marshes and estuaries
Abstract:
Microfossil (benthic foraminifera) and coordinate/elevation data were obtained from sediments collected in the coastal zones of Mississippi and Alabama, including marsh and estuarine environments of eastern Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay, in order to develop a census for coastal environments and to aid in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These data provide a baseline dataset for use in future wetland and estuarine change studies and assessments, both descriptive and predictive types. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Sea-level and Storm Impacts on Estuarine Environments and Shorelines (SSIEES) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ssiees), Barrier Island Evolution Research (BIER) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/bier), and National Fish and Wildlife Foundation-funded Alabama Barrier Island Restoration Feasibility Study (a collaborative study between the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Mobile District; the State of Alabama; and the USGS [https://www.usgs.gov/centers/spcmsc/science/alabama-barrier-island-restoration-study]). These projects aim to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. Four sampling surveys were conducted between 2013 and 2016: 13BIM01 (14–18 April 2013; no FA numbering), 14CCT01 (15–19 September 2014; 2014-323-FA), 15BIM09 (18–20 August 2015; 2015-322-FA), and 16CCT03 (16–17 May 2016; 2016-331-FA). During the four trips, 168 replicate sedimentary samples were collected from 86 marsh and estuarine locations. The sediment samples were collected from various coastal environments, stained in the field with rose Bengal (rB) to indicate life, processed in the laboratory to four size fractions (63–125 μm, 125–250 μm, 250–850 μm, and >850 μm), of which the 125–250 μm and 250–850 μm fractions were picked at equal proportions of total sample and reported combined (125–850 μm). Foraminifera were identified to species level under a binocular microscope and counted to establish a census. For further information regarding foraminiferal collection and/or processing methods, refer to Ellis and others (2017). For related datasets from the Mississippi Sound area, please refer to Ellis and others (2017) and DeWitt and others (2017).
Supplemental_Information:
To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS field activity number (FAN): 13BIM01 (April 2013), 2014-323-FA (September 2014, Project ID 14CCT01), 2015-322-FA (August 2015, Project ID 15BIM09), 2016-331-FA (May 2016, Project ID 16CCT03). Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Haller, Christian, Osterman, Lisa E., Smith, Christopher G., McCloskey, Terrence A., and Adams, C. Scott, 20180413, Benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Mississippi Sound salt marshes and estuaries: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi.org/10.5066/F7MC8X5F, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.60431
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.100605
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.44164
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.25274
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 14-Apr-2013
    Ending_Date: 17-May-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    MS_AL_Benthic_Foram_CENSUS.cvs
    Comma-separated values text file listing count values for live and dead benthic foraminifera found in sediment samples collected around eastern Mississippi Sound, Mississippi and Alabama (USGS FANs 13BIM01, 2014-323-FA, 2015-322-FA, 2016-331-FA). (Source: USGS)
    Live (rB stained) counts/Dead
    Live (rB stained) or dead fossil counts (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    LiveFossil counts for live (rB stained) foraminifera.
    DeadFossil counts for dead foraminifera.
    Sample ID
    Sediment sample identifier, grouped by project name. Corresponds to "Station" attribute in MS_AL_XYZ.csv (Source: USGS) Character string
    Percent examined
    Split of full sample examined (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.5625
    Maximum:100
    Units:Percent
    Resolution:0.0001
    Vol (cm3)
    Volume of wet sample in cubic centimeters (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:71
    Units:cubic centimeters
    Resolution:0.5
    Pseudothurammina limnetis
    Number of Pseudothurammina limnetis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:318
    Ammoastuta inepta
    Number of Ammoastuta inepta specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:191
    Ammotium salsum/Ammobaculites exiguus group
    Number of Ammotium salsum/Ammobaculites exiguus group specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:657
    Ammobaculites cf. A. foliaceus
    Number of Ammobaculites cf. A. foliaceus specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:35
    Ammobaculites crassus
    Number of Ammobaculites crassus specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:3
    Ammotium cassis
    Number of Ammotium cassis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:50
    Arenoparrella mexicana
    Number of Arenoparrella mexicana specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:395
    Entzia macrescens
    Number of Entzia macrescens specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:323
    Haplophragmoides bonplandi
    Number of Haplophragmoides bonplandi specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:52
    Haplophragmoides manilaensis
    Number of Haplophragmoides manilaensis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:51
    Haplophragmoides wilberti
    Number of Haplophragmoides wilberti specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:159
    Leptohalysis scotti
    Number of Leptohalysis scotti specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:14
    Paratrochammina simplissima
    Number of Paratrochammina simplissima specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:133
    Siphotrochammina lobata
    Number of Siphotrochammina lobata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:37
    Trochammina sp. A
    Number of Trochammina sp. A specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:59
    Tiphotrocha comprimata
    Number of Tiphotrocha comprimata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:223
    Trochammina inflata
    Number of Trochammina inflata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:167
    Trochamminita irregularis
    Number of Trochamminita irregularis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:135
    Textularia earlandi
    Number of Textularia earlandi specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Ammodiscus sp.
    Number of Ammodiscus sp. specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:18
    Ammodiscus tenuis
    Number of Ammodiscus tenuis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:23
    Affinetrina alcidi
    Number of Affinetrina alcidi specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Miliammina fusca
    Number of Miliammina fusca specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:376
    Miliammina petila
    Number of Miliammina petila specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:10
    Miliolinella subrotunda
    Number of Miliolinella subrotunda specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:90
    Pyrgo nasutua
    Number of Pyrgo nasutua specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:1
    Quinqueloculina jugosa
    Number of Quinqueloculina jugosa specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:14
    Ammonia parkinsoniana
    Number of Ammonia parkinsoniana specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:75
    Ammonia tepida
    Number of Ammonia tepida specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:522
    Cribroelphidium excavatum
    Number of Cribroelphidium excavatum specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:278
    Cribroelphidium poeyanum
    Number of Cribroelphidium poeyanum specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:37
    Elphidium gunteri
    Number of Elphidium gunteri specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5
    Elphidium mexicanum
    Number of Elphidium mexicanum specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:15
    Haynesina germanica
    Number of Haynesina germanica specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:53
    Helenina anderseni
    Number of Helenina anderseni specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:28
    Other aggltutinated
    Number of oOther aggltutinated specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:18
    Other Calcareous
    Number of other Calcareous specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:4
    Indeterminate planktonic
    Number of indeterminate planktonic specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:1

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Christian Haller
    • Lisa E. Osterman
    • Christopher G. Smith
    • Terrence A. McCloskey
    • C. Scott Adams
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Dissemination of benthic foraminiferal assemblage count data from sediment samples collected from eastern Mississippi Sound between April 2013 and May 2016. This dataset, MS_AL_Benthic_Foram_CENSUS.csv, includes foraminiferal census data collected at each sample location.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2012 (process 1 of 3)
    Using a spatula, surface sediment (0-1 centimeter [cm]) samples were collected at each sampling location and sealed in 50 milliliter (ml) centrifuge tubes. In estuarine locations, the sediment was retrieved with a Ponar grab sampler prior to the surface sediment (0-1 cm) sub-sample being collected from inside the grab sampler. In most locations replicates were collected within a radius of 1 meter for comparison and assessment of patchiness. A solution of 2 grams rose Bengal per liter of ethanol (95%) was added to each centrifuge tube to stain the protoplasm of living specimens (Walton, 1952). The stained samples were transferred to the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center Foraminiferal Lab in St. Petersburg, FL. The sample ID naming scheme explanation is as follows: "13BIM01" = USGS project name. Prefix: "FR" = Fowl River, "GB" = Grand Bay, "DA" = Dauphin island, "PA" = Pascagoula. Suffix: "S" = marsh surface sample, "G" = estuarine grab sample. Replicate suffix (if replicate collected): "A", "B". All locations with a dash (for example, 13BIM01 FR17-2S A) are on a shore-perpendicular transect. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 3)
    In order to ensure accurate staining, the samples were inverted daily over a period of two weeks. Prior to washing, the relative volume (ml) of sediment was recorded using the volume gradation on the tube (±1 ml). Then, to de-flocculate clay minerals, each sample was placed in a beaker with ~2 mL of dissolved sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) and agitated for 60 minutes on an orbital shaker. Each sample was washed over a 63 micrometer [μm] and 850 µm sieve under warm water; in some cases, an additional wash was necessary to remove excess clay particulates. The remaining sample (>63 µm and >850 µm size fractions) was oven-dried at 50°C. Lastly, the >63 µm dried sample was dry sieved to separate the 63-125 μm, 125-250 μm, the 250-850 μm sub-fractions. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2012 (process 3 of 3)
    If more than 300 specimens were encountered in a sample, the sample was split into halves, using a micro-splitter. Both size fractions 125-250 μm and 250-850 μm were combined in a microslide (125-850 μm), counted, and identified. Dead and live (rB stained) specimens were counted separately on the microslide. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Ellis, A.M., Shaw, J.E., Osterman, L.E., and Smith, C.G., 20171128, Distribution of foraminifera in Chincoteague Bay and the marshes of Assateague Island and the adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 1060.

    Online Links:

    Ellis, A.M., Marot, M.E., Smith, C.G., and Wheaton, C.J., 20170620, The Physical Characteristics of the Sediments on and Surrounding Dauphin Island, Alabama: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 1046.

    Online Links:

    DeWitt, N.T., Stalk, C.A., Flocks, J.G., Bernier, J.C., Kelso, K.W., Fredericks, J.J., and Tuten, T., 20170508, Single-Beam Bathymetry Data Collected in 2015 Nearshore Dauphin Island, Alabama: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi.org/10.5066/F7BZ648W.

    Online Links:

    DeWitt, N.T., Stalk, C.A., Smith, C.G., Locker, S.D., Fredericks, J.J., McCloskey, T.A., and Wheaton, C.J., 20171201, Single-beam bathymetry data collected in 2015 from Grand Bay, Alabama-Mississippi: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 1070.

    Online Links:

    Walton, W.R., 1952, Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera: Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Volume 3.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. 56–60

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The foraminiferal assemblage work reported in the comma separated values (.csv) file, MS_AL_Benthic_Foram_CENSUS.csv, includes count-only data for all samples.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This is a complete, processed foraminiferal data file of 127 surface sediment grab samples and 41 ponar grab samples collected in eastern Mississippi Sound.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The data include the assigned station name, percent of sample examined, volume of sample used, stained or unstained counts, and foraminiferal counts per species.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be acknowledged as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? MS_AL_Benthic_Foram_CENSUS.csv
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific s, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This zip archive includes a comma-separated values file, and accompanying metadata for foraminiferal data from surface and ponar grab samples collected from eastern Mississippi Sound and salt marshes during USGS field activities 13BIM01 (14-18 April 2013), 14CCT01 (15-19 September 2014), 15BIM09 (18-20 August 2015), and 16CCT03 (16-17 May 2016). in format Compressed (zip) archive Tabular data
      Network links: https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7MC8X5F/data/MS_AL_Benthic_Foram_CENSUS.zip
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The comma separated file (.csv) was created in Microsoft Excel 2010 and can be opened using Microsoft Excel 2007 or higher; these data may also be viewed using the free Microsoft Excel Viewer (http://office.microsoft.com/).

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-Apr-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Christopher G. Smith
Research Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

727-502-8000 (voice)
cgsmith@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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