Benthic foraminiferal data from sedimentary cores collected in the Grand Bay (Mississippi) and Dauphin Island (Alabama) salt marshes

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Benthic foraminiferal data from sedimentary cores collected in the Grand Bay (Mississippi) and Dauphin Island (Alabama) salt marshes
Abstract:
Microfossil (benthic foraminifera) data from coastal areas were collected from state and federally managed lands within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay, Mississippi/Alabama; federally managed lands of Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge on Cedar Island and Little Dauphin Island, Alabama; and municipally managed land around Dauphin Island, Alabama. Samples were analyzed and quantified for foraminiferal census in order to document changes to the coastal wetlands, estuarine environments, and to aid in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These data provide a baseline dataset for use in future wetland change descriptive and predictive studies and assessments. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Sea-level and Storm Impacts on Estuarine Environments and Shorelines (SSIEES) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ssiees), Barrier Island Evolution Research (BIER) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/bier), and National Fish and Wildlife Foundation-funded Alabama Barrier Island Restoration Feasibility Study (a collaborative study between the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Mobile District; the State of Alabama; and the USGS [https://www.usgs.gov/centers/spcmsc/science/alabama-barrier-island-restoration-study]). These projects aim to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. Two sampling surveys were conducted between 2014 and 2015: 14CCT01 (15–19 September 2014; 2014-323-FA), and 15BIM09 (18–20 August 2015; 2015-322-FA). During those two trips, seven Russian peat auger cores were taken from marsh locations. Three cores from Dauphin Island were subsampled and stained with rose Bengal (rB) in the field to indicate life. Four further cores from Dauphin Island and Grand Bay were not stained. At the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center all cores were subsampled resulting in a total of 74 subsamples. Samples were processed in the laboratory to four size fractions (63–125 μm, 125–250 μm, 250–850 μm, and >850 μm), of which the 125–250 μm and 250–850 μm fractions were picked at equal proportions of total sample and reported combined (125–850 μm). For additional information regarding foraminiferal collection and/or processing methods, refer to Ellis and others (2017). Further data collected on and surrounding Dauphin Island is presented in Ellis and others (2017) and Ellis and others (2018).
Supplemental_Information:
To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS field activity number (FAN): 2014-323-FA (September 2014, Project ID 14CCT01), and 2015-322-FA (August 2015, Project ID 15BIM09). Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Haller, Christian, Smith, Christopher G., McCloskey, Terrence A., Adams, C. Scott, Marot, Marci E., and Ellis, Alisha M., 20180417, Benthic foraminiferal data from sedimentary cores collected in the Grand Bay (Mississippi) and Dauphin Island (Alabama) salt marshes: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi.org/10.5066/F7445KSG, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.39787
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.109994
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.38936
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.25321
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 15-Sep-2014
    Ending_Date: 20-Aug-2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    MS_AL_Cores_Foram_CENSUS.cvs
    Comma separated values text file listing count values for live and dead benthic foraminifera found in sediment samples collected from Grand Bay (Mississippi) and Dauphin Island (Alabama) (USGS FANs 2014-323-FA and 2015-322-FA). (Source: USGS)
    rB_stain_application
    Indicates whether rose Bengal stain was applied to identify live benthic foraminifera or no treatment was applied. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    NoNo application of rose Bengal stain to sample.
    YesApplication of rose Bengal stain to sample.
    Live_(rB stained)/Dead/Total
    Live (rB stained), dead fossil or total (live+dead) fossil counts (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    LiveFossil counts for live (rB stained) foraminifera only.
    DeadFossil counts for dead foraminifera only.
    TotalFossil counts non-discriminating between live and dead foraminifera.
    Core_ID
    Sediment core identifier, grouped by project name. (Source: USGS) Character string
    Depth_(cm)
    Depth interval in centimeters measured below the core surface. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0-1
    Maximum:136-137
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Percent_examined
    Split of full sample examined. A value of 0 indicates a barren sample without any foraminifera fossils. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:Percent
    Resolution:1
    Vol_(cm3)
    Volume of wet sample in cubic centimeters (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:20
    Units:cubic centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Pseudothurammina_limnetis
    Number of Pseudothurammina limnetis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25
    Maximum:25
    Ammoastuta_inepta
    Number of Ammoastuta inepta specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:101
    Ammotium_salsum/Ammobaculites_exiguus_group
    Number of Ammotium salsum/Ammobaculites exiguus group specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:325
    Ammobaculites_crassus
    Number of Ammobaculites crassus specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:1
    Ammotium_cassis
    Number of Ammotium cassis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:9
    Arenoparrella_mexicana
    Number of Arenoparrella mexicana specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:415
    Entzia_macrescens
    Number of Entzia macrescens specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:70
    Haplophragmoides_manilaensis
    Number of Haplophragmoides manilaensis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:147
    Haplophragmoides_wilberti
    Number of Haplophragmoides wilberti specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:260
    Leptohalysis_scotti
    Number of Leptohalysis scotti specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5
    Paratrochammina_simplissima
    Number of Paratrochammina simplissima specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Siphotrochammina_lobata
    Number of Siphotrochammina lobata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:21
    Trochammina_sp._A
    Number of Trochammina sp. A specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:71
    Tiphotrocha_comprimata
    Number of Tiphotrocha comprimata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:89
    Trochammina_inflata
    Number of Trochammina inflata specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:68
    Trochamminita_irregularis
    Number of Trochamminita irregularis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:5
    Ammodiscus_tenuis
    Number of Ammodiscus tenuis specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:18
    Miliammina_fusca
    Number of Miliammina fusca specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:143
    Miliammina_petila
    Number of Miliammina petila specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:20
    Ammonia_tepida
    Number of Ammonia tepida specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Cribroelphidium_excavatum
    Number of Cribroelphidium excavatum specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:2
    Helenina_anderseni
    Number of Helenina anderseni specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:2
    Other_agglutinated
    Number of non-identified aggltutinated specimens picked for each surface sample at each site. Empty cell = 0 (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Christian Haller
    • Christopher G. Smith
    • Terrence A. McCloskey
    • C. Scott Adams
    • Marci E. Marot
    • Alisha M. Ellis
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Dissemination of benthic foraminiferal assemblage count data from subsurface sediment samples collected from eastern Mississippi Sound between September 2014 and August 2015. This dataset, MS_AL_Cores_Foram_CENSUS.csv, includes foraminiferal census data collected at each sample location.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2013 (process 1 of 3)
    At seven sites on Dauphin Island and within Grand Bay, Russian peat auger cores were collected. Upon retrieval, the cores were visually inspected for an undisturbed surface. Core lengths ranged between 9 and 137 centimeters [cm]. Three short cores on Dauphin Island were sub-sampled in the field into 1 cm slices and a solution of 2 grams [g] rose Bengal per liter of ethanol (95%) was added. The remaining four cores were not stained and subsampled in increasing interval lengths. All collected material was transferred to the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center Foraminiferal Lab in St. Petersburg, FL, for refrigerated storage and processing. The non-stained cores were sectioned into 1 cm slices in the laboratory. The core ID naming scheme explanation is as follows: "14CCT01" = USGS project name. Prefix: "GB" = Grand Bay, "DA" = Dauphin island. Suffix: "R" = Russian peat auger. Replicate core suffix (if replicate collected): "FA". Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 3)
    In order to ensure accurate staining, the samples were inverted daily over a period of two weeks. Prior to washing, the relative volume (cubic centimeters, cm3) of sediment was recorded using the volume gradation on the tube (±1 cm3). Then, to de-flocculate clay minerals, each sample was placed in a beaker with approximately 2 milliliters [ml] of dissolved sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) and agitated for 60 minutes on an orbital shaker. Each sample was washed over a 63 micrometer [μm] and 850 µm sieve under warm water; in some cases, an additional wash was necessary to remove excess clay particulates. The remaining sample (>63 µm and >850 µm size fractions) was oven-dried at 50°C. Lastly, the >63 µm dried sample was dry sieved to separate the 63-125 μm, 125-250 μm, the 250-850 μm sub-fractions. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2013 (process 3 of 3)
    If more than 300 specimens were encountered in a sample, the sample was split into halves, using a micro-splitter. Both size fractions 125-250 μm and 250-850 μm were combined in a microslide (125-850 μm), counted, and identified. Dead and live (rB stained) specimens were counted separately on the microslide. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Ellis, A.M., Shaw, J.E., Osterman, L.E., and Smith, C.G., 20171128, Distribution of foraminifera in Chincoteague Bay and the marshes of Assateague Island and the adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 1060.

    Online Links:

    Ellis, A.M., Marot, M.E., Smith, C.G., and Wheaton, C.J., 20170620, The physical characteristics of the sediments on and surrounding Dauphin Island, Alabama: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 1046.

    Online Links:

    Ellis, A.M., Smith, C.G., and Marot, M.E., 20180322, The sedimentological characteristics and geochronology of the marshes of Dauphin Island, Alabama: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OFR2017-1165.

    Online Links:

    Walton, W.R., 1952, Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera: Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Volume 3.

    Other_Citation_Details: Pages 56–60

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The foraminiferal assemblage work reported in the comma separated values (.csv) file, MS_AL_Cores_Foram_CENSUS.csv, includes count-only data for all samples. The positional accuracy of the sample locations is determined by the accuracy of the raw position data recorded by the GPS antenna, in the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), during data collection. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) coordinates were obtained using post-processing software packages (National Geodetic Survey On-Line Positioning User Service, OPUS, and Novatel Waypoint Product Group GrafNav).
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This is a complete, processed foraminiferal data file of seven Russian peat auger cores (74 subsamples) collected in eastern Mississippi Sound.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The data include the assigned core name, sample depth in core, percent of sample examined, volume of sample used, stained or unstained counts, and foraminiferal counts per species.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be acknowledged as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? MS_AL_Cores_Foram_CENSUS.csv
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This zip archive includes a comma separated values files, and accompanying metadata for foraminiferal data obtained from peat auger cores collected from Grand Bay and Dauphin Island salt marshes during 14CCT01 (15–19 September 2014; 2014-323-FA), and 15BIM09 (18–20 August 2015; 2015-322-FA). in format Compressed (zip) archive Tabular data
      Network links: https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7445KSG/data/MS_AL_Cores_Foram_CENSUS.zip
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The comma separated file (.csv) was created in Microsoft Excel 2010 and can be opened using Microsoft Excel 2007 or higher; these data may also be viewed using the free Microsoft Excel Viewer (http://office.microsoft.com/).

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 17-Apr-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Christopher G. Smith
Research Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

727-502-8000 (voice)
cgsmith@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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