Assateague Island surface and subsurface sediment physical parameters data from the spring and fall sampling trips of 2014

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Assateague Island surface and subsurface sediment physical parameters data from the spring and fall sampling trips of 2014
Abstract:
The influence of tropical and extratropical cyclones on coastal wetlands and marshes is highly variable in both space and time and depends on a number of climatic, geologic, and physical variables. The impacts storms can be either positive or negative with respect to the wetland and marsh ecosystems. Small to moderate amounts of inorganic sediment added during storms or other events helps to abate pressure from sea-level rise. However, if the volume of sediment is large and the resulting deposits thick, the organic substrate may compact causing submergence and a loss in elevation. Similarly, thick deposits of coarse inorganic sediment may also alter the hydrology of the site and impede vegetative processes. Alternative impacts associated with storms include shoreline erosion at the marsh edge as well as potential emergence. Predicting the outcome of these various responses and potential long-term implications can be obtained from a systematic assessment of both historical and recent event deposits. The objectives of this study are to 1) characterize the surficial sediment of the relict to recent washover fans and back-barrier marshes, and 2) characterize the sediment of 6 marsh cores from the back-barrier marshes and a single marsh island core near the mainland. These geologic data will be integrated with other remote sensing data collected along Assateague Island, Maryland / Virginia and assimilated into an assessment of coastal wetland response to storms.
Supplemental_Information:
This publication contains data for two field activities conducted in 2014: Spring March 26 – April 4, 2014; and fall October 21 – 30, 2014.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Smith, Christopher G., Marot, Marci E., Ellis, Alisha M., Wheaton, Cathryn J., Bernier, Julie C., and Adams, C. Scott, 20150501, Assateague Island surface and subsurface sediment physical parameters data from the spring and fall sampling trips of 2014: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1169.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Smith, Christopher G., Marot, Marci E., Ellis, Alisha M., Wheaton, Cathryn J., Bernier, Julie C., and Adams, C. Scott, 20150501, Sedimentological and radiochemical characteristics of marsh deposits from Assateague Island and adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia, following Hurricane Sandy: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1169, U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.46667
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.11111
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.26667
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.82222
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 26-Mar-2014
    Ending_Date: 30-Oct-2014
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    14CTB_Spring&Fall2014_Surface Sediment_Physical Data.xlsx, 14CTB_Marsh Core Physical Data.xlsx,14CTB_71R Auger Core Physical Data.xlsx
    Physical lithological parameter results of surface sediment collected on Assateague Island and the mainland of Maryland and Virginia. (Source: USGS)
    Sample ID
    Sample identification number (Source: USGS) Character string
    Date Collected
    The date the sample was collected (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:03/26/2014
    Maximum:10/26/2014
    Depth (cm)
    Sample identification number (Source: USGS) Character string
    Water Content (g-water/g-wet)
    The ratio of mass of water to the mass of wet sediment in the individual sample interval, measured in grams of water per grams of wet sediment (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:0.92
    Dry Bulk Density (g/cm^3)
    Dry bulk density of the sediment measured in grams per cubic centimeter. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.08
    Maximum:1.66
    Porosity
    Porosity in each sample interval measured in cubic centimeter of void space per cubic centimeter of wet sediment. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.42
    Maximum:0.97
    Loss On Ignition (g-OM/g-dry)
    The ratio of the mass of organic matter combusted at 450 Celsius to the pre-combusted mass of dry sediment measured in grams of organic matter to grams of dry sediment. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0003
    Maximum:0.6458

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Christopher G. Smith
    • Marci E. Marot
    • Alisha M. Ellis
    • Cathryn J. Wheaton
    • Julie C. Bernier
    • C. Scott Adams
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey - St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    US

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The file includes all bulk lithologic analysis results from marsh and sandy overwash surface sediments collected on Assateague Island and the mainland of Maryland and Virginia in March/April and October 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2014 (process 1 of 3)
    In the field, the top 1-centimeter of undisturbed surface material was subsampled for sediment characterization, placed in individual storage bags, and stored on ice. The surface samples were transported to the USGS SPCMSC. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    U.S.

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2014 (process 2 of 3)
    In the laboratory, samples were homogenized in the sample bag and a subsample of each 1-cm interval was processed for basic sediment characteristics (dry bulk density and porosity). Water content, porosity and dry bulk density were determined using water mass lost during drying. Approximately 20 – 30 milliliters (mL) of each wet subsample was packed into a graduated syringe with 0.5 mL resolution. The wet sediment was then extracted into a pre-weighed aluminum tray and the weight of the wet sediment was recorded. The wet sediment and tray were placed in a drying oven for approximately 48 hours at 60°C. Water content (θ ) was determined as the mass of water (mass lost when dried) relative to the initial wet sediment mass. Porosity was estimated from the report equation in the document. Salt-mass contributions were removed from the porosity values under the assumption that pore water salinity was equivalent to average salinity of 25. Dry bulk density was calculated from the report equation in the document. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    U.S.

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
    Date: 2014 (process 3 of 3)
    Organic matter (OM) content was determined using a similar mass loss technique, commonly referred to as loss on ignition (LOI). The dry sediment from the processing described above was homogenized using a porcelain mortar and pestle. Approximately 1 – 5 grams (g) of dry sediment was placed into a pre-weighed porcelain crucible. The mass of the dried sediment was recorded with an analytical balance to a precision of 0.01 g. The samples were then placed into a laboratory muffle furnace with stabilizing temperature control. The furnace was ramped to 110°C over a 30 minute interval and then held at 110°C for 2 hours. Samples were removed and weighed to determine excess moisture loss. Samples were then placed back in the furnace. The furnace was then ramped to 550°C over a 30 minute interval and then held at 550°C for 6 hours. The furnace temperature was then lowered to 60°C and held at this temperature until the sediments could be reweighed. The latter step prevents the absorption of moisture, which can affect the measurement. Samples were reweighed using the same balance and to a precision of 0.01 g. The mass lost during the 6 hour baking period relative to the initial dry mass is used as a metric of OM content (modified from Dean, 1974). Data are reported as a ratio of mass (milligrams, mg) of organic matter to mass (g) of dry sediment (post-110 oC drying). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    Research Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    U.S.

    (727) 502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The physical parameters reported in the tables were analyzed at the USGS SPCMSC sedimentology lab. These lithologic data have not been independently verified for accuracy. Replicate analyses of loss on ignition are reported for quality assurance.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This is a complete processed physical parameters data file for the spring and fall Assateague Island surficial sediment seasonal comparison archive.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The data includes sample ID, date collected, water content, dry bulk density, porosity, and loss on ignition.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be referenced as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Christopher G. Smith
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    U.S.

    502-8000 (voice)
    cgsmith@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. Is there some other way to get the data?
    none
  6. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These spreadsheets included in this .zip file were created for use with Microsoft Excel 2010. They may also be viewed with the Microsoft Excel viewer or by downloading a Microsoft Compatibility Pack to view with older versions of Microsoft Excel. The .zip file also contains comma delimited files (.csv) of the physical parameter data for surface and subsurface sediments. The .csv data files contains the tabular data in plain text and may be viewed with a standard text editor.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 01-May-2015
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: Christopher G. Smith
Research Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
U.S.

(727) 502-8000 (voice)
cgsmith@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/OFR20151169_Physical_Parameter-met.faq.html>
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