Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 30-31, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey (during Field Activity Number [FAN] 11CCH04) from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore (Figure 2, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/ds979_fig2.html). This mission was flown to collect data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, which was flown in May 2008 (http://compass.er.usgs.gov/activity_popup.php?id=114), and can be used for assessing future coastal change. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of the feature in the images. (See the Navigation Data page, for additional details: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/ds979_nav.html). These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. ExifTool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/) was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. All image times are recorded in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Table 1 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/ds979_table.html) provides detailed information about the assigned location, name, date, and time the photograph was taken along with a link to the photograph. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML files were created using the photographic navigation files. Note: A KML number was assigned to each photograph to aid navigation of the Google Earth file. These numbers correspond to the site labels in Google Earth.
Supplemental_Information:
For a summary of field activity 11CCH04 please see http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/field-activity-schedule/activity_popup.php?id=267. Ancillary files included in this release are ds979_11cch04.csv, ds979_11cch04_0830_garmin18p.txt, and ds979_11cch04.kml, in addition to the digitized oblique aerial image files. Bounding coordinates for the oblique aerial survey are derived from the overall flight path found in the raw GPS data.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Morgan, Karen L.M., and Krohn, M. Dennis, 2016, Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Data Series 979, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, Fla..

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -76.2081467
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.4326800
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.9355000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 35.0388650
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/index.jpg (JPEG)
    Map showing the post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique survey flight path from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011. Red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/html_images/fig2.jpg (JPEG)
    Graphic for Acquisition Geometry (Figure 2) for USGS field activity 11CCH04. Graphic shows basic flight distance from the shore and elevation during the survey for the aircraft used.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/html_images/contents.jpg (JPEG)
    Graphic used on Contents page of USGS field activity 11CCH04 oblique aerial photographs Data Series. Graphic shows the directory structure of the publication.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/11CCH04_1.jpg (JPEG)
    Area 1 - Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Duck, North Carolina. Map showing the post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial survey flight path divided into 5-minute (time) segments. The flight path is represented by the alternating purple and yellow lines. Pages containing thumbnail images of photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created based on these segments. The red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/11CCH04_2.jpg (JPEG)
    Area 2 - Virginia Beach, Virginia, to Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Map showing the post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial survey flight path divided into 5-minute (time) segments. The flight path is represented by the alternating purple and yellow lines. Pages containing thumbnail images of photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created based on these segments. The red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/inset04_rodanthepeaisl.jpg (JPEG)
    Rodanthe and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge inset map (Area 1). Map showing flight path of post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial survey from the ranger station in the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, to Rodanthe, North Carolina, on August 30, 2011. Purple and yellow lines correspond to 5-minute flight segments that link to contact sheets of associated photo thumbnails. Click on the 5-minute segment name to view each contact sheet. Red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/inset05_rodanthepeaisl.jpg (JPEG)
    Rodanthe and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge inset map (Area 2). Map showing flight path of the post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial survey from the ranger station in the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, to Rodanthe, North Carolina, on August 31, 2011. Purple and yellow lines correspond to 5-minute flight segments that link to contact sheets of associated photo thumbnails. Click on the 5-minute segment name to view each contact sheet. Red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/maps/inset06_hatteras.jpg (JPEG)
    Hatteras inset map (Area 2). Map showing flight path of post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial survey from Frisco, North Carolina, to Hatteras, North Carolina, on August 31, 2011. Purple and yellow lines correspond to 5-minute flight segments that link to contact sheets of associated photo thumbnails. Click on the 5-minute segment name to view each contact sheet. Red line shows the storm track (provided by Unisys Weather).
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 30-Aug-2011
    Beginning_Time: 181601
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-2011
    Ending_Time: 192251
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
    Multimedia presentation of JPEG images and point data in ASCII and CSV files
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: none
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    KML file: The Google Earth project is available as a KML file. The post-Hurricane Irene storm track KML was provided by Unisys Weather (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/index.php). Each KML includes photo numbers, photo locations, and the storm track (if it is a post-storm survey). KML file(s): The KML file is ds979_11CCH04.kml. The KML file can be found in http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/kml.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Storm track for Hurricane Irene is available from UnIsYs Weather, http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/index.php.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Graphic Image Files: All survey area maps are JPEG images. The index map shows the post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photography survey flight path from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011. The index map also shows the delineation of two areas, which link to more detailed maps and indicate how the full-size photographs have been divided into smaller area(s). The survey area maps are JPEG images. The survey maps contain links to the 5-minute segment contact sheets.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Navigation file(s): The navigation files are ds979_11cch04.csv and ds979_11cch04_0830_garmin18p.txt (located in the nav folder, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/downloads/nav/). The processed file(s) (*.csv) are comma-delimited and the raw navigation file(s) (*.txt) are tab-delimited ASCII text files.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Navigation, maps and KML files were derived from GPS data collected in flight. Storm track for Hurricane Irene is available from Unisys Weather.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Karen L.M. Morgan
    • M. Dennis Krohn
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Funding and (or) support for this study was provided by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP). The authors wish to thank the pilot, Mitch Bobowski, for his assistance in data collection.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To provide access to digital photographs taken as part of the August 30-31, 2011, post-Hurricane Irene oblique aerial survey collected along the coast, from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, and to provide access to attribute data that document the time and location of where each photograph was taken.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 15-Jan-2013 (process 1 of 11)
    Image Acquisition: Photographs were taken using a Nikon D1X camera. The camera was tethered to a Panasonic C-51 Toughbook. Images were written directly to the computer hard drive using Nikon Capture Control Version 4.4.2. Best effort was made at the beginning of the flight to synchronize both the computer's and the camera's internal clocks to within 1 second of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) time from the GPS sensor. The D1X records GPS in the EXIF Header. Image size is approximately 6 megapixels. Note: GPS locations indicate the position of the aircraft at the time of the photograph, not the position of the feature in the image. Additional images were taken using a Nikon Coolpix 6000 camera. These images were taken from the front of the plane as additional documentation of the flight. These images are designated with a "d2" in the filename. Image size is approximately 13 megapixels, and imageswere captured to SDHD card within the camera. Best effort was made at the beginning of the flight to synchronize the cameras' internal clocks to within 1 second of GMT from the GPS sensor. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 2 of 11)
    Navigation Files: Navigation files were extracted as comma-delimited American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text files using Fugawi Marine ENC Ver. 4 GPS Navigation Software. The Garmin GPS 18 PC recorded latitude (decimal degrees), longitude (decimal degrees), UTM eastings, UTM northings, UTM zone, altitude (meters), local date (yyyymmdd), UTC date (yyyymmdd), local time (hhmmss), UTC time (hhmmss), speed (kilometers per hour, kph), leg distance (meters from last data point), true/magnetic indicator, total flight distance (meters), and sequence number at an interval of approximately 1 every second. Navigation files can be found on the Navigation Page (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979/html/ds979_nav.html) of the USGS Data Series (DS979) associated with this metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 3 of 11)
    Image Processing: Images were converted to JPEG format using Nikon Capture Camera Editor Ver 4.4.2. Images in JPEG format were saved using the filename format yyyy_mmdd_hhmmssd.jpg (where the "d" signifies digital acquisition using a digital camera). The names provide information about the photograph's year, month, day, hour, minute, and second. For example, image 2011_0830_133636d.jpg was taken August 30, 2011, at 13:36:36 UTC. Best effort was made to set the camera's internal clock to within 1 second of UTC at the beginning of the flight. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 4 of 11)
    Image Capture: Images were saved to the computer hard drive using Nikon Capture Camera Editor Ver 4.4.2. Images in JPEG format were saved using the filename format yyyy_mmdd_hhmmssd.jpg (where the "d" at the end signifies digital acquisition using the Nikon D1X). The names provide information about the photograph's year, month, day, hour, minute, and second. For example, image 2011_0830_133636d.jpg was taken August 30, 2011, at 13:36:36 UTC. Best effort was made to set the Nikon D1X camera's internal clock to within 1 second of UTC at the beginning of the flight. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 5 of 11)
    Navigation Files: Navigation processing: Using a custom Perl script written by K. Morgan of the USGS, GPS data and image files were used to generate CSV files containing latitude, longitude, and time for each image. Each processed navigation file was saved as a CSV file, ds979_11cch04.csv, using Microsoft Excel 2011. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 6 of 11)
    HTML Creation: The digital images were organized into 5-minute (time) segments. These 5-minute segments were used to create HTML pages, called contact sheets. A contact sheet was created for every 5-minute segment of the survey. The contact sheets contain thumbnails of each of the photographs. Each thumbnail links to the corresponding full-size area map or photograph. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 7 of 11)
    Geospatial Processing: The navigation data were edited using Microsoft Excel 2011 and saved as a CSV file to ensure compatibility with ArcGIS software and were also used to produce Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) shapefiles using ArcGIS 10.1. These shapefiles were used to produce the JPEG maps included in the Data Series report; however, the shapefiles were not included in the report. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Jul-2015 (process 8 of 11)
    Survey map creation: The survey maps provided in this archive were created with Esri ArcGIS 10.1 software and saved as Adobe Illustrator (*.ai) files. Survey maps were edited using Adobe Illustrator CS6 and exported in JPEG format. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Jul-2015 (process 9 of 11)
    Google Earth file creation: The KML files were created using the photographic navigation file ds979_11cch04.csv. The storm track (in KML format) was provided by Unisys Weather. To aid navigation through the KML file, each image was assigned a sequential KML number. Table 1 of this report shows the KML number given to each image, the corresponding image name, and associated attributes. Each point on the Google Earth file contains the KML number, storm name, latitude, longitude, image name, geographic area, date, time, a thumbnail of the full-size photograph, and links to the full-size photographs and contact sheets. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2011 (process 10 of 11)
    EXIF headers: Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) and International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) headers were populated from the command prompt using ExifTool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool, 2012) as part of the post-flight processing using a Perl script written by K. Morgan, USGS - St. Petersburg, Fla. ExifTool added the following data to the EXIFHeader: time of collection, GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Jul-2015 (process 11 of 11)
    In addition to the process steps described above, the following steps were taken to produce this Data Series report: digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs were created at the beginning of each flight and saved as PDF and TXT files. In addition, an HTML-based format was used to present the various parts of this archive. Person who carried out this activity:
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Best attempts were made to set the camera to UTC on the GPS receivers at the beginning of each flight. Latitude, longitude, and time were collected at an interval of approximately once per second. NOTE: Latitude and longitude positions in this report refer to the position of the aircraft, not the position of the landmarks photographed. Refer to the Process Steps below for more detail.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Best attempts were made to maintain the same relative distance between the aircraft and the beach in order to keep a constant field of view.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    No known issues
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data presented here include the digitally collected photographs in JPEG format with EXIF headers embedded with the individual photograph's location along the flight path of a post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographic survey of the coast, from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia. This mission was flown on August 30-31, 2011, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain, tail number N2KK. Crew members include Karen L.M. Morgan and M. Dennis Krohn of the USGS in St. Petersburg, Fla., and pilot, Mitch Bobowski, of Bay Air Charters, Inc. Also on the flight were Cyril Barbançon and John Jackson (The Discovery Channel). Still photography was collected along the coast during this survey. Photographer: Karen L.M. Morgan. GPS Data Collection: Instrument: Garmin GPS 18 PC, WAAS Enabled. Data Collection Interval: 1 Second. Data File Format: Native Fugawi and Text. Number of files created: Two. Computer: Panasonic Toughbook CF-51. Software: Fugawi Marine ENC, Ver. 4 Navigation Software. The GPS unit was used to record navigation fixes of the aircraft, not the position of the features imaged.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of the data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    K. Morgan
    USGS
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 502-8037 (voice)
    kmorgan@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 979
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: CSV: CSV files representing table information collected during the flight. JPEG: Images can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer. The survey's full-size photographs are divided into areas. ds979_11CCH04.kml has photographs. TXT: Text files representing the navigation files, FACS log, metadata and readme files collected during and after the survey. KML: The KMLs provided may be viewed with Google Earth (http://www.google.com/earth/download/ge/agree.html). in format CSV, JPEG, TXT, KML
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0979
    • Cost to order the data: None, if obtained online.

    • Special instructions:
      Publications are available from USGS Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Col., 80225-0046 (telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS, e-mail: infoservices@usgs.gov).

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Jul-2015
Metadata author:
K. Morgan
USGS
Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

(727) 502-8037 (voice)
kmorgan@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/ds979_metadata.faq.html>
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