GeoTIFF image of the shaded-relief bathymetry, pseudo-colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon region (100-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 2017
Title:
GeoTIFF image of the shaded-relief bathymetry, pseudo-colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon region (100-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/F77H1GSF
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F77H1GSF
Online_Linkage: Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bradford Butman
Originator: William W. Danforth
Originator: David C. Twichell
Originator: Peter A. Rona
Publication_Date: 2017
Title:
Bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and geomorphology of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon and adjacent slope and rise
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/F77H1GSF
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Suggested citation: Butman, Bradford, Danforth, W.W., Twichell, D.C., and Rona, P.A., 2017, Bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and geomorphology of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon and adjacent slope and rise: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F77H1GSF.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F77H1GSF
Description:
Abstract:
The Hudson Canyon begins on the outer continental shelf off the east coast of the United States at about 100-meters (m) water depth and extends offshore southeastward across the continental slope and rise. A multibeam survey was carried out in 2002 to map the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon and adjacent slope and rise. The survey covered an area approximately 205 kilometers (km) in the offshore direction, extending from about 500 m to about 4,000 m water depth, and about 110 km in the alongshore direction, centered on the Hudson Canyon. The sea floor was mapped using a SeaBeam Instruments 2112 multibeam echosounder aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ronald H. Brown. Maps derived from the multibeam observations show sea-floor bathymetry and backscatter intensity (a measure of sea floor texture and roughness), geomorphic provinces, and sea-floor environments (Butman and others, 2006). The sea floor was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University and with support from NOAA.
Purpose:
The GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry colored by backscatter intensity provides a visualization of both bathymetry and backscatter intensity. The shaded-relief image was created by vertically exaggerating the bathymetry 3 times and then artificially illuminating the relief from the northwest (315 degrees, approximately the down-slope direction) by a light source positioned 45 degrees above the horizon. The backscatter intensity is represented by a suite of eight colors ranging from blue (low intensity) to green to yellow to red (high intensity).
Supplemental_Information:
Maps and interpretations of the multibeam echosounder data from the 2002 multibeam survey of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon region are published in Butman and others (2006) (see cross reference). This publication includes the previously unpublished digital multibeam data and interpretations with FGDC-compliant metadata (CSDGM format). The data were collected on Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activity 2002-050-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2002-050-FA). Other datasets from the 2002 survey may be found in Butman and others (2017) (see larger work citation). Andrews and others (2013) (see cross reference) present a bathymetric terrain model for the Atlantic margin which includes the Hudson Canyon region.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20020827
Ending_Date: 20020915
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.583333
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.050364
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.866667
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.583745
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Metadata Identifier
Theme_Keyword: USGS:58fa5f30e4b0b7ea54525687
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: backscatter intensity
Theme_Keyword: GeoTIFF image
Theme_Keyword: shaded-relief topography
Theme_Keyword: sea floor mapping
Theme_Keyword: multibeam
Theme_Keyword: SeaBeam Instruments 2112 multibeam
Theme_Keyword: NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown
Theme_Keyword: RB0207
Theme_Keyword: WHCMSC field activity 2002-050-FA
Theme_Keyword: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC)
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP)
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
Theme_Keyword: Rutgers Institute of Coastal and Marine Sciences
Theme_Keyword: USGS Open-File Report 2004-1441
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: sea-floor acoustic reflectivity
Theme_Keyword: sea-floor characteristics
Theme_Keyword: marine geology
Theme_Keyword: ocean sciences
Theme_Keyword: multibeam sonar
Theme_Keyword: marine geophysics
Theme_Keyword: topography
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Hudson Canyon
Place_Keyword: New York Bight
Place_Keyword: Middle Atlantic Bight
Place_Keyword: North Atlantic Ocean
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Stratum_Keyword: sea floor
Stratum_Keyword: seafloor
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Temporal_Keyword: 2002
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: These data are not to be used for navigation purposes.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Bradford Butman
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2212
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bbutman@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Browse graphic of the shaded-relief bathymetry, pseudo-colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor of the Hudson Canyon region.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows Vista Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.1.4095
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Butman, Bradford
Originator: Twichell, D.C.
Originator: Rona, P.A.
Originator: Tucholke, B.E.
Originator: Middleton, T.J.
Originator: Robb, J.R.
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Canyon region offshore of New York and New Jersey
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-1441
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1441/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Butman, Bradford
Originator: Middleton, T.J.
Originator: Thieler, E.R.
Originator: Schwab, W.C.
Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Topography, shaded relief and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Shelf Valley, offshore of New York
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 03-372
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-372/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Andrews, B.D.
Originator: Chaytor, J.D.
Originator: ten Brink, U.S.
Originator: Brothers, D.S.
Originator: Gardner, J.V.
Publication_Date: 2013
Title:
Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2012-1266
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1266/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Clarke, J.H.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: SwathEd
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New Brunswick, Canada
Publisher: Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick
Online_Linkage: https://www.omg.unb.ca/~jhc/SwathEd.html
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Butman, Bradford
Originator: Danforth, W.W.
Originator: Clarke, J.E.H.
Originator: Signell, R.P.
Publication_Date: 2017
Title:
Bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Hudson Shelf Valley
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/F7C53J1Z
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7C53J1Z
Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All data were processed in the same manner. Some features in the multibeam data are artifacts of data collection and environmental conditions. They include small highs and lows and unnatural-looking features, and patterns oriented parallel or perpendicular to survey tracklines. The orientation of the tracklines is sometimes identified by the faint parallel stripes in the image.
Completeness_Report:
This image includes bathymetry and backscatter intensity data collected with a SeaBeam Instruments 2112 multibeam mapping system on Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activity 2002-050-FA. There are a few gaps in the image due to incomplete coverage by the multibeam system. Other datasets from the 2002 survey of the Hudson Canyon may be found in Butman and others (2017) (see larger work citation).
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Navigation was by differential GPS. Horizontal accuracy is approximately 10 m.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: NOAA
Originator: S. Thompson Bolmer
Originator: James M. Robb
Originator: Peter A. Rona
Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: raw SeaBeam 2112 multibeam data
Type_of_Source_Media: disc
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20020830
Ending_Date: 20020915
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: none
Source_Contribution:
A SeaBeam Instruments 2112 multibeam Echo Sounder (12 kHz) was used to acquire the bathymetric data on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown. This system utilized up to 151 electronically aimed beams spaced at intervals of 2 degrees that insonify a swath of sea floor up to 3 times the water depth. Over the continental rise, in water depths greater than about 2,000 m, a 5-km track separation was employed, which provided almost 100% overlap of the insonified area from swath to swath. Time considerations compelled less than ideal coverage of the continental slope area, where a track-line separation of about 1.7 km was used, that provided nearly no data overlap between swaths. The survey was conducted at approximately 10 knots (18.5 km/hr). The horizontal resolution of the beam on the sea floor ranged from about 20-65 m in the across-track direction and about 10 m in the along-track direction at 500 m water depth, and from about 100-400 m across-track and 40 m along-track at 3,000 m water depth. Navigation was by GPS. The data were collected on Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activity 2002-050-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2002-050-FA).
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A suite of processing software (called SwathEd) (Clarke, 1998; see cross reference) developed by the Ocean Mapping Group at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, was used to process, edit, grid, display, and archive the multibeam data. The metadata for the bathymetric grid (see larger work citation) describes the processing steps applied to the navigation and bathymetric soundings. The following processing steps produced the shaded-relief image of bathymetry, colored by backscatter intensity for the 2002 Hudson Shelf Canyon SeaBeam datasets:
1. Create a blank 8 bit map file:
Command line: make_blank mosaic_file
This command commences a dialog to enable an 8 bit image and input the map boundaries and resolution (100 meters in this case). The program also prompts for the projection type and parameters to be used creating the binary map file (custom Mercator projection, central longitude of -75 degrees, latitude of true scale 40 degrees north).
Then the "blank" file is copied to two files required by the mosaic program:
Command line: cp mosaic_file.blank mosaic_file.mos Command line: cp mosaic_file.blank mosaic_file.ran
2. Create backscatter files that can be then mosaicked from the SeaBeam sidescan data:
Command line: removeAngular -use_calib filename.mb41.merged Command line: makess filename.mb41.merged filename.mb41.ss Command line: glhist filename.mb41.ss filename.mb41.ss_hist
3. Mosaic all the backscatter files created in the last step (for each filename.mb41.ss_hist), and then use a two point linear contrast stretch to enhance the backscatter image.
Command line: mos2 -autoseam -auto_dg -custom_weight BEAM_weights -maxdist 50 mosaic_file filename.mb41.ss_hist Command line: stretchacres -low 110 -high 140 -in mosaic_file -out mosaic_file.stretch
4. Create a shaded-relief image of the bathymetry using SwathEd routine addSUN (sun elevation of 45 degrees from 315, vertically exaggerating 3 times).
Command line: addSUN -elev 45 -azi 315 -vert_exag 3.0 gridFile.r4 filename.shade
Note: Errors in the UNB gridding software were identified in 2003 and 2007. These data were processed with corrected software.
Process_Date: 2009
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: William W. Danforth
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2274
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Use a two point linear contrast stretch (0-254; 255 is no data) to enhance the shaded-relief image:
Command line: stretchacres -low 150 -high 200 -in filename.shade -out filename_shade.stretch
Create an image of shaded-relief topography, colored by backscatter intensity:
Command line: mix_ci -c mosaic_file.stretch -i filename_shade.stretch -m mosaic_file.pseudo
Create a TIFF from the pseudocolored backscatter mosaic file using the netpbm utilities (http://netpbm.sourceforge.net/):
Command line: rawtopgm -headerskip 1024 image_width image_height mosaic_file.pseudo | pnmtotiff -none - > mosaic_pseudo.tif
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: William W. Danforth
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2274
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Create a TIFF world file (tfw) for the pseudocolored backscatter intensity image for import to ArcGIS. Copy bounding box and resolution information from the jview program output to the .tfw file.
Command line: jview mosaic_file.pseudo
Process_Date: 2015
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: William W. Danforth
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2274
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Import image into Photoshop and convert from an 8-bit image to a 3-band 24-bit RGB image. This improves the quality of the image when viewed in ArcMAP at small map scale.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: William W. Danforth
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2274
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Create GeoTIFF image using the Define Projection Tool in Data Management Tools, Projections and Transformations in ArcToolbox 9.3. Projection is custom Mercator, central meridian of -75.0 degrees, latitude of true scale 40.0 degrees north, false easting 0.0, false northing 0.0; Geographic Coordinate System WGS 1984.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Bradford Butman
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x 2212
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bbutman@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword.
Process_Date: 20200807
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 2489
Column_Count: 2163
Vertical_Count: 1
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Mercator
Mercator:
Standard_Parallel: 40.000000
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.000000
False_Easting: 0.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 100.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 100.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The backscatter intensity is combined with the bathymetry to display the distribution of intensity in relation to the bathymetry. In the image shown here, the backscatter intensity is represented by a suite of eight colors ranging from blue, which represents low intensity, to red, which represents high intensity. These data are draped over a shaded-relief image created by vertically exaggerating the bathymetry three times and then artificially illuminating the relief by a light source positioned 45 degrees above the horizon from an azimuth of 315 degrees. The resulting image displays light and dark intensities within each color band that result from a feature's position with respect to the light source. For example, northwest-facing slopes, receiving strong illumination, show as a light intensity within a color band, whereas southeast-facing slopes, being in shadow, show as a dark intensity within a color band. Image is 3-band, 24-bit R, G, B; (255, 255, 255) is no data.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Denver Federal Center
Address: Building 810
Address: Mail Stop 302
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-275-8747
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sciencebase@usgs.gov
Resource_Description:
hc_rb_srback.zip: contains hc_rb_srback.tif, hc_rb_srback.tfw, and associated FGDC-compliant metadata (CSDGM format).
Distribution_Liability:
Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the U.S. Geological Survey, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: ArcGIS 9.3
Format_Specification: GeoTIFF image
Format_Information_Content:
GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry colored by backscatter intensity and associated metadata from a 2002 multibeam survey of the Hudson Canyon compressed in a zip file.
File_Decompression_Technique: zip
Transfer_Size: 2.3
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information: Access_Instructions:
The network resources offer the options of downloading all the files, individual files, or accessing the landing page of the data.
Fees: none
Technical_Prerequisites:
The GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry colored by backscatter intensity is compressed into a zip file (hc_rb_srback.zip). To use these data, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the zip file and ArcGIS or another GIS application package capable of viewing the data.
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20200807
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Bradford Butman
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Woods Hole Science Center
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bbutman@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time

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