Radiogenic heat content for selected cores recovered during T-3 Ice Island heat flow operations in the Arctic Ocean, 1963-74

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Radiogenic heat content for selected cores recovered during T-3 Ice Island heat flow operations in the Arctic Ocean, 1963-74
Abstract:
The T-3 (Fletcher's) Ice Island in the Arctic Ocean was the site of a scientific research station re-established by the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory starting in 1962. Starting in 1963, the USGS acquired marine heat flow data and coincident sediment cores at sites in Canada Basin, Nautilus Basin, Mendeleev Ridge, and Alpha Ridge as the ice island drifted in the Amerasian Basin. Radiogenic heat content in sediments can be an important contributor to measured heat flow. The USGS therefore measured radiogenic heat content in sediments recovered at 26 of the attempted/successful heat flow measurement sites using the laboratory methods available at the time. This dataset reports the measured radiogenic heat values and converts them to modern (SI) units.
Supplemental_Information:
This dataset is Table 1 in: Lachenbruch, A.H., Marshall, B.V., and Ruppel, C.D., 2019, Post-expedition report for USGS T-3 Ice Island heat flow measurements in the High Arctic Ocean, 1963-1973: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P91XQ3IS. Data are retained in original non-SI mass heat units and converted to SI mass units. Conversion to modern units of volumetric heating due to radiogenic content requires assumption of a density and is not included here.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Ruppel, Carolyn D., and Lachenbruch, Arthur H., 2019, Radiogenic heat content for selected cores recovered during T-3 Ice Island heat flow operations in the Arctic Ocean, 1963-74: data release DOI:10.5066/P97EPU2F, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Ruppel, Carolyn D., Hutchinson, Deborah R., Lachenbruch, Arthur H., and Hall, John K., 2019, Thermal Data and Navigation for T-3 (Fletcher's) Ice Island Arctic Ocean Heat Flow Studies, 1963-1973: data release DOI:10.5066/P97EPU2F, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Ruppel, C.D., Hutchinson, D.R., Lachenbruch, A.H., and Hall, J.K., 2019, Thermal data and navigation for T-3 (Fletcher's) Ice Island Arctic Ocean heat flow studies, 1963-73: USGS data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P97EPU2F.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -175.883
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -135.150
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.870
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 75.367
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5d10eb70e4b0941bde55021a?name=T3radiogenicgraphic.jpg (JPEG)
    Radiogenic heat content as reported in Table 1 of Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference, color-coded by heat mass unit converted to SI units from the original units. The background bathymetry is from: Jakobsson, M. and others ( 2012), The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L12609, doi:10.1029/2012GL052219.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1963
    Ending_Date: 1968
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698214.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Not known, but likely was water's surface below the ice.
      Depth_Resolution: 0.1
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    T3radioactive_massunitorig.xlsx
    Excel 2013 Worksheet (Source: Producer Defined)
    station
    Core/heat flow penetration number (station number). Usually cited as "FL-" followed by this ID number in publications and databases. Note that not all station numbers used here correspond to a successful heat flow measurements. This means that core was recovered, but a heat flow measurement was not recorded, at some stations. Stations where radiogenic heat was determined, but no heat flow recorded, are FL-1, FL-7, FL-84, FL-101, FL-112, FL-183, FL-228, and FL-280. Note that FL-1 is not marked as lacking heat flow in Table 1 of the original Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference--document, but FL-1 is lacking from Table 2 (heat flow) of that report, which documents only stations at which heat flow measurements were successful. (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:280
    latitude (degrees N)
    Latitude of position of decimal degrees. Positive is north latitude. (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:75.37
    Maximum:83.87
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.01
    longitude (degrees W)
    Longitude of position in decimal degrees. Negative means longitude west of the Greenwich meridian. (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-175.89
    Maximum:-135.15
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.01
    water depth (m)
    Water depth (meters) (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1178
    Maximum:3782
    Units:meters
    Resolution:1
    radiogenic heat production mass unit (microcalorie/(gram-year)
    Radiogenic heat production from uranium, thorium, and potassium in heat mass units of microcal/(g-yr) (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.89
    Maximum:8.46
    Units:microcalories/(gram-year)
    Resolution:0.01
    radiogenic heat production mass unit (W/kg)
    Radiogenic heat production from uranium, thorium, and potassium in heat mass units of Watts/kilogram (Source: Producer Defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.16e-10
    Maximum:1.12e-9
    Units:Watts/kilogram
    Resolution:0.01

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Carolyn D. Ruppel
    • Arthur H. Lachenbruch
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Dataset originally compiled by Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Carolyn Ruppel
    U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Research Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2339 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    cruppel@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To provide radiogenic heat content at 26 locations where heat flow measurements were attempted by the USGS in the Arctic Ocean between 1963 and 1973.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 31-Dec-1974 (process 1 of 4)
    Radiogenic heat content for sediments from cores recovered at selected attempted heat flow measurement sites in the Arctic Ocean was determined using gamma ray spectrometric methods by Carl Bunker of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado. The methodology is described in: (1) Bunker, C. M., and Bush, C. A., 1966, Uranium, thorium, and radium analyses by gamma-ray spectrometry (0.184-0.352 million electron volts): U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 550-B, p. Bl76-181; and (2) Bunker, C. M., and Bush, C. A., 1967, A comparison of potassium analyses by gamma-ray spectrometry and other techniques: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 575-B p. B164-Bl69. All the cores analyzed were recovered between 1963 and 1968, as determined by correlation with other published datasets (for example, University of Wisconsin-Department of Geosciences (2016) NCEI data release--see cross-reference). Process date are unknown so are designated as last day of the inferred year of the corresponding report (Lachenbruch and others, 2019; see cross-reference) Data sources used in this process:
    • Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference
    Date: 2016 (process 2 of 4)
    Data were manually entered into an Excel file. Latitudes and longitudes recorded by Table 1 of Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference--in degree-minute format were converted to decimal degrees. Radiogenic heat content for sediments from cores recovered at selected attempted heat flow measurement sites in the Arctic Ocean were converted from their original radiogenic heat mass units of microcalories/(gram-year) to modern (SI) radiogenic heat mass units of Watts per kilogram. The original radiogenic heat mass units are multiplied by 1000 g/kg and by 4.1868 Watts/calorie and divided by 3.15576e7 seconds per year to convert to Watts per kilogram. Data sources used in this process:
    • Table 1 of Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference
    Date: 21-Jun-2019 (process 3 of 4)
    The Excel 2013 XLSX file was written in CSV format using "save as". Data sources used in this process:
    • T3Radiogenic.csv
    Date: 06-Aug-2020 (process 4 of 4)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Lachenbruch, Arthur H., Marshall, B. Vaughn, and Ruppel, C.D, 2019, Post-expedition report for USGS T-3 Ice Island heat flow measurements in the High Arctic Ocean, 1963-1973: data release DOI:10.5066/P91XQ3IS, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This dataset is Table 1 in: Lachenbruch, A.H., Marshall, B.V., and Ruppel, C.D., 2019, Post-expedition report for USGS T-3 Ice Island heat flow measurements in the High Arctic Ocean, 1963-1973: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P91XQ3IS.
    Ruppel, Carolyn D., Lachenbruch, Arthur H., Hutchinson, Deborah R., Munroe, Robert, and Mosher, David C., 2019, Heat Flow in the Western Arctic Ocean (Amerasian Basin): Journal of Geophysical Research DOI:10.1029/2019JB017587, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C..

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Ruppel, C.D., Lachenbruch, A.H., Hutchinson, D.R., Munroe, R., and Mosher, D.C., 2019, Heat flow in the Western Arctic Ocean (Amerasian Basin), J. Geophysical Research.
    Clark, David L., Whitman, Rick R., Morgan, Kirk A., and Mackey, Scudder D., 1980, Stratigraphy and glacial-marine sediments of the Amerasian Basin, central Arctic Ocean: Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: pp. 1-65
    University Of Wisconsin-Madison Department Of Geoscience, 2016, Archive of information about the Ice Island T3 piston core collection: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, n/a.

    Online Links:

    Darby, D. A., Naidu, A. S., Mowatt, T. C., and Jones, G., 1989, Sediment Composition and Sedimentary Processes in the Arctic Ocean: Springer US, Boston, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    In: Herman Y. (eds) The Arctic Seas. Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 657-720. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0677-1_24

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    no information available
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Background on navigation is summarized in: Hunkins, K., and W. Tiemann (1977), Geophysical data summary for Fletcher's Ice Island (T-3), 1962-1974, Technical Report, Lamont-Doherty Survey of the World Ocean Rep. CU-1-77, 219 pp, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and in the cross-referenced Journal of Geophysical Research paper (Ruppel and others, 2019) associated with this release. See also "T-3 Ice Island One Hour Navigation: May 14, 1962 to September 15, 1974" within this data release. Before 1967, navigation relied on theodolite fixes of the sun (summer) and stars (winter) coupled with a chronometer that was frequently checked for accuracy via radio. Hunkins and Tiemann [1977] estimate a positional error of up to 1 km during the summer and 0.5 km in the winter for this period. Starting in 1967, satellite data from the Navy Navigation Satellite System provided positional fixes, and Hunkins and Tiemann [1977] estimate that positions were known within 250 m. Based on the years of the island's occupation, the horizontal datum is assumed to be NAD27.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    The depths reported in the data table accompanying the Lachenbruch and others (2019)--see cross-reference--are apparently line-out depths for the heat flow apparatus. No additional information with regards to depth measurements is indicated, and no vertical coordinate system is specified. Note that Hunkins and Tiemann (1977) also collected depth measurements using seismic and subbottom profiling systems and these are reported in "T-3 Ice Island One Hour Navigation: May 14, 1962 to September 15, 1974" as part of this data release. It is not known whether these depth measurements were adopted for the heat flow and radiogenic heat datasets.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Radiogenic heat values are determined only for a subset of all the cores recovered in the Arctic Ocean during the USGS T-3 heat flow expedition. The data are assumed to represent results for all of the radiogenic heat content analyses performed by the USGS.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data fall within reasonable ranges for sediments believed to be present in the Arctic Ocean.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None. Please see 'Distribution Info' for details.
Use_Constraints:
None. Users are advised to read the dataset's metadata thoroughly to understand appropriate use and data limitations.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The dataset contains the data in both Excel XLSX format and CSV format (T3Radiogenic.xlsx, T3Radiogenic.csv), browse graphic of data locations (T3_radiogenicgraphic.jpg), and CSDGM metadata in XML, TXT, and HTML formats.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Aug-2020
Metadata author:
Carolyn Ruppel
U.S. Geological Survey, Northeast Region
Research Geophysicist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
United States

508-548-8700 x2339 (voice)
cruppel@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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