Listing of File Names, Positions and Altitudes of Images Collected During Unmanned Aerial Systems Flights Over Town Neck Beach, in Sandwich, Massachusetts on January 22, January 25, February 11, March 30, and September 21, 2016

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Listing of File Names, Positions and Altitudes of Images Collected During Unmanned Aerial Systems Flights Over Town Neck Beach, in Sandwich, Massachusetts on January 22, January 25, February 11, March 30, and September 21, 2016
Abstract:
Low-altitude (30-120 meters above ground level) digital images of Town Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts, were obtained with a series of cameras mounted on small unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as a drone). Imagery was collected at close to low tide on five days to observe changes in beach and dune morphology. The images were geolocated by using the single-frequency geographic positioning system aboard the UAS. Ground control points (GCPs) were established by using temporary targets on the ground, which were located by using a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS) base station and rovers. The GCPs can be used as constraints during photogrammetric processing. Transect points were collected by using the same RTK-GNSS system; these can be used to evaluate photogrammetric products. This data release includes georeferenced images, image-location files, GCPs, and transect points. Collection of these data was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal/Marine Hazards and Resources Program and conducted under U.S. Geological Survey field activity numbers 2016-013-FA, 2016-043-FA, 2016-053-FA, 2016-054-FA and 2016-055-FA.
Supplemental_Information:
For more information about the field activity, see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-053-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-0054-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-055-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-013-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-043-FA.
Drone mapping was conducted at Town Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts between 2015 and October 2017. The digital images, Ground Control Points and transect data from a calendar year are released together. This product contains the data collected in 2016.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2019, Listing of File Names, Positions and Altitudes of Images Collected During Unmanned Aerial Systems Flights Over Town Neck Beach, in Sandwich, Massachusetts on January 22, January 25, February 11, March 30, and September 21, 2016: data release DOI:10.5066/P9CJOMBM, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal/Marine Hazards and Resources Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Montgomery, E., Sherwood, C., Traykovski, P., Irwin, B., Borden, J., Martini, M., and Miner, S., 2019, Geotagged Low-Altitude Aerial Imagery, From Unmanned Aerial Systems Flights Over Town Neck Beach, in Sandwich, Massachusetts, With Associated Ground Control Points, and Transects Collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on January 22, January 25, February 11, March 30, and September 21, 2016: data release DOI:10.5066/P9CJOMBM, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Montgomery E.T., Sherwood, C.R., Traykovski, P.A., Irwin, B.J., Borden, J., Martini, M.A., and Miner, S., 2019, Geotagged low-altitude aerial imagery from unmanned aerial systems flights over Town Neck Beach, in Sandwich, Massachusetts, with associated ground control points, and transects collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on January 22, January 25, February 11, March 30, and September 21, 2016: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9CJOMBM.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.4968
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.4712
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.7758
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.7610
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 22-Jan-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital text files
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: mean sea level
      Altitude_Resolution: 1
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    2016sandwichTNB_image_locations.zip
    There is one list file for each zip file of images from Town Neck Beach, Sandwich, MA (available from the larger work citation) for 2016. Each list file contains 4 columns; file names, latitude, longitude and altitude. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    file name
    Name with extension of the image file in the form nnnnnnnFA__UnnnCCCC_yyyymmddThhmmssZ_fffffff.JPG, where nnnnnnnFA is the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center's field activity number; UnnnCCCC is the flight number and camera number specific to the survey; yyyymmddThhmmssZ is the date and time (UTC) in format year, month, day, 'T', hours, minutes, seconds,'Z'; and ffffffff is the original filename. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) character set
    latitude (decimal degrees)
    Latitude recorded by UAS navigation (Source: DJI Phantom 3 or AirShark UAS GPS navigation system)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.75
    Maximum:41.78
    Units:signed decimal degrees
    Resolution:1.0E-4
    longitude (decimal degrees)
    Longitude recorded by UAS navigation (Source: DJI Phantom 3 or AirShark UAS GPS navigation system)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.45
    Maximum:-70.5
    Units:signed decimal degrees
    Resolution:1.0E-4
    altitude(meters)
    Altitude of camera in approximate meters above mean sea level. (Source: DJI Phantom 3 or AirShark UAS GPS navigation system)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:400
    Units:meters
    Resolution:1.0E-3
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Fifteen text files in csv format are in the .zip; each contains the file names of images in a .zip file with their locations and altitude. Each file contains one header line, followed by lines with 4 columns of comma-separated values. The header line describes the column contents, as follows: file name, latitude (decimal degrees), longitude (decimal degrees) altitude (meters). Subsequent lines contain the file names and locations at which the image was taken based on the GPS position from the UAS. The listing file names match the first fourteen characters of the name of the zipped images. In the .csv file names, the pilot's initials follow this string. When there is more than one zip file of images on a day there may be 'nadir' or 'oblique' to specify the camera orientation or '_f1', '_f2', indicates flight number. Each file has a different number of data records corresponding to the number of images in each .zip file: 2016013FA_U018_AS_f1_image_locations.csv has 125 lines; 20166013FA_U018_AS_f2_image_locations.csv has 158 lines; 20166013FA_U018_AS_f3_image_locations.csv has 152 lines; 20166013FA_U018_AS_f4_image_locations.csv has 126 lines; 20166013FA_U018_PTnadir_image_locations.csv has 29 lines; 20166013FA_U018_PToblique_image_locations.csv has 460 lines; 20166043FA_U019_AS_f1_image_locations.csv has 134 lines; 20166043FA_U019_AS_f2_image_locations.csv has 160 lines; 20166043FA_U019_AS_f3_image_locations.csv has 154 lines; 20166043FA_U019_AS_f4_image_locations.csv has 110 lines; 2016053FA_U015_PT_image_locations.csv has 898 lines; 2016053FA_U015_SM_image_locations.csv has 392 lines; 2016054FA_U016_PT_image_locations.csv has 859 lines; 2016055FA_U017_PTnadir_image_locations.csv has 453 lines; 2016054FA_U017_PToblique_image_locations.csv has 21 lines
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    USGS Field Activities 2016-053-FA, 2016-054-FA, 2016-055-FA, 2016-013-FA, and 2016-043-FA

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Christopher Sherwood
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2269 (voice)
    csherwood@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset consists of lists of image filenames with their corresponding locations. Each .zip file of images has a listing of the positions at which the photographs were taken.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Image file locations data from USGS field activities 2016-053-FA, 2016-054-FA, 2016-055-FA, 2016-013-FA, and 2016-043-FA (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Lists of image file locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field activities 2016-053-FA, 2016-054-FA, 2016-055-FA, 2016-013-FA, and 2016-043-FA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: .csv file
    Source_Contribution:
    One list of file names and locations was generated for each zipped file of aerial images. There may be one or several zip files of images for each day at Town Neck Beach, Sandwich, MA.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 12-Jan-2018 (process 1 of 3)
    The location fields were extracted from each image file's EXIF header and written to a .csv file using a Python script. Person who carried out this activity:
    Sandy Brosnahan
    U.S. Geological Survey
    physical scientist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2269 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    csherwood@usgs.gov
    Date: 12-Jun-2020 (process 2 of 3)
    The distribution link to download the data file directly was improperly formatted and edited so the download would work. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 07-Aug-2020 (process 3 of 3)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The location information from the UAS navigation system was extracted from the EXIF headers in the geotagged images using a custom python progrm and saved in a plain-text comma-separated-value (.csv) file for easier reference.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Horizontal coordinates (decimal degrees WGS84) recorded by the single-frequency GPS on the DJI Phantom 3 were written to the EXIF header portions of the images during flight. Horizontal coordinates for the Airshark hexacopter were derived from the GPS on the UAS, but written to the EXIF headers in a post-processing step, and described in the metadata for the images. Horizontal locations are considered accurate to approximately 3 meters, but may be off by as much as 10 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Vertical coordinates (meters above sea level) recorded by the single-frequency GPS on the DJI Phantom 3 UAS were written to the EXIF header portions of the images during flight. Horizontal coordinates for the Airshark hexacopter were derived from the GPS on the UAS, but written to the EXIF headers in a post-processing step, and described in the metadata for the images. The altitude measurements are accurate to approximately +/- 10 m, but uncorrected offsets in the take-off altitude may introduce biases of as much as 50 meters.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The data is complete for each field activity.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    There is one list of file names, locations, and altitudes per zipped file of images. Images in each zip file represent all or a fight segment from a one day survey. Positions in the file have horizontal coordinates in decimal latitude (WGS84, positive north), decimal longitude (WGS84, positive east), and altitude (meters above sea level). The altitude information is susceptible to uncorrected offsets in the take-off altitude and may be biased by as much as 50 meters.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints none
Use_Constraints Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? This data release includes raw data in the form of image locations extracted from the images collected on each day of operations. Locations for the images from each flight segment are provided in 15 csv files distributed in a zip file named 2016SandwichTNB_image_locations.zip.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS or the U.S. Government shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Jul-2022
Metadata author:
Ellyn Montgomery
U.S. Geological Survey
Oceanographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2356 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
whsc_data_contact@usgs.gov
Contact_Instructions:
The metadata contact email address is a generic address in the event the metadata contact is no longer with the USGS or the email is otherwise invalid.
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/SB_data_release/DR_P9CJOMBM/2016SandwichTNB_image_locations_meta.faq.html>
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