Geochemical data supporting investigation of solute and particle cycling and fluxes from two tidal wetlands on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012-19

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Title:
Geochemical data supporting investigation of solute and particle cycling and fluxes from two tidal wetlands on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012-19
Abstract:
Assessment of geochemical cycling within tidal wetlands and measurement of fluxes of dissolved and particulate constituents between wetlands and coastal water bodies are critical to evaluating ecosystem function, service, and status. The U.S. Geological Survey and collaborators collected surface water and porewater geochemical data from a tidal wetland located on the eastern shore of Sage Lot Pond in Mashpee, Massachusetts, within the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, between 2012 and 2019. Additional porewater geochemical and field data from a tidal wetland on the eastern shore of Great Pond in East Falmouth, MA are also included. These data can be used to evaluate biogeochemical conditions and cycling of carbon and other elements within the marsh platform and to calculate lateral tidal exchange fluxes of a suite of dissolved and particulate constituents between the wetland and estuary. Analytes include but are not limited to: dissolved oxygen, oxidation reduction potential, pH, salinity, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, stable carbon isotopic ratios, nitrogen species, phosphate, silica, dissolved methane and nitrous oxide gas, trace elements, radium isotopes, alkalinity, and sulfide. Much of the surface water data at Sage Lot Pond was collected from the mouth of a tidal creek across full-tidal (12 to 14 hour) timeseries sampling events at 0.5 to 2-hour intervals at different points in the spring/ neap cycle and season. Porewater samples were collected at multiple depths (9 to 245 centimeters) in transects extending across the marsh platform at different times in the season between 2014 and 2019. Sage Lot Pond creek data are concurrent with extended time-series measurement of water quality and flow data measured with deployed sensors in the tidal creek (Mann and others, 2019), and with carbonate chemistry data measured at the site (Wang and others, 2019, 2020).
Supplemental_Information:
Related external resources:
Chu, S.N., Wang, Z.A., Gonneea, M.E., Kroeger, K.D. and Ganju, N.K., 2018, Deciphering the dynamics of inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes using high-frequency measurements: Marine Chemistry, 206, pp.7-18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2018.08.005.
Mann, A.G., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Gonneea, M.E., Brosnahan, S.M., Brooks, T.W., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., and Kroeger, K.D., 2019, Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016): U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9STIROQ.
Song, S., Wang, Z.A., Gonneea, M.E., Kroeger, K.D., Chu, S.N., Li, D. and Liang, H., 2020, An important biogeochemical link between organic and inorganic carbon cycling: Effects of organic alkalinity on carbonate chemistry in coastal waters influenced by intertidal salt marshes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 275, pp.123-139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2020.02.013.
Tamborski, J., Eagle, M., Kurylyk, B.L., Kroeger, K.D., Wang, Z.A., Henderson, P., and Charette, M.A., 2021, Porewater exchange driven inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes: Limnology and Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11721.
Wang, Z.A., Kroeger, K.D., Ganju, N.K., Gonneea, M.E. and Chu, S.N., 2016, Intertidal salt marshes as an important source of inorganic carbon to the coastal ocean: Limnology and Oceanography, 61(5), pp.1916-1931, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10347.
Wang, Z., Kroeger, K., Gonneea, M., 2019, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry from samples collected in the Sage Lot Pond salt marsh tidal creek in Waquoit Bay, MA from 2012 to 2015: Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2019-05-23, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.768577.1.
Wang, Z., Song, S., Gonneea, M., Kroeger, K., 2020, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry, organic alkalinity and organic carbon from samples collected in Waquoit Bay and Vineyard Sound, MA in 2016: Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2020-02-25, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.794163.1.
Data collected between 2012 and 2016 are associated with the following USGS field activities:
2012-013-FA 2012-033-FA 2012-049-FA 2013-037-FA 2014-081-FA 2014-078-FA 2014-080-FA 2014-079-FA 2015-038-FA 2015-039-FA 2015-040-FA 2015-046-FA 2015-050-FA 2015-066-FA 2015-070-FA 2015-069-FA 2016-015-FA 2016-025-FA 2016-026-FA 2016-028-FA 2016-048-FA 2016-049-FA
Additional information for the field activities (2012-2016) associated with this dataset can be acquired from the field activity landing page, by prepending https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan= to the field activity number, e.g., https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2012-013-FA. Additional porewater data collections in 2018 and 2019 do not have corresponding USGS field activity numbers since those sampling efforts were carried out by coauthors affiliated with an outside institution.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Brooks, T.W., Eagle, M., Kroeger, K.D., Mann, A.G., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Brosnahan, S.M., Chu, S.N., Song, S., Pohlman, J.W., Casso, M., Tamborski, J., Morkeski, K., Carey, J.C., Ganguli, P.M., Williams, O.L., and Kurtz, A.C., 20210216, Geochemical data supporting investigation of solute and particle cycling and fluxes from two tidal wetlands on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012-19: data release DOI:10.5066/P9MXLUZ1, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Brooks, T.W., Eagle, M., Kroeger, K.D., Mann, A.G., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Brosnahan, S.M., Chu, S.N., Song, S., Pohlman, J.W., Casso, M., Tamborski, J.J., Morkeski, K., Carey, J.C., Ganguli, P.M., Williams, O.L., and Kurtz, A.C., 2021, Geochemical data supporting investigation of solute and particle cycling and fluxes from two tidal wetlands on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012-19: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9MXLUZ1.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.58060
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.50541
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.55680
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.55255
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5fd0c4c0d34e30b91239b615?name=Thumbnail_Image_SageLotPond.jpg (JPEG)
    Aerial photo of the Sage Lot Pond study site, and inset photos showing full-tidal timeseries sampling at the creek mouth.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 09-Apr-2012
    Ending_Date: 07-Nov-2019
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition of when samples were collected.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabulated comma-separated values files
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88)
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.02
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Sediment surface
      Depth_Resolution: 0.01
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Porewater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond_GreatPond
    Porewater geochemical and field data collected from depth profiles in cross-marsh transects at Sage Lot Pond and Great Pond, 2014-2019. This csv file contains 307 records. (Source: Producer defined.)
    Site_ID
    Identifier of sample collection location denoting either Sage Lot Pond or Great Pond (Source: Producer defined.) Character set.
    Sample_ID
    Unique sample identifier for the water sample assigned in the field. Note that datapoints with Sample_ID including GW correspond to samples collected landward of the marsh/upland edge in a forested upland location at Sage Lot Pond, and Sample_ID prepended by GP correspond to samples collected from the Great Pond field site (Source: Producer defined.) Character set.
    Date_UTC
    Date in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) at which the porewater sample was collected in the format mm/dd/yyyy, month/day/year (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:08/12/2014
    Maximum:11/07/2019
    Units:month/day/year
    DateTime_UTC
    Date and time in 24 hour Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) at which the water sample was collected in the format m/d/yyyy h:mm, month/day/year hour:minutes (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8/12/2014 14:26
    Maximum:4/3/2018 13:25
    Units:month/day/year and time
    TransectDistance_m
    Horizontal distance between the upland end of the transect (high marsh profile) and subsequent profiles going towards the marsh-sea edge along the cross-marsh transect. For additional details on location, refer to Latitude and Longitude attributes (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:125
    Units:meters
    SamplingDepth_cm
    Depth below the sediment surface at which the porewater sample was collected (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:245
    Units:centimeters below sediment surface
    Elevation_NAVD88_m
    Elevation at which the porewater sample was collected, reported relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.31
    Maximum:0.22
    Units:meters
    Latitude_WGS84
    Latitude in decimal degrees north, measured using the WGS84 datum (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.55255
    Maximum:41.55680
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_WGS84
    Longitude in decimal degrees west, measured using the WGS84 datum. A negative value indicates the western hemisphere (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.58060
    Maximum:-70.50541
    Units:decimal degrees
    Temperature_C
    Temperature of the water sample at the time of collection (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.0
    Maximum:28.2
    Units:degrees Celsius
    SpecificConductance_mSpercm
    A measure of the ability of the water sample to conduct electricity at the standard temperature of 25 degrees Celsius (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.42
    Maximum:51.30
    Units:milliseimens per centimeter
    Salinity_PSU
    Salinity of the water sample measured in practical salinity units (PSU, dimensionless) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.20
    Maximum:35.00
    Units:practical salinity units (dimensionless)
    DO_percentsaturation
    Dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:71.6
    Units:percent saturation
    DO_mgperL
    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:5.96
    Units:millgrams per liter
    pH
    Negative logarithm of hydronium ion activity [H+] of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.53
    Maximum:7.24
    Units:unitless
    ORP_mV
    Oxidation/Reduction potential (ORP) of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-500
    Maximum:301
    Units:millivolts
    Salinity_AutoSal_PSU
    High precision salinity of the water sample in practical salinity units (PSU, dimensionless). Measured on discrete bottle samples with a salinometer to a precision of 0.0001 PSU (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2646
    Maximum:33.8202
    Units:practical salinity units (dimensionless)
    Nitrate_umolperL
    Concentration of dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (NO3- + NO2-) of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.6
    Maximum:2.3
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Ammonium_umolperL
    Dissolved ammonium (NH4+) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.0
    Maximum:149.3
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Phosphate_umolperL
    Dissolved phosphate (PO43-) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:9.3
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Silica_umolperL
    Dissolved total silica (Si) concentration in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:24.0
    Maximum:341.2
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Sulfide_umolperL
    Dissolved sulfide (S2-) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 1 micromoles per liter (LOD = 1 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:334.3
    Units:micromoles per liter
    TDN_umolperL
    Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:234.3
    Maximum:956.2
    Units:micromoles per liter
    TotalAlkalinity_ueqperL
    Total alkalinity of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:451.6
    Maximum:10500.4
    Units:microequivalents per liter
    DIC_umolperL
    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1058.0
    Maximum:24175.7
    Units:micromoles per liter
    DIC_d13C_VPDB_permil
    Delta (d) 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 13C : 12C expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-27.4
    Maximum:-4.1
    Units:per mil
    DOC_umolperL
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:293.9
    Maximum:15857.8
    Units:micromoles per liter
    DOC_d13C_VPDB_permil
    Delta (d) 13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 13C : 12C expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-32.2
    Maximum:-17.0
    Units:per mil
    Methane_nmolperL
    Concentration of dissolved methane (CH4) gas in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:258.5
    Maximum:153771.8
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Mn_umolperL
    Dissolved manganese (Mn) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.034
    Maximum:23.881
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Fe_umolperL
    Dissolved iron (Fe) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:362.901
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Cu_nmolperL
    Dissolved copper (Cu) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:819.874
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Sr_umolperL
    Dissolved strontium (Sr) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.263
    Maximum:104.949
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Ba_nmolperL
    Dissolved barium (Ba) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.334
    Maximum:295.078
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    U_nmolperL
    Dissolved uranium (U) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.152
    Maximum:24.941
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Ge_pcolperL
    Dissolved germanium (Ge) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:156.158
    Maximum:1253.549
    Units:picomoles per liter
    Ra223_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-223 (223Ra) in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.647
    Maximum:691.743
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra224_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-224 (224Ra) in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:31.421
    Maximum:8094.103
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra226_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-226 (226Ra) in the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection (LOD) is equal to 0.2 decays per minute per 100L for porewater and groundwater and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:618.555
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra228_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-228 (228Ra) in the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection (LOD) is equal to 0.2 decays per minute per 100L for porewater and groundwater and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:9.776
    Maximum:3675.944
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Notes
    Field notes, pertaining to the soil type from which the porewater sample was collected (Source: Producer defined.) Character set.
    SurfaceWater_ParticulateData_SageLotPond
    Surface water particulate data collected from the tidal creek and marsh platform ponds at Sage Lot Pond, 2012-2016. This csv file contains 258 records. (Source: Producer defined.)
    Sample_ID
    Uniqe sample identifier assigned to the water sample in the field. Note that additional samples collected outsite of full-tidal timesieries sampling events are identified by the unique timestamp in the 'DateTime_UTC' attribute, and not by 'Sample_ID'. Five samples collected from marsh platform ponds in 2016 are identified as such with an additional descriptor appended to the sample ID, e.g. 'SLP2016-59-Pond'. (Source: Producer defined.) Character set.
    DateTime_UTC
    Date and time in 24 hour Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) at which the water sample was collected in the format m/d/yyyy h:mm, month/day/year hour:minutes (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4/9/2012 12:48
    Maximum:11/1/2016 22:25
    Units:month/day/year and time
    Latitude_WGS84
    Latitude in decimal degrees north, measured using the WGS84 datum (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.55417
    Maximum:41.55468
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_WGS84
    Longitude in decimal degrees west, measured using the WGS84 datum. A negative value indicates the western hemisphere (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.50713
    Maximum:-70.50611
    Units:decimal degrees
    SSC_mgperL
    Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.16
    Maximum:18.212
    Units:milligrams per liter
    POC_umolperL
    Particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:26.046
    Maximum:595.658
    Units:micromoles per liter
    d13C_POC_permil_VPDB
    Delta (d) 13C of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 13C : 12C expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-27.746
    Maximum:-16.01
    Units:per mil
    TPN_umolperL
    Total particulate nitrogen (TPN) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.418
    Maximum:21.825
    Units:micromoles per liter
    d15N_TPN_permil_AIR
    Delta (d) 15N of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 15N : 14N expressed relative to air (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.033
    Maximum:9.527
    Units:per mil
    SurfaceWater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond
    Surface water geochemical and field data collected from the tidal creek and marsh platform ponds at Sage Lot Pond, 2012-2016. This csv file contains 209 records. (Source: Producer defined.)
    Sample_ID
    Unique sample identifier assigned to the sample. Five samples collected from marsh platform ponds in 2016 are identified as such with an additional descriptor appended to the sample ID, e.g. 'SLP2016-59-Pond'. (Source: Producer defined.) Character set.
    DateTime_UTC
    Date and time in 24 hour Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) at which the water sample was collected in the format m/d/yyyy h:mm, month/day/year hour:minutes (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4/9/2012 13:03
    Maximum:11/1/2016 22:11
    Units:month/day/year and time
    Latitude_WGS84
    Latitude in decimal degrees north, measured using the WGS84 datum (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.55417
    Maximum:41.55468
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_WGS84
    Longitude in decimal degrees west, measured using the WGS84 datum. A negative value indicates the western hemisphere (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.50713
    Maximum:-70.50611
    Units:decimal degrees
    Temperature_C
    Temperature of the water sample at the time of collection (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.1
    Maximum:30.9
    Units:degrees Celsius
    SpecificConductance_mSpercm
    A measure of the ability of the water sample to conduct electricity at the standard temperature of 25 degrees Celsius (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:35.83
    Maximum:48.24
    Units:milliseimens per centimeter
    Salinity_PSU
    Salinity of the water sample measured in practical salinity units (PSU, dimensionless) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.98
    Maximum:31.41
    Units:practical salinity units (dimensionless)
    DO_percentsaturation
    Dissolved oxygen saturation of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.6
    Maximum:126.4
    Units:percent saturation
    DO_mgperL
    Dissolved oxygen concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.79
    Maximum:12.28
    Units:milligrams per liter
    pH
    Negative logarithm of hydronium ion activity [H+] of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.11
    Maximum:8.17
    Units:unitless
    ORP_mV
    Oxidation/Reduction potential of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-110.8
    Maximum:299.6
    Units:millivolts
    Salinity_AutoSal_PSU
    High precision salinity of the water sample in practical salinity units (PSU, dimensionless). Measured on discrete bottle samples with a salinometer to a precision of 0.0001 PSU (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.8020
    Maximum:31.3679
    Units:practical salinity units (dimensionless)
    Nitrate_umolperL
    Concentration of dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (NO3- + NO2-) of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3.05
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Ammonium_umolperL
    Dissolved ammonium (NH4+) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:15.30
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Phosphate_umolperL
    Dissolved phosphate (PO43-) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.05 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.05 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.08
    Maximum:0.92
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Silica_umolperL
    Dissolved total silica (Si) concentration in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.29
    Maximum:19.50
    Units:micromoles per liter
    TDN_umolperL
    Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.62
    Maximum:66.84
    Units:micromoles per liter
    TotalAlkalinity_ueqperL
    Total alkalinity of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1016.96
    Maximum:1987.01
    Units:microequivalents per liter
    DIC_umolperL
    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1276.46
    Maximum:1655.74
    Units:micromoles per liter
    DIC_d13C_VPDB_permil
    Delta (d) 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 13C : 12C expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-7.46
    Maximum:1.17
    Units:per mil
    DOC_umolperL
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:100.37
    Maximum:1274.73
    Units:micromoles per liter
    DOC_d13C_VPDB_permil
    Delta (d) 13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water sample, a measure of the stable isotopic ratio of 13C : 12C expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-27.9
    Maximum:-19.2
    Units:per mil
    Methane_nmolperL
    Concentration of dissolved methane (CH4) gas in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19.4
    Maximum:333.2
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    NitrousOxide_nmolperL
    Concentration of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) gas in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:9.2
    Maximum:26.5
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Mn_umolperL
    Dissolved manganese (Mn) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:16.8
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Fe_umolperL
    Dissolved iron (Fe) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:119.02
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Cu_nmolperL
    Dissolved copper (Cu) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:134.2
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Sr_umolperL
    Dissolved strontium (Sr) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 micromoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 uM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:52.3
    Maximum:84.5
    Units:micromoles per liter
    Ba_nmolperL
    Dissolved barium (Ba) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:53.0
    Maximum:173.5
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    U_nmolperL
    Dissolved uranium (U) concentration of the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection is equal to 0.01 nanomoles per liter (LOD = 0.01 nM) and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:7.9
    Maximum:14.8
    Units:nanomoles per liter
    Ra223_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-223 (223Ra) in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.7
    Maximum:52.9
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra224_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-224 (224Ra) in the water sample (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:74.7
    Maximum:722.3
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra226_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-226 (226Ra) in the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection (LOD) is equal to 5 decays per minute per 100L for porewater and groundwater and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.2
    Maximum:89.9
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Ra228_dpm_per100L
    Activity of radium-228 (228Ra) in the water sample. Note that the analytical limit of detection (LOD) is equal to 5 decays per minute per 100L for porewater and groundwater and values below the LOD are truly an unknown value between zero and the LOD (Source: Producer defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:9.6
    Maximum:314.4
    Units:decays per minute per 100 liters
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The first line of the CSV file is a header line and those labels are the same as defined in the attribute section.
    Note that blank cells in the attached data files indicate either the attribute does not pertain to the sample or the attribute was not measured for the sample. The explanation for the presence of blank cells for this entire dataset is therefore captured in the above description and is not stated for individual Attribute Definitions in addition.
    Analytical limits of detection are reported in the Attribute Definition, when applicable. In a limited number of cases, post-processing of laboratory geochemical data resulted in slight negative values, insignificantly different from zero as based on known analytical precision and are reported as zero (0) in this dataset. Positive values that are below the analytical limit of detection are reported as measured and are not set to an arbitrary value such as 'zero' or 'BDL'. Note that any value below the reported limit of detection is truly an unknown value between zero and the limit of detection.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Brooks, T.W.
    • Eagle, M.
    • Kroeger, K.D.
    • Mann, A.G.
    • Wang, Z.A.
    • Ganju, N.K.
    • O'Keefe Suttles, J.A.
    • Brosnahan, S.M.
    • Chu, S.N.
    • Song, S.
    • Pohlman, J.W.
    • Casso, M.
    • Tamborski, J.
    • Morkeski, K.
    • Carey, J.C.
    • Ganguli, P.M.
    • Williams, O.L.
    • Kurtz, A.C.
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Thomas W. Brooks
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
    wallybrooks@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this study was to evaluate biogeochemical conditions and cycling of carbon and other elements within the marsh platform and to calculate lateral tidal exchange fluxes of a suite of dissolved and particulate constituents between the wetland and estuary.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2016 (process 1 of 15)
    Surface water sampling at Sage Lot Pond:
    Surface water samples were collected from the mouth of a tidal creek (2012-2016) and marsh platform ponds (2016) at Sage Lot Pond for analysis of a suite of dissolved constituents and field water quality parameters. Much of the creek mouth sampling occurred over full-tidal cycle timeseries events at different points in the spring/neap cycle and season. The water intake manifold, which was deployed into the creek prior the start of each timeseries, consisted of a ~30 cm length of 13 cm diameter slotted polyvinylchloride pipe sheathed in a plastic mesh filter (~2mm mesh size) secured to a weighted crate. The inlet rested ~30 cm above creek bottom and was connected to a 12 volt 3 gallon per minute diaphragm pump with a length of polyvinylchloride tubing. During tidal timeseries, sample water was pumped to a nearby sampling station through 1 cm inner diameter rigid plastic Cole Parmer Bev-A-Line tubing. The sampling station was located adjacent to the creek mouth (2012 through 6/13/2013) or landward near the marsh/upland edge (7/10/2013 through 2016). The transit time of water to the sampling station, calculated based on measured volumetric flow rate, tubing length and inner diameter, was ~3 min for 2013-2016 and negligible for 2012. Discrete bottle samples were collected every 0.5 to 2 hours at the sampling site during the timeseries. The specifics of sample collection, preservation and analysis of the individual analytes are described below in separate process steps. In 2014-2016, field water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, salinity, pH and oxidation/reduction potential) were measured with a calibrated YSI ProPlus multiparameter sonde in a flow through cell. Details of instrument specifications including precision of individual parameters can be found at: https://www.ysi.com/proplus. The date and times (Coordinated Universal Time, UTC) corresponding to sampling mid-point for each set of samples and water quality parameters are reported in SurfaceWater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond.csv. Sampling duration at each time point was, on average, ~15 minutes.
    Additional discrete surface water sample sets and field water quality parameters were collected or measured outside of the full-tidal timeseries events in the tidal creek (2014-2016) and in marsh platform ponds (2016). In these cases, samples were collected with a weighted tygon tube (deployed at a height of ~30 cm above creek or pond bottom) and peristaltic pump and subsampled into individual vials. A short length of Cole-Parmer C-Flex silicone pump tubing was used with the peristaltic pump. The specifics of sample collection, preservation and analysis of the individual analytes are described below in separate process steps. Field water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, salinity, pH and oxidation/reduction potential) were measured with a calibrated YSI ProPlus multiparameter sonde in a flow through cell. Subsampling occurred adjacent to the creek mouth and ponds, therefore water transit time was negligible. The date and time (Coordinated Universal Time, UTC) corresponding to sampling mid-point for each set of samples and water quality parameters is reported in SurfaceWater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond.csv. Sampling duration was, on average, ~10 -15 minutes. Five samples collected from marsh platform ponds in 2016 are identified as such with an additional descriptor appended to the sample ID, e.g. 'SLP2016-59-Pond'.
    Much of the tidal creek data reported was concurrent with additional field water quality parameters, volumetric water discharge, and carbonate chemistry data published in Mann and others (2019), and Wang and others (2019, 2020).
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    The contact person is listed below for this process step and is the same for all subsequent process steps.
    References cited:
    Mann, A.G., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Gonneea, M.E., Brosnahan, S.M., Brooks, T.W., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., and Kroeger, K.D., 2019, Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016): U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9STIROQ.
    Wang, Z., Kroeger, K., Gonneea, M., 2019, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry from samples collected in the Sage Lot Pond salt marsh tidal creek in Waquoit Bay, MA from 2012 to 2015: Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2019-05-23, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.768577.1.
    Wang, Z., Song, S., Gonneea, M., Kroeger, K., 2020, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry, organic alkalinity and organic carbon from samples collected in Waquoit Bay and Vineyard Sound, MA in 2016: Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2020-02-25, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.794163.1. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Thomas W. Brooks
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
    wallybrooks@usgs.gov
    Date: 2019 (process 2 of 15)
    Porewater sampling:
    Porewater samples were collected at multiple depths (9-245 centimeters below sediment surface) in profiles along transects extending across the marsh platform at Sage Lot Pond (2014-2019) and Great Pond (2014). Horizontal distance between the marsh/ upland edge depth profile and each subsequent profile along the transect was measured with a meter tape to an accuracy of ~2 meters. Additionally, location was measured with a handheld Garmin GPSMAP 76Cx using the WGS84 datum to an accuracy of 3 meters or less. In many cases porewater sample collections at Sage Lot Pond were concurrent with full-tidal timeseries surface water sampling at the creek mouth. Note that datapoints with Sample_ID including GW correspond to samples collected landward of the marsh/upland edge in a forested upland location.
    Samples were collected with 0.6 cm inner diameter, 4 cm long screened interval stainless steel push-point sampling devices (https://www.mheproducts.com/). Samples were either collected into acid-cleaned 60 mL syringes through tygon tubing or with a peristaltic pump through a short length of Cole-Parmer C-Flex silicone pump tubing. Sampling depth is reported as the depth of the midpoint of the well screen below the sediment surface. Depth relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) was calculated as the elevation of NAVD 88 at the surface minus the depth of the well screen below the surface. For samples collected during 2014-2016, field water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, oxidation/reduction potential) were measured with a calibrated YSI ProPlus multiparameter sonde in a flow-through cell. Details of instrument specifications including precision of individual parameters can be found at: https://www.ysi.com/proplus. For samples collected during 2018-2019, Salinity and pH were measured with a handheld refractometer and a calibrated Cole-Parmer P200 pH meter. Porewater was then subsampled into individual vials in the field for geochemical analysis of a suite of dissolved constituents. The specifics of sample collection, preservation and analysis of the individual analytes are described below in subsequent process steps.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2019. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2016 (process 3 of 15)
    Suspended particulate matter in surface water:
    Surface water samples for analysis of suspended particulate matter were collected with a Van Dorn grab sampler or a peristaltic pump from the tidal creek (2012-2016) and marsh platform ponds (2016) at the Sage Lot Pond field site. Samples were collected ~30 cm above creek or pond bottom and transferred into 500 mL polyethylene bottles and stored at ~4 degrees Celsius until analysis. Samples were analyzed at the USGS in Woods Hole, MA for suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within 7 days of collection following the method described in APHA (2005). Samples were filtered through glass fiber filters, either 1.2 micron pore size (2012-2014), or 0.7 micron pore size (2015-2016). Average coefficient of variation in SSC among 10 pairs of field duplicate samples from the tidal creek, representing analytical precision plus environmental variability, was 9 percent. Additionally, three pairs of field duplicate samples were collected with the Van Dorn sampler and the peristaltic pump and analyzed for difference in means with a paired t-test. No significant difference in SSC was detected for the different sampling methods (NS, df=2).
    A subset of the samples collected in 2012, 2013, and 2016 were HCl-treated in a fuming acid desiccator for ~5 hours to remove inorganic carbon and analyzed at the Marine Bological Laboratory (MBL) Stable Isotope Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA using a Europa 20-20 continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer interfaced with a Europa ANCA-SL elemental analyzer for total organic Carbon (C), total Nitrogen (N), d13C, and d15N. Isotopic C and N results are expressed relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite (VPDB), and air, respectively. The analytical precision based on replicate analyses of isotopically homogeneous international standards is ~0.1 per mil for d13C, and d15N. Coefficient of variation is ~2 percent for total C and N. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and total particulate nitrogen (TPN) concentrations were calculated by dividing lab-reported total C and N by the water sample volume. No formal tests were conducted on the influence of filter pore size on SSC or particulate C or N. Five samples collected from marsh platform ponds in 2016 are identified as such with an additional descriptor appended to the sample ID, e.g. 'SLP2016-59-Pond'.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Reference cited:
    APHA, 2005, Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st edn., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, https://doi.org/10.2105/SMWW.2882.001.
    Date: 2019 (process 4 of 15)
    Concentrations and stable isotopic ratios of dissolved organic carbon in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and delta 13C of DOC (d13C-DOC) were filtered through sample-rinsed 0.45 micron pore size polyethersulfone filters (2012-2014) or a PALL AcroPak 200 Capsule Filter (sterile 0.8/0.2 micron Supor hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane; part number 12941) (2015-2016) into combusted borosilicate glass vials with acid-cleaned teflon-lined septa caps. Vials were pretreated with 20 percent hydrochloric acid (12 microliters per milliliter of sample) to decrease the pH of the sample to 2 or less, and samples were stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis. Samples were analyzed for DOC on an O.I. Analytical Aurora 1030C auto-analyzer by high temperature catalytic oxidation and nondispersive infrared detection (HTCO-NDIR). Concentrations are reported relative to potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) calibration standard.
    A subset of the surface water and porewater samples were analyzed for d13C-DOC using a Thermo-Finnigan DELTAplus XL Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer interfaced to the Aurora 1030C following the method of Lalonde and others (2014). Stable carbon isotope ratios are reported in standard delta (d) notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). Quality assurance included replicate analysis of natural reference materials, field samples and calibration standards. In a subset of the porewater samples, a solid white or brown precipitate formed in the sample vial during storage, or in many cases immediately after collection. Porewater samples were vigorously shaken in an attempt to re-dissolve the material, and needle depth on the 1030C auto-analyzer was set to an appropriate depth to avoid sampling precipitated solids. Analytical uncertainties in concentration and d13C were determined separately for creek and porewater based on replicate measurement of field samples from a single vial. Coefficient of variation in DOC concentration and d13C were 5 percent or less, and 2 percent or less for both creek and porewater respectively. No formal tests were conducted on the influence of precipitated solids in porewater samples on accuracy of DOC or d13C.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2019. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Reference cited:
    Lalonde, K., Middlestead, P. and Gelinas, Y., 2014, Automation of 13C/12C ratio measurement for freshwater and seawater DOC using high temperature combustion: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 12(12), pp.816-829, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2014.12.816.
    Date: 2016 (process 5 of 15)
    Stable isotopic ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for delta 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13C-DIC) were collected from the tidal creek and from porewater profiles, unfiltered, and submitted to the University of California Stable Isotope Facility in Davis, CA (UC Davis SIF) for analysis. Samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 into pre-combusted borosilicate glass vials with teflon-lined butyl rubber septa screw caps. Vials were filled from the bottom, overflowed with >3 void volumes, capped immediately without headspace, and stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis. All subsequent samples (2014-2016) were collected into 12 mL glass exetainers with pierceable chlorobutyl septa-lined screw caps (Labco, High Wycombe, UK). Exetainers were prepared in the laboratory by adding 1 mL of 85 percent phosphoric acid; vials were capped, evacuated, then flushed with helium. Using a needle and syringe, unfiltered sample, either 2 or 3 mL for porewater or surface water, respectively, was added to the exetainer.
    Samples were analyzed on a GasBench II system interfaced to a Delta V Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer at the UC Davis SIF (https://stableisotopefacility.ucdavis.edu/dictracegas.html). Stable isotopic ratios are reported in standard delta notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). Quality assurance included replicate analysis of natural reference materials and field samples. Reported long-term standard deviation in d13C and Limit of Quantification in DIC as CO2 are 150 nanomoles, and 0.1 per mil.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2015 (process 6 of 15)
    Dissolved methane and nitrous oxide gas in porewater and surface water:
    Surface water samples from the tidal creek at Sage Lot Pond were collected during 2012 and 2013 for analysis of dissolved methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Samples were collected, unfiltered, into 60 mL syringes fitted with a two-way stopcock free of headspace. After collection, 30 milliliters of high-purity Zero Air was drawn into the syringe, and the sample was manually shaken for 2 min to equilibrate dissolved gas concentrations in the liquid sample with that of the introduced headspace. Once the sample was equilibrated, the liquid sample was expelled from the syringe and the headspace gas was stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis, which was within 4 days of collection.
    Porewater samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 into pre-evacuated 30 mL borosilicate glass serum bottles with butyl rubber stoppers and crimp caps for CH4 analysis. Bottles were pretreated with 100 microliters 8 Molar (M) KOH solution (7 microliters per milliliter of sample) prior to evacuation to increase the pH of the sample to 12 or greater (Magen and others, 2014). Using a needle and syringe, 15 mL of headspace-free unfiltered sample was added to the bottle through the rubber stopper in the field. Upon return to the lab, a known volume of high purity Zero Air was added to the bottles with a syringe and needle through the stopper to bring the bottles to atmospheric pressure at room temperature (~25 deg. Celsius). Samples were manually equilibrated for 2 min and stored at room temperature until analysis.
    Headspace CH4 and N2O concentrations in creek samples were measured on a Shimadzu GC-2014 gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD). Headspace CH4 concentration in porewater samples was measured on a Shimadzu GC-14B gas chromatograph equipped with an FID. Coefficient of variation based on replicate measurements of a single sample were 2 percent or less for both instruments. Solubility coefficients and dissolved concentrations for CH4 and N2O were calculated based on temperature and salinity at time of equilibration, sample to headspace volume ratio and GC-measured headspace concentrations (Wiesenburg and Guinasso, 1979; Weiss and Price, 1980).
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2015. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    References cited:
    Magen, C., Lapham, L.L., Pohlman, J.W., Marshall, K., Bosman, S., Casso, M. and Chanton, J.P., 2014, A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 12(9), pp.637-650, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2014.12.637.
    Wiesenburg, D.A. and Guinasso Jr, N.L., 1979, Equilibrium solubilities of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen in water and sea water: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 24(4), pp.356-360.
    Weiss, R.F. and Price, B.A., 1980, Nitrous oxide solubility in water and seawater: Marine Chemistry, 8(4), pp.347-359.
    Date: 2016 (process 7 of 15)
    Nutrients in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for analysis of nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, and total silica were filtered through a sample-rinsed 0.45 micron pore size polyethersulfone filters (2012-2014) or a PALL AcroPak 200 Capsule Filter (sterile 0.8/0.2 micron Supor hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane; part number 12941) (2015-2016) into a sample-rinsed, acid-cleaned polyethylene vials. Samples for nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate were kept on ice in the field and then stored frozen until analysis. Samples for total silica were stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis.
    Nitrate and ammonium were measured on a Unity Scientific SmartChem 200 autoanalyzer (2012-2013), or a Lachat Instruments QuickChem 8000 injection analyzer (2014-2016) using standard colorimetric techniques according to APHA (2005), method 4500-NH3-G, and method 4500-NO3-F. Nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) were not quantified separately and their sum is referred to as nitrate (NO3-) in this report. Phosphate was measured on a Lachat Instruments QuickChem 8000 following method 4500-P-F (APHA, 2005). Detection limit was 0.05 uM, and coefficient of variation was 5 percent or less for nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate.
    Silicate was measured on a Lachat autoanalyzer (QuikChem Method 31-114-27-1-A) by the molybdenum blue colorimetric method at the Marine Biological Laboratory. We used sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) as the Si standard (Strickland and Parsons, 1968), and external standards (Hach) were always within 5 percent accuracy.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    References cited:
    APHA, 2005, Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st edn., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, https://doi.org/10.2105/SMWW.2882.001.
    Strickland, J. D. H., and R. T. Parson, 1972, A practical guide to seawater analysis: Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can 167, p. 95-98.
    Date: 2016 (process 8 of 15)
    Total dissolved nitrogen in surface water:
    Samples for total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were filtered through a sample-rinsed 0.45 micron pore size polyethersulfone filter (2012-2014) or a PALL AcroPak 200 Capsule Filter (sterile 0.8/0.2 micron Supor hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane; part number 12941) (2015-2016) into pre-combusted borosilicate glass vials with acid-cleaned teflon-lined septa caps. Vials were pretreated with 20% hydrochloric acid (12 microliters per milliliter of sample) to decrease the pH of the sample to 2 or less, and samples were stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis.
    Samples were analyzed on an O.I. Analytical Aurora 1030C autoanalyzer by high temperature catalytic oxidation and chemiluminescence detection. Concentrations are reported relative to nicotinic acid calibration standards. Quality assurance included replicate analysis of natural reference materials, field samples and calibration standards. Coefficient of variation is 5 percent or less.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2012 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2019 (process 9 of 15)
    Dissolved inorganic carbon in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were collected into unevacuated 6 mL glass serum vials with butyl rubber septa and crimp caps. New vials were triple rinsed with distilled water and pre-combusted at 500 degrees Celsius, pre-used vials were HCl-cleaned and oven-dried. Using a needle and syringe, 3 mL of unfiltered sample water was added to the vial. Samples were stored on ice in the field and stored frozen until analysis.
    DIC concentrations were determined with a Model 5015 UIC coulometer and quantified relative to a sea water certified reference material (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/ocean-carbon-data-system/oceans/Dickson_CRM/batches.html). Samples were acidified with 20 percent phosphoric acid and purged with Ultra-high purity nitrogen, and the evolved carbon dioxide gas was delivered to the detector and quantified. Coefficient of variation was 4 percent.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2019. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2016 (process 10 of 15)
    Total alkalinity in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for total alkalinity were collected into acid-cleaned 60 mL HDPE plastic syringes with a two-way stopcock unfiltered without headspace and stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis. Samples were analyzed on a Hiranuma Sangyo Aquacounter COM-300A Automatic Titrator following standard protocols within 7 days of collection. Quality assurance included replicate analysis of natural reference materials and field samples. Results were within the acceptable range of precision and accuracy. Coefficient of variation = 2 percent.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2019 (process 11 of 15)
    Radium (Ra)isotopes in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for Ra isotopes were collected in large plastic barrels (60 L) for surface water and cubitainers (2.0 to 23.1 L) for porewater. Surface water samples were then filtered through manganese oxide (MnO2) impregnated acrylic fibers (hereafter referred to as Mn fibers) at a flow rate of 0.2-0.8 L per minute to quantitatively sorb Ra onto the MnO2 (Moore and Reid, 1973). 100ml of bleach was added to porewater samples to oxidize the sulfide, which strips Mn from the Mn fibers. After 20 minutes of reaction, porewater was gravity filtered through Mn fibers at a flow rate of less than 0.5 L per minute.
    Mn fibers were brought to the lab and rinsed with Ra-free water to remove salts, which interfere with counting (Sun and Torgersen, 1998), partially dried and placed in a delayed coincidence counter (RaDECC) to measure 223Ra and 224Ra 1-3 days after collection (Moore and Arnold, 1996). Additional counts were done at 11 to 17 days post sampling to improve 223Ra measurements and four weeks to correct for supported 224Ra. Mn fibers were combusted at 820 degrees Celsius for 16 hours, homogenized and capped with epoxy, prior to being placed within a well-type gamma spectrometer to measure 228Ra (via 228Ac at 911 keV) and 226Ra (via 214Pb at 351.9 keV) (Charette and others, 2001). All detectors were standardized using a 226Ra NIST-certified Standard Reference Material (#4967A) and a gravimetrically prepared ThNO3 powder, with thorium daughters (228Ra) in equilibrium, which was dissolved and calibrated via isotope dilution MC-ICP-MS with the 226Ra NIST standard. These solutions were sorbed to Mn fibers and prepared in the same manner as the samples. 223Ra, 224Ra and 228Ra activities were decay corrected to the time of collection. Signal to noise ratio for each sample was calculated for 226Ra and 228Ra in the APTEC software during analysis. Typical detection limit of 226Ra and 228Ra were 0.2 (porewater and groundwater) and 5 (surface water) dpm/100L. Coefficient of variation was 2 and 3 percent for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Analysis of 223 and 224Ra via the RaDECC system results in uncertainties of 10 and 5 percent respectively, at the volumes and activities measured in these samples (Garcia-Solsona and others, 2008.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2019. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    References cited:
    Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. and Andrews, J.E., 2001, Utility of radium isotopes for evaluating the input and transport of groundwater-derived nitrogen to a Cape Cod estuary: Limnology and Oceanography, 46(2): p. 465-470.
    Garcia-Solsona, E., Garcia-Orellana, J., Masque, P., and Dulaiova, H., 2008, Uncertainties associated with 223Ra and 224Ra measurements in water via a Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC): Marine Chemistry 109, p. 198–219, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2007.11.006.
    Moore, W.S. and Reid, D.F., 1973, Extraction of Radium from Natural Waters Using Manganese-Impregnated Acrylic Fibers: Journal of Geophysical Research, 78(36): p. 8880-8886.
    Moore, W.S. and Arnold, R., 1996, Measurement of Ra-223 and Ra-224 in coastal waters using a delayed coincidence counter: Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 101(C1): p. 1321-1329.
    Sun, Y., and T. Torgersen, 1998, Rapid and precise measurement method for adsorbed 224Ra on sediments: Marine Chemistry, v. 61, p. 163-171.
    Date: 2016 (process 12 of 15)
    Trace elements in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for trace elements analysis were filtered through a sample-rinsed PALL AcroPak 200 Capsule Filter (sterile 0.8/0.2 micron Supor hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane; part number 12941) into acid cleaned polyethylene vials, spiked with 8 normal (N) Optima nitric acid to a pH of less than 2, and stored at room temperature until analysis.
    Samples were diluted 20-fold with 5% Optima nitric acid and analyzed on a Thermo Fisher iCAP Qc at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, MA for manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and uranium (U). Count rates were normalized to an internal indium (In) standard to account for drift and matrix interference of the solution. Water sample density was calculated based on field salinity and a typical lab temperature of 25 deg. Celsius following the method of Fofonoff and Millard (1983). Molar concentration was calculated as the product of lab-measured molal concentration and density. Quality assurance included replicate analysis of natural reference materials and field samples. Detection limits were determined as 3 times the standard deviation of the analytical blank. LOD = 0.01 uM for Mn, Fe, and Sr; and 0.01 nM 0.01 nM for Cu, Ba, and U. Coefficient of variation = 1, 12, 11, 5, 0.3, and 7 percent for Mn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, and U, respectively.
    Germanium (Ge) was measured by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) at Boston University, Boston, MA using methods adapted from Wada and others, 1979 and Kurtz and others, 2002. To prepare samples for analysis, we combined 5g of porewater or groundwater sample with 1g of 5.43 pmol/g Ge spike and acidified samples using concentrated nitric acid. Spiked and unspiked blanks (deionized water) and standards (laboratory-prepared samples of known Ge concentration) were interspersed throughout the unknown samples so that instrument error could be incorporated mathematically during analysis.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    References cited:
    Fofonoff, N.P., and R.C. Millard, 1983. Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers is Marine Science. No. 44. pp. 53.
    Kurtz, A.C., Derry, L.A. and Chadwick, O.A., 2002. Germanium-silicon fractionation in the weathering environment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66(9), pp.1525-1537.
    Wada, K., Takaoka, H., Inoue, N. and Kohra, K., 1979. Growth of Stacking Faults by Bardeen-Herring Mechanism in Czochralski Silicon. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 18(8), p.1629.
    Date: 2016 (process 13 of 15)
    Autosal Salinity in porewater and surface water:
    Samples for salinity analysis were collected unfiltered in 125 mL borosilicate glass bottles and measured with a Guideline Instruments Autosal Salinometer at the WHOI CTD Calibration Laboratory and referenced against NIST standards to a precision of 0.0001 practical salinity units (PSU, dimensionless).
    This process took place over a range of time from 2014 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    Date: 2016 (process 14 of 15)
    Sulfide in porewater:
    Sulfide sample vials were prepared in the laboratory prior to sample collection by adding 25 microliters of saturated zinc-acetate solution to a 12-milliliter glass exetainer with pierceable chlorobutyl septa-lined screw cap. The exetainer was evacuated after adding the zinc-acetate preservative. Using a needle and syringe, 8 milliliters of unfiltered sample water was added to the exetainer. Samples were stored at 4 degrees Celsius until analyzed.
    Sulfide samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically following the methylene blue method (Cline, 1969; Reese and others, 2011) using a Thermo Scientific GENESYS 20 spectrophotometer (1 cm cell, 670 nanometer wavelength). The detection limit was determined as 2 times the concentration of the reagent blank (Reese et al. 2011) or LOD =1 uM. Quality assurance included replicate analysis of prepared standards and field samples. Average coefficient of variation of replicates for this sample set was less than 1 percent.
    This process took place over a range of time from 2015 to 2016. The process date below represents the most recent date.
    References cited:
    Cline, J.D., 1969, Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural waters: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 14, p. 454-458.
    Reese, B.K., Finneran, D.W., Mills, H.J., Zhu, M.X., and Morse, J.W., 2011, Examination and refinement of the determination of aqueous hydrogen sulfide by the methylene blue method: Aquatic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 567-582.
    Date: 14-May-2021 (process 15 of 15)
    Fixed author middle initial. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Song, S., Wang, Z.A., Gonneea, M.E., Kroeger, K.D., Chu, S.N., Li, D., and Liang, H., 2020, An important biogeochemical link between organic and inorganic carbon cycling: Effects of organic alkalinity on carbonate chemistry in coastal waters influenced by intertidal salt marshes.: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 275, p. 123-139, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Chu, S.N., Wang, Z.A., Gonneea, M.E., Kroeger, K.D., and Ganju, N.K., 2018, Deciphering the dynamics of inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes using high-frequency measurements: Marine Chemistry v. 206, page 7-18, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Mann, A.G., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Gonneea, M.E., Brosnahan, S.M., Brooks, T.W., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., and Kroeger, K.D., 2019, Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016): data release DOI:10.5066/P9STIROQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Wang, Z.A., Kroeger, K.D., Ganju, N.K., Gonneea, M.E., and Chu, S.N., 2016, Intertidal salt marshes as an important source of inorganic carbon to the coastal ocean: Limnology and Oceanography v. 61, p. 1916-1931, The Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Waco, TX.

    Online Links:

    Wang, Z.A., Gonneea, M.E., and Kroeger, K.D., 2019, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry from samples collected in the Sage Lot Pond salt marsh tidal creek in Waquoit Bay, MA from 2012 to 2015: Woods Hole Open Access Server dataset 768577, Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Wang, Z.A., Song, S., Gonneea, M.E., and Kroeger, K.D., 2020, Discrete bottle sample measurements for carbonate chemistry, organic alkalinity and organic carbon from samples collected in Waquoit Bay and Vineyard Sound, MA in 2016: Woods Hole Open Access Server dataset 794163, Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Tamborski, J., Eagle, M., Kurylyk, B.L., Kroeger, K.D., Wang, Z.A., Henderson, P., and Charette, M.A., 2021, Porewater exchange driven inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes: Limnology and Oceanography online issue, The Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Waco, TX.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Journal article utilizing data from this data release.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Sampling locations from the tidal creeks, marsh platform ponds, and porewater multiple depth profiles were measured with a handheld Garmin GPSMAP 76Cx using the WGS84 datum to an accuracy of 3 meters or less. Horizontal distance between porewater profiles along the cross-marsh transect was measured with a meter tape to an accuracy of 2 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Vertical position (depth of well screen below sediment surface) was measured by subtracting the exposed length of the push-point porewater sampling device from the total length to an accuracy of 2 centimeters or less. Vertical positional accuracy relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is estimated at 5 centimeters.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Note that blank cells in the attached data files indicate either the attribute does not pertain to the sample or the attribute was not measured for the sample. The explanation for the presence of blank cells for this entire dataset is therefore captured in the above description and is not stated for individual Attribute Definitions in addition.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Analytical limits of detection are reported in the Attribute Definition, and the Process Description, when applicable. In a limited number of cases, post-processing of laboratory geochemical data resulted in slight negative values, insignificantly different from zero as based on known analytical precision and are reported as zero (0) in this dataset. Positive values that are below the analytical limit of detection are reported as measured and are not set to an arbitrary value such as 'zero' or 'BDL'. Note that any value below the reported limit of detection is truly an unknown value between zero and the limit of detection. Additional quality assurance information, including analytical precision of individual analytes, is reported in the Process Description.
    Field sampling, laboratory analyses, and subsequent handling and processing of data followed strict protocols and were consistent for each Process Step outlined below.
    In order to avoid the use of special characters, no subscripts or superscripts are used in the metadata. e.g., NO3- is actually NO subscript 3 superscript - and represents nitrate.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The dataset contains the following files: SurfaceWater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond.csv (surface water geochemical data in a comma-separated text file), SurfaceWater_ParticulateData_SageLotPond.csv (surface water particulate data in a comma-separated text file), Porewater_GeochemicalData_SageLotPond_GreatPond.csv (porewater geochemical data in a comma-separated text file), DataDictionary_SageLotPond_GreatPond.csv (comm-separated text file describing the contents and structure of the data files), Thumbnail_Image_SageLotPond.jpg (browse graphic), and FGDC CSDGM metadata in XML, text and HTML formats.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available in CSV format. The user must have software capable of reading this data format.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 14-May-2021
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Thomas W. Brooks
Physical Scientist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
wallybrooks@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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