|NIAS HERNANDEZ MONTCOURT||Person who digitized the line section.|
|RUBEN O. MALDONADO GONZALEZ||Person who digitized the line section.|
|LODERAY BRACERO MARRERO||Person who digitized the line section.|
|BEACH||Unconsolidated sediment deposit (sand and gravel)Komar, P. 1998. Beach Processes and Sedimentation: Prentice Hall, second edition, p.25|
|ROCKY||Rocky features including rocky outcrop (volcanic/sedimentary and/or metamorphic), eolianite and/or beach rock formations.|
|VEGETATION||Shoreline type that includes wetlands, mangrove, forests, pasture, among other vegetation.|
|HARD STRUCTURE||Mitigation structure placed on the shoreline, both formal and informal structures.|
|ANTHROPOGENIC||Any type of anthropogenic structure build-up in the coast. This may range from small to large structures.|
|NO VISIBILITY||This item was used to identify areas where the classification was not possible to perform. Example: presence of clouds.|
|HIGH WATER LINE||Change in color or shade of the beach sand. For panchromatic images, the higher contrast seen between the wet and dry. It is visually determined as a change in tone left by the maximum runup from a preceding high tide, leaving a contrast between dry and wet sand. The HWL was digitized in the pocket beach. It should not be confused with storm and/or swell lines. The intersection of the land with the water surface at an elevation of high water. (Boak and Turner, 2005).|
|WET/DRY LINE OR RUN UP MAXIMA||The line between the dry and wet zones seaward of the High Water Line (HWL).|
|GROUNDWATER EXIT||Darker area created after the wave has broken and returns to the water.|
|INSTANTANEOUS LINE||Where a wave breaks; often observed as a foaming mass of water.|
|CLIFF||Areas with a slope greater than 40 degrees is considered "Cliff." However, some cells between these values might be 20 degrees (Hampton and Griggs, 2004, p. 1).|
|BARE LAND||Exposed rock, inland or on the coastline with little or no vegetation cover with a low slope.|
|ROCKY BARRIER||Exposed rock in the form of a barrier limiting the entry of water completely. It can be found on the shore, nearshore and/or offshore.|
|MANGROVE||All vegetation that was classified in the 2010 Puerto Rico Land Cover C-CAP layer, as Estuarine Forested Wetland or Estuarine Emergent Wetland was classified as "Mangrove" here (Puerto Rico Land Cover C-CAP 2010 (2017)). At least 300 meters inland was digitized.|
|FOREST/SHRUB||Shrub: a shrub smaller than a tree and can be found individually on the coast. Forest: large area covered by trees and other vegetation. Name of the classification in the Land Cover layer: Scrub/Shrub and Upland Forest (Puerto Rico Land Cover C-CAP 2010 (2017)).|
|PALUSTRINE||An area with little vegetation, such as grass, seen on the shoreline, especially around river mouths. Name of the classification in the Land Cover layer: Palustrine Forested Wetland Areas (Puerto Rico Land Cover C-CAP 2010 (2017)).|
|SEAWALL||It is a massive structure built of concrete to protect the shoreline from wave activity, and its own weight provides the stability it requires to prevent it from sliding (USACE, 2002; Aponte, 2019).|
|BREAKWATER||These are mostly built with concrete or rocks. Their location, mainly, is parallel to the coastline. They are also used to protect the infrastructure (residences, stores, etc.) from the force of the waves and to widen the beach width (Aponte, 2019).|
|RIP-RAP||Rocks, mostly round, placed in a linear fashion for the purpose of protecting structures near the coast, considered formal mitigation structures and informal constructions through the coastline (Aponte, 2019).|
|BULKHEADS||Vertical retaining walls used to support or prevent the soil from sliding into the sea (USACE, 2002; Aponte 2019).|
|HOUSING||Houses close to the shoreline. Interpreted from aerial photos and Google Earth.|
|TRANSPORTATION||Roads (primary, secondary, tertiary), ramps, entrances or exits for boats or pipelines. Interpreted from aerial photos and Google Earth.|
|TOURISM||Spaces used for recreation and/or as a center of attraction. They can be boardwalks, squares near the coast, lookout points, etc. Interpreted from aerial photos and Google Earth.|
|PIERS||Bridges for pedestrians, cars, and boats. Interpreted from aerial photos and Google Earth.|
|MARINAS||Space designed for parking boats. Usually contains docks, bridges, and boats. Interpreted from aerial photos and Google Earth.|
|SHADOWS||Shadows generated by the presence of trees, houses and other types of structures. Usually, you can see that the shadow is created by a structure and not by the image itself.|
|CLOUDS||Presence of clouds at the time the aerial image was taken. These clouds limit the visualization completely and impedes the digitizing process.|
|BRIGHTNESS||The photo is too bright. The coast looks extremely white and the contrasts do not improve the quality.|
|NOT SURVEYED||Area was not surveyed by the dataset used, meaning no aerial photo was available.|
|OTHER||Any other reason not considered in the previous classifications where the shoreline was not visible.|
|Mosaic Culebra Aerial Images 1964, 1972||Years when air photo survey was conducted|
|Mosaic Vieques Aerial Images 1972, 1978||Years when air photo survey was conducted|
|Range of values|
|Vieques||Island to the east of Puerto Rico|
|Culebra||Island to the east of Puerto Rico|
|Range of values|
|Range of values|
"Shoreline mapping, change estimation and forecasting for the coast of Puerto Rico impacted by Hurricanes Irma and Maria" Grant awarded to the Graduate School of Planning, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus (UPR-RP) by the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Maritza Barreto-Orta, Principal Investigator, Graduate School of Planning; Loderay I.M. Bracero-Marrero, Research Assistant Lead Nias Hernández-Montcourt, Research Assistant; Rubén O. Maldonado-González, Research Assistant. Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, USGS: Emily Himmelstoss, Project Manager; Rachel Henderson, Researcher IV; Julia Heslin, Geographer.
The shoreline data in this data release were digitized from georeferenced photographs, using the high-water line, ground water exit point, wet-dry line and instantaneous water line as specified in the shoreline type description of the data and attribute section of the metadata. This data release also provides a detailed classification of the coast from aerial photo interpretations. These data are used in conjunction with other compiled shorelines provided in complementary data releases to calculate rates of shoreline change.
Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Use_Constraints:Users must be aware of these conditions and bear responsibility for the appropriate use of the information with respect to possible errors, scale, resolution, rectification, positional accuracy, development methodology, time period, environmental and climatic conditions and other circumstances specific to these data. The user should refer to the accompanying metadata notes for a description of the data and data development procedures.
The data herein, including but not limited to geographic data, tabular data, analytical data, electronic data structures or files, are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, or statutory, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
|Data format:||Dataset contains the shapefile, browse graphic, and CSDGM metadata. in format Shapefile (version ArcGIS 10.7) ESRI Polyline Shapefile Size: 31.0|