Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016)

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016)
Abstract:
Extended time-series sensor data were collected between 2012 and 2016 in surface water of a tidal salt-marsh creek on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The objective of this field study was to measure water chemical characteristics and flows, as part of a study to quantify lateral fluxes of dissolved carbon species between the salt marsh and estuary. Data consist of in-situ measurements including: salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, fluorescent dissolved organic matter, turbidity and chlorophyll. Surface water flow, water level and water elevation data were also measured. The data provided in this release represent a compiled data set consisting of multiple sensor deployments between 2012 and 2016.
Supplemental_Information:
These data are associated with the following Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activities:
2012-049-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2012-049-FA )

2013-037-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2013-037-FA )

2014-081-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2014-081-FA )

2015-038-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2015-038-FA)

2016-015-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-015-FA )
Although the data are a result of measurements at an instrument location, the bounding coordinates in the metadata includes the pond and adjacent estuary that are impacted by lateral flow to/from the salt marsh, as measured at the creek mouth. The detailed fix of instrument location is in the CollectionDates_Table2.csv described below.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Mann, Adrian G., O'Keefe Suttles, Jennifer A., Gonneea, Meagan E., Brosnahan, Sandra M., Brooks, Thomas W., Wang, Zhaohui A., Ganju, Neil K., and Kroeger, Kevin D., 2019, Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016): data release DOI:10.5066/P9STIROQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Mann, A.G., O'Keefe Suttles, J.A., Gonneea, M.E., Brosnahan, S.M., Brooks, T.W., Wang, Z.A., Ganju, N.K., and Kroeger, K.D., 2019, Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016): U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9STIROQ.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.5163
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.50691
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.55657
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.5515
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5cd475e6e4b062989a9e94e8?name=SLPCreek_browse_graphic.jpg (JPEG)
    Aerial photo of the study site, taken by Jim Rassman. The red box indicates the location of the instrument deployments.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 06-Nov-2012
    Ending_Date: 31-Dec-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: CSV
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 1.0E-5. Longitudes are given to the nearest 1.0E-5. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
      Altitude_Resolution: 1.0
      Altitude_Distance_Units: centimeters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    SLPCreekSensorData
    Continuous water-quality, water elevation and flow data measured in a marsh creek draining into Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, MA between 2012-2016 (Source: Adrian Mann)
    Collection_Date
    A numeric identifier of the date the measurement was collected in the format of mm/dd/yyyy. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11/01/2012
    Maximum:12/31/2016
    Units:MM/DD/YYYY
    Collection_Time_UTC
    Time of collection in UTC (HH:MM) (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0:00
    Maximum:24:00
    Units:HH:MM
    WaterTemp_C
    Surface water temperature in degrees Celsius, measured by a Conductivity/Temperature sensor (measurement range -5 to 50 degrees Celsius) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Blank values indicate that no data were collected. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-3.040
    Maximum:33.417
    Units:Degrees Celsius
    Salinity_psu
    Surface water salinity in psu, measured by a Conductivity/Temperature sensor on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde and calculated from Conductivity and Temperature using algorithms found in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (17th ed), American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C, 1989. The use of the Practical Salinity Scale results in values that are unitless, since the measurements are carried out in reference to the conductivity of standard seawater at 15 deg C. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.130
    Maximum:32.888
    Units:psu
    pH
    Measurement of surface-water pH using a pH/ORP sensor (pH measurement range of 0-14 pH units) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water, with a pH of 7 being neutral. A pH of 0 is most acidic and 14 most basic. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:6.233
    Maximum:8.785
    Units:pH units
    ORP_mV
    Measurement of surface-water oxidation-reducing potential in millivolts using a pH/ORP sensor (ORP measurement range of -999 to 999 mV) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-237.473
    Maximum:374.217
    Units:millivolts
    DOsat_perc
    Surface water measurement of dissolved oxygen in percent saturation using an optical dissolved oxygen sensor (measurement range of 0-500% air saturation) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.101
    Maximum:295.400
    Units:percent air saturation
    DO_mgL
    Surface water measurement of dissolved oxygen in milligrams per liter using an optical dissolved oxygen sensor (measurement range of 0-50 mg/L) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.030
    Maximum:20.898
    Units:milligrams per liter (mg/L)
    Turbidity_NTU
    Surface water measurement of turbidity in NTU using an optical turbidity sensor (measurement range of 0-999 FNU) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Turbidity is measured in accordance with ASTM D7315-07a “Test Method for Determination of Turbidity Above 1 Turbidity Unit (TU) in Static Mode.” This method calls for this sensor type to report values in formazin nephelometric units (FNU), which is the default calibration unit for the EXO sensor. Turbidity units were converted in the software to nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), which is more commonly used in this application. Blank values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.001
    Maximum:438.660
    Units:nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)
    FDOM_QSU
    Surface water measurement of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) in parts per billion (ppb) of Quinine Sulfate Equivalent (QSU), corrected for temperature, turbidity and inner filter effects, using an optical fDOM sensor (measurement range of 0-300 ppb QSU) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.011
    Maximum:110.075
    Units:parts per billion of Quinine Sulfate Units (QSU)
    Chl_ugL
    Surface water measurement of chlorophyll in micrograms per liter (ug/L) using an optical Total Algae-phycoerythrin sensor (measurement range 0-400 ug/L) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. The Total Algae sensor uses a blue-emitting LED that excites the chlorophyll a (chl) molecule and generates results in Relative fluorescence units (RFU) or ug/L of pigment. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.010
    Maximum:190.184
    Units:micrograms per liter (ug/L)
    BGA_ugL
    Surface water measurement of Blue-Green Algae (BGA) in micrograms per liter using an optical Total Algae-phycoerythrin (TAL-PE) sensor (measurement range of BGA-PE 0-280 ug/L) on a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. The TAL-PE sensor uses a slightly blue excitation beam that excites the phycoerythrin (PE) accessory pigment. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold as described in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.064
    Maximum:268.148
    Units:micrograms per liter (ug/L)
    Water_Elevation_m
    Elevation of the creek surface in meters, adjusted to NAVD88 elevations. Water depth was measured by a Sontek IQ-Plus acoustic doppler current profiler mounted to the bottom of the creek. Water level is determined primarily by using a vertical beam, though an integrated pressure sensor acts as a secondary measurement. The elevation at the top of the instrument surface was measured using real-time kinetic (RTK) GPS. These data are included in Table 2. Water elevation was calculated using the water depth relative to the elevation of the surface of the instrument. The elevation of the ADCP instrument was not directly measured using RTK until January 2015. Prior to that, water level was calculated using the measured elevation of the EXO2 instrument and the mean difference in overlapping depth data from both instruments. Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error exceeded the thresholds outlined in the attribute accuracy report. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.532
    Maximum:0.783
    Units:meters
    Flow_m3s
    Creek surface water discharge in cubic meters per second (m3/s) measured with a Sontek IQ-Plus acoustic doppler current profiler mounted to the bottom of the creek. (Source: Producer defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.836
    Maximum:0.778
    Units:cubic meters per second
    EXO_QAQC_Table1
    Correction criteria and maximum allowable limits for data corrections (Source: Wagner and others, 2006)
    Parameter
    The name of the chemical parameter being measured (Source: Producer defined)
    ValueDefinition
    TemperatureWater temperature in degrees C
    ConductivityWater conductivity in microsiemens per centimeter
    pHMeasurement of surface-water pH using a pH/ORP sensor
    Dissolved OxygenDissolved oxygen level in water in milligrams per liter or percent air saturation measured with an optical dissolved oxygen sensor
    TurbidityTurbidity in surface water in nephelometric turbidity units NTU measured with an optical turbidity sensor.
    fDOMSurface water measurement of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) in parts per billion of Quinine Sulfate Equivalent (QSU) using an optical fDOM sensor
    ChlorophyllSurface water measurement of chlorophyll in micrograms per liter using an optical Total Algae-phycoerythrin sensor
    Data Correction Criteria
    A numeric range of error (in units of measurement or percentage) in sensor readings due to fouling and/or drift beyond which a correction was applied (Source: Producer defined) The acceptable range of error for each sensor, according to Wagner and others, 2006. If the absolute value of drift plus fouling of each sensor parameter exceeded this range, a correction factor was applied to the data .
    Maximum allowable limit
    The maximum numerical limit of correction (in units of measurement or percentage of measured value) due to fouling and drift. (Source: Producer defined) The maximum numerical limit of correction (in units of measurement or percentage of measured value) due to fouling and drift allowable for applying a correction factor, according to Wagner and others, 2006. If error due to fouling and/or drift exceeded this limit, data were removed from the dataset.
    CollectionDates_Table2
    Data collection date ranges, instrument type and instrument horizontal and vertical positional information (Source: producer-defined)
    Instrument Type
    The type of instrument used to collect data (Source: producer-defined)
    ValueDefinition
    1SonTek IQ-Plus Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
    2Wetlabs ECO Triplet-w optical sensor
    3YSI 600 XLM multi-parameter sonde
    4YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde; Serial number ending in 2016
    5YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde; Serial number ending in 1654
    Data Collection Start Date
    The date in mm/dd/yyyy of the start of data collection (Source: producer-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11/06/2012
    Maximum:12/31/2016
    Units:mm/dd/yyyy
    Data Collection End Date
    The date in mm/dd/yyyy of the end of data collection (Source: producer-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11/9/2012
    Maximum:12/31/2016
    Units:mm/dd/yyyy
    Parameter measured
    The type of data collected (Source: producer-defined) Refer to the Attributes section of the Entity "SLPCreekSenorData" for descriptions of measured parameters
    Latitude_Decimal Degrees
    The latitudinal of the sensor position in decimal degrees (Source: producer-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.55460
    Maximum:41.55465
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude_Decimal Degrees
    The longitudinal position of the sensor position in decimal degrees with negative values indicating the western hemisphere (Source: producer-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.50710
    Maximum:-70.50713
    Units:producer-defined
    Elevation_meters
    Elevation in meters relative to a vertical control point referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). A value of NA indicates data not available. (Source: producer-defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.7838
    Maximum:-0.5640
    Units:meters
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Citations:
    Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (17th ed). American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C, 1989.
    ASTM D7315-07a Standard Test Method for Determination of Turbidity Above 1 Turbidity Unit (TU) in Static Mode, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007, www.astm.org.
    Wagner, R.J., Boulger, R.W., Jr., Oblinger, C.J., and Smith, B.A., 2006, Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors—Station operation, record computation, and data reporting: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 1-D3, 51 p.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Adrian Mann

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Mann, Adrian G.
    • O'Keefe Suttles, Jennifer A.
    • Gonneea, Meagan E.
    • Brosnahan, Sandra M.
    • Brooks, Thomas W.
    • Wang, Zhaohui A.
    • Ganju, Neil K.
    • Kroeger, Kevin D.
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Adrian G Mann
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    U.S.

    508-548-8700 x2316 (voice)
    amann@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Continuous sensor data were collected to support estimation of the lateral carbon flux portion of the carbon budget in a salt marsh environment. Carbon flux can be calculated following corrections of flow for ebb bias and for flow that occurs outside of the creek.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2016 (process 1 of 8)
    A YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde was deployed on a semi-continuous basis between November 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016 near the mouth of a tidal creek which flows into Sage Lot Pond, located within Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Mashpee, Massachusetts. Latitude and Longitude were measured with a handheld Garmin 76Cx GPSmap unit in the field at time of collection. The EXO2 sonde was instrumented with sensors to measure and record ambient water temperature, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter (fDOM), pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), Total Algae (chlorophyll and blue green algae-Phycoerythrin), and pressure at regular intervals during deployment periods. Sample intervals were set for either 2 minutes or 8 minutes in 2012-2014, and 5 minutes thereafter. Proprietary KorEXO software was used to calibrate sensors and download data. Salinity in practical salinity units (psu) was calculated from conductivity and temperature within the software. Turbidity was also converted from formazin nephelometric units (FNU) to nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) within the software.
    An automatic wiper was set to wipe the sensor faces every 20 minutes to prevent fouling. Each sensor was wrapped with anti-fouling copper tape; a copper anti-fouling guard cup was also placed around the sensors. The sonde was mounted vertically in a fixed position on a mounting plate which was attached to a post that had been driven into the bottom of the creek. The sonde was positioned so that the height of the sensor face was approximately 40 cm from the bottom of the creek. Sensor height above the sediment was measured at the start and end of each deployment with a meter stick. After a period of time (typically 2-3 weeks), the deployed sensor was removed from the creek and brought back to the lab for a post-deployment check, data downloading and sensor cleaning.
    Between 2012 and 2014, alternate sensors were occasionally deployed simultaneously alongside the EXO2 as a comparison test or if we suspected a problem with EXO2 sensor performance. These instruments included a YSI 600XLM, and a Wetlabs ECO triplet. These instruments were maintained with the same protocol as the EXO2 sonde. This process step took place from 2012 to 2016. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jennifer O'Keefe Suttles
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2385 (voice)
    jokeefesuttles@usgs.gov
    Date: 2016 (process 2 of 8)
    A Sontek IQ-Plus acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed in the channel of a tidal creek which flows into Sage Lot Pond, located within Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Mashpee, Massachusetts. The ADCP was co-deployed with the water quality sonde. Data included in this report are water elevation in meters (calculated from water level) and flow data in cubic meters per second collected every 15 minutes, almost consecutively, between November 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016.
    The ADCP was mounted on a solid platform secured into the creek bottom; it was positioned in the center of the channel at least 3 m distance from other sensors or structures in the creek. Precise elevation measurements of the instrument itself were measured using Real-Time Kinetic GPS (RTK) once per season, or if the instrument was re-positioned. These elevations are included in Table 2. However, prior to July 11, 2014 the elevation of the ADCP instrument was not directly measured using RTK and water level was calculated using the measured elevation of the EXO2 instrument and the mean difference in overlapping depth data from both instruments. The channel geometry of the creek was measured using a measuring stick and a level line across the channel for reference, and entered into the IQ SensorNet instrument software to calculate discharge area. The channel geometry was re-measured each time the instrument was re-positioned or removed from the creek for servicing. Debris and fouling on the surface of the instrument were periodically cleaned with a mop. Data from the instrument were downloaded in the field onto a laptop during regular field checks, and was further processed in the lab. This process step took place from 2012 to 2016. Person who carried out this activity:
    Sandra Brosnahan
    Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2265 (voice)
    sbrosnahan@usgs.gov
    Date: 2016 (process 3 of 8)
    Raw data files from the EXO2 were downloaded in the field or in the lab after each deployment and backed up onto a hard drive as well as to a Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) network server. Each deployment file was then exported into Matlab (version 2014a) for further evaluation and processing. Initially, excess pre- and post- deployment data were removed (i.e. data collected when the sonde was not deployed in the creek). Corrections to data, due to sensor fouling and drift (assessed during calibration checks between deployments), were then applied as appropriate, and any remaining data that were out of sensor range were omitted. Data collected from additional sensors that were periodically deployed concurrently with the EXO2 Sonde were also corrected for drift and fouling, and were merged with the EXO data only if the EXO data was not acceptable. Turbidity, fDOM, Chlorophyll and Blue-Green Algae (BGA) data were further screened using a “despike” Matlab script which filtered the data when a jump in values exceeded a threshold of 20 units (well beyond the expected range of values between sample points), and removed spikes that were greater than 50% from a 5 point median filter of the signal. This process step took place from 2012 to 2016. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jennifer O'Keefe Suttles
    Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2385 (voice)
    jokeefesuttles@usgs.gov
    Date: 2016 (process 4 of 8)
    Raw data files from the SonTek IQ-Plus ADCP were downloaded in the field or every 3-4 weeks. Data were visually evaluated with the IQ software in the field before continuing with data collection. Raw data were brought back to the lab and backed-up onto a hard drive as well as to a WHCMSC network server. Each deployment file was then imported into Matlab (version 2014a) for further evaluation and processing. Data were evaluated between deployments based on a predetermined acceptable ratio of signal to noise. Data with an SNR ratio that fell outside of this threshold (acceptable SNR threshold ranged from 4 to 70; per recommendation by SonTek technical support) were removed. Depth values less than 0.01 m were also removed. Data that were deemed erroneous from a known disturbance in the creek, large storm or ice cover were omitted as appropriate. This process step took place from 2012 to 2016. Person who carried out this activity:
    Sandra Brosnahan
    Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2265 (voice)
    sbrosnahan@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2017 (process 5 of 8)
    After corrected for drift and fouling, fDOM data were also corrected for temperature, turbidity and inner filter effect, based on the procedures followed by Downing and others, 2012. Correction equations were based on an in-house laboratory experiment on October 5, 2017 using water collected from the Sage Lot Pond study site. Because turbidity values in the lab experiment did not exceed 220 NTU, a constant correction value, equivalent to turbidity value 220 NTU (0.2144 Quinine Sulfate Equivalent (QSU)), was used for any samples with turbidity values above 220 NTU. Otherwise, the exponential correction factor was applied. Turbidity values exceeding 500 NTU, remaining after data were corrected, were omitted as it was determined that these were unreliable values for this study site.
    Citation: Downing, B.D., Pellerin, B.A., Bergamaschi, B.A., Saraceno, J.F., and Kraus, T.E.C., 2012, Seeing the light: The effects of particles, dissolved materials,and temperature on in situ measurements of DOM fluorescence in rivers and streams: Limnology and Oceanography-Methods, v. 10, p. 767-775, https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.4319/lom.2012.10.767. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jennifer O'Keefe Suttles
    Woods Hole Coastal & Marine Science Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2385 (voice)
    jokeefesuttles@usgs.gov
    Date: 2019 (process 6 of 8)
    Finally, all corrected chemical and flow data were adjusted and interpolated onto the same time stamp at a regular 5-minute sample interval using Matlab (version 2014a). The xlswrite function was used to write the data out as a CSV file. Person who carried out this activity:
    Adrian Mann
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2236 (voice)
    amann@usgs.gov
    Date: 2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Excel (version 2013) was used to create separate tables which document additional information associated with these data. Table 1 (EXO_QAQC_Table1.csv) documents the correction criteria and maximum allowable limits for data corrections. Table 2 (Collection Dates_Table2.csv) documents the data collection date ranges, instrument type and instrument horizontal and vertical positional information. These tables were then exported as CSV files using "save as". These tables are described in the entity and attribute section. Person who carried out this activity:
    Adrian Mann
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2236 (voice)
    amann@usgs.gov
    Date: 06-Aug-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Drift and fouling of each sensor on the YSI EXO2 sonde were evaluated after each field deployment. Correction factors based on fouling and drift were calculated and applied according to Wagner and others, 2006. Fouling was determined as the difference between a sensor reading in solution prior to cleaning and after cleaning. Calibration drift was determined as the difference between the prepared value of a calibration solution and cleaned sensor reading in calibration solution. If the absolute value of the sum of the fouling and drift are beyond a predetermined acceptable amount of fouling (Table 1, Wagner and others, 2006), then a correction factor (calculated from these fouling and drift assessments) would be applied to the data. If the data required a correction factor beyond an acceptable threshold (Table 1), the data were removed from the dataset. Fouling was determined in three different ways during the 2012-2016 field seasons: field comparison of dirty deployed EXO and clean replacement EXO; laboratory comparison of sensor data in a bucket of field water prior to and after cleaning; laboratory comparison of sensor data in known standards prior to and after cleaning. Bucket tests were not ideal for all parameters; for some parameters the concentration in the bucket was near to the detection limit of the sensor (for example turbidity and total algae). Field comparison was not available for all deployments (due to battery failure of deployed sondes). Comparison in standards was most consistently assessed. Calibration drift was assessed on cleaned sensors post deployment. After the fouling evaluation was complete, sensors were cleaned and placed in clean standards. Readings were noted and sensors were recalibrated, if necessary, prior to next deployment. Data from optical sensors not included in Wagner and others, 2006 (fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) and chlorophyll) were corrected using the same criteria as turbidity.
    Water flow and water depth data were measured by a SonTek IQ-Plus Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), using SonTek IQ Firmware version 1.10. The minimum operating depth of the IQ-plus is 0.08 meters, and maximum is 5.0 meters. Water level accuracy was 0.1% of measured depth or +-0.003 meters, whichever was greater. Pressure sensor accuracy was 0.1% of full scale, and sensor range was 10 meters. Velocity accuracy was +-1% of measured velocity, or +-0.5 centimeters per second. Data were evaluated between deployments, based on the signal to noise ratio. Data with a signal to noise ratio below 4 were omitted, as the velocity signal may become compromised. Depth values less than 0.01 meters were also removed because they were determined to be below detection.
    Citation used: Wagner, R.J., Boulger, R.W., Jr., Oblinger, C.J., and Smith, B.A., 2006, Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors—Station operation, record computation, and data reporting: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 1-D3, 51 p.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Latitude and Longitude were measured with a handheld Garmin 76Cx GPSmap unit in the field at time of collection. The GPS unit indicated accuracy was within 3 meters. No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Prior to September 2015, elevation of the water level sensor was obtained using rod and optical level survey. Elevation measurements were relative to a vertical control point referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) based on long-term GPS base station occupations using a Trimble receiver with accuracy within 3 centimeters. Error associated with readings relative to the vertical control point was less than 1 centimeter. After September 2015, elevation of the water level sensor was measured with a Trimble Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS. Accuracy was 2-3 cm according to instrument corrections. No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Missing values indicate that either no measurement was made, or the data were omitted because it was determined that error due to sensor drift and fouling exceeded the correction threshold (in the case of the EXO2 sensors), or the signal to noise ratio fell outside of the acceptable threshold (in the case of the SonTek IQ ADCP) as described in the Attribute Accuracy Report.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Water chemical data were primarily measured with a YSI EXO2 sonde (s/n 12J102016) during the data collection period. Between 2012 and 2014, alternate sondes (YSI 600XLM, Wetlabs ECO triplet) were occasionally deployed simultaneously as a comparison test or if we suspected a problem with EXO2 sensor performance. These instruments were maintained with the same protocol as the EXO2 sonde. Data from the YSI 600XLM and Wetlabs were only substituted if EXO data was not acceptable. Throughout the 2015 field season, two EXO2 sondes (s/n 12J102016 and s/n 12J101654) were used interchangeably at this location. Details of data collection dates and instrument type used are included in Table 2.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    ScienceBase
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    US

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? This dataset contains the the sensor data in CSV format (SLPCreekSensorData.csv), a CSV table of correction criteria and maximum allowable limits for data corrections (EXO_QAQC_Table1.csv), and a CSV table of data collection date ranges, instrument type and instrument horizontal and vertical positional information (CollectionDates_Table2.csv). Additionally, CSDGM metadata describing these tables is available in XML format.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Aug-2020
Metadata author:
Adrian G Mann
Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Physical Scientist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
United States

508-548-8700 (voice)
amann@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/SB_data_release/DR_P9STIROQ/SLPCreekData_metadata.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:19:40 2021