points, transects, beach width: Barrier island geomorphology and shorebird habitat metrics at 50-m alongshore transects and 5-m cross-shore points: Parramore Island, VA, 2014

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Emily J. Sturdivant
Originator: Sara L. Zeigler
Originator: Benjamin T. Gutierrez
Publication_Date: 20191220
Title:
points, transects, beach width: Barrier island geomorphology and shorebird habitat metrics at 50-m alongshore transects and 5-m cross-shore points: Parramore Island, VA, 2014
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular and raster
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P9V7F6UX
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P9V7F6UX
Online_Linkage: Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Emily J. Sturdivant
Originator: Sara L. Zeigler
Originator: Benjamin T. Gutierrez
Originator: Kathryn M. Weber
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Barrier island geomorphology and shorebird habitat metrics: Sixteen sites on the U.S. Atlantic Coast, 2013–2014
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P9V7F6UX
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Suggested citation: Sturdivant, E.J., Zeigler, S.L., Gutierrez, B.T., and Weber, K.M., 2019, Barrier island geomorphology and shorebird habitat metrics—Sixteen sites on the U.S. Atlantic Coast, 2013–2014: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9V7F6UX.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P9V7F6UX
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
Understanding how sea-level rise will affect coastal landforms and the species and habitats they support is critical for crafting approaches that balance the needs of humans and native species. Given this increasing need to forecast sea-level rise effects on barrier islands in the near and long terms, we are developing Bayesian networks to evaluate and to forecast the cascading effects of sea-level rise on shoreline change, barrier island state, and piping plover habitat availability. We use publicly available data products, such as lidar, orthophotography, and geomorphic feature sets derived from those, to extract metrics of barrier island characteristics at consistent sampling distances. The metrics are then incorporated into predictive models and the training data used to parameterize those models. This data release contains the extracted metrics of barrier island geomorphology and spatial data layers of habitat characteristics that are input to Bayesian networks for piping plover habitat availability and barrier island geomorphology. These datasets and models are being developed for sites along the northeastern coast of the United States. This work is one component of a larger research and management program that seeks to understand and sustain the ecological value, ecosystem services, and habitat suitability of beaches in the face of storm impacts, climate change, and sea-level rise.
Purpose:
These data provide samples of barrier island characteristics for use in Bayesian networks to model geomorphology and shorebird nesting habitat condition and change. Transects spaced every 50 m alongshore from the National Assessment of Shoreline Change (NASC; pari_trans.shp) were extended and supplemented to use as the base sampling unit to compile and sample barrier island characteristics. Attributes are provided at 5-m sample points (pari14_pts.csv) along each transect and include both values extracted for the entire transect and values extracted at each point. The attributes in the points file can be aggregated by transect and joined to the transect features by the field sort_ID. The beach width values calculated for each transect are also provided as a spatially continuous raster (pari14_ubw.tif). See Zeigler and others (2019) for additional details.
Supplemental_Information:
This metadata file describes three related datasets. Full methods are provided in the associated USGS Open-File Report (Zeigler and others, 2019).
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2014
Currentness_Reference:
Ground condition measured by source data for given attribute as specified in process steps.
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.70410438
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.58194109
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.58532296
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.47128806
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Metadata Identifier
Theme_Keyword: USGS:5daa37e5e4b09fd3b0c9cef7
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Bayesian Network
Theme_Keyword: Barrier Island
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: CMHRP
Theme_Keyword: Geographic Information Systems
Theme_Keyword: GIS
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program
Theme_Keyword: Probability
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Theme_Keyword: St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Theme_Keyword: MHW
Theme_Keyword: Mean High Water
Theme_Keyword: Coastal Erosion
Theme_Keyword: Coastal processes
Theme_Keyword: Erosion
Theme_Keyword: hazards
Theme_Keyword: Shoreline Change
Theme_Keyword: Sea Level Rise
Theme_Keyword: Sea-level change
Theme_Keyword: Coastal Hazards
Theme_Keyword: Coastal Habitat
Theme_Keyword: Parramore Island
Theme_Keyword: Virginia Coast Reserve
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: geospatial datasets
Theme_Keyword: geospatial analysis
Theme_Keyword: coastal processes
Theme_Keyword: geomorphology
Theme_Keyword: land use and land cover
Theme_Keyword: transect sampling
Theme_Keyword: geographic information systems
Theme_Keyword: erosion
Theme_Keyword: hazards
Theme_Keyword: sea-level change
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: VA
Place_Keyword: Delmarva Peninsula
Place_Keyword: Parramore Island
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: USA
Place_Keyword: Atlantic Ocean
Place_Keyword: Virginia Coast Reserve
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Sara L. Zeigler
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2290
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: szeigler@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Example view (A) of the 5-m points (black), which follow the cross-shore transects (yellow) and diagram (B) of the metrics computed at each transect point.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: PNG
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Sara L. Zeigler
Originator: Emily J. Sturdivant
Originator: Benjamin T. Gutierrez
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Evaluating barrier island characteristics and piping plover (Charadrius melodus) habitat availability along the U.S. Atlantic coast—Geospatial approaches and methodology
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2019–1071
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Details the methods used to process these data for use in barrier island and piping plover habitat modeling.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20191071
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kathryn M. Weber
Originator: Jeffrey H. List
Originator: Karen L. M. Morgan
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
An Operational Mean High Water Datum for Determination of Shoreline Position from Topographic Lidar Data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1027
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20051027
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1027/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Tracy M. Rice
Originator: Anne Hecht
Originator: Karen Terwilliger
Publication_Date: 2015
Title: Beach and Tidal Habitat Inventories
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Hadley, MA
Publisher: North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative
Other_Citation_Details:
Includes "Inventory of Habitat Modifications to Tidal Inlet and Sandy Beach Habitat Prior to Hurricane Sandy (2012)""
Online_Linkage: Online_Linkage: Online_Linkage: Online_Linkage:
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Emily J. Sturdivant
Publication_Date: 2019
Title: bi-transect-extractor
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: software release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P915UYMY
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Custom-built package used for data processing. The Jupyter notebook file distributed with these data were part of the processing to create these data. The notebook relies on this software package.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P915UYMY
Online_Linkage: https://code.usgs.gov/cmgp/bi-transect-extractor
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Klaus K.E. Neuendorf
Originator: James P. Mehl, Jr.
Originator: Julia A. Jackson
Publication_Date: 2011
Title: Glossary of geology. Fifth edition
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Alexandria, VA
Publisher: The American Geosciences Institute
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Paul J. Godfrey
Publication_Date: 1976
Title:
Comparative ecology of East Coast barrier islands—Hydrology, soil, vegetation, in Barrier islands and beaches
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Technical proceedings of the 1976 Barrier Islands Workshop, Annapolis, Maryland, May 17–18, 1976
Issue_Identification: p. 5–31
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, D.C.
Publisher: The Conservation Foundation
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Originator: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
Publication_Date: 2015
Title: The PLANTS Database
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Greensboro, NC
Publisher: National Plant Data Team
Other_Citation_Details: accessed 13 January 2014
Online_Linkage: http://plants.usda.gov
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Attribute values at each point (pari14_pts.csv) represent a 5 x 5 m square centered at the point. The values are compiled from multiple sources. Transect-averaged values, such as beach width, may represent 25 m on either side of the indicated transect. The following methods were used to validate attribute accuracy: symbolized display of transect and point attribute values overlaid on input datasets including elevation, barrier extent, geomorphic feature (ArcGIS Pro version 2.0); spot-checking of values at individual points and comparison with input datasets and topology (ArcGIS Pro version 2.0); and for random transects, plotting the cross-shore profile using elevation values from each point along the transect, distance values and the cross-shore position of the features they were calculated from (Matlab R2015b). These checks were performed by at least two operators.
Metrics related to the geomorphic feature points (i.e. dune toe, dune crest, shoreline) do not necessarily provide accurate measurements for bay-side areas. For example, in rare situations a transect might intersect multiple oceanside shorelines, possibly due to the orientation of an inlet (e.g. transect 459 at Rhode Island, ri_trans.shp in larger work), but the single dune crest point associated with the transect is simply the closest point, whether it be on the ocean-side portion of land or not. Thus, the distance to dune crest values may not be realistic for a portion of the points along the transect.
pari14_ubw.tif: Accuracy of the beach width value is dependent on the accuracy of the lineage data. Beach widths are calculated to the tenths of meters in precision. However, the values are only calculated every 50 m alongshore. Thus, a given cell value may represent the width of the beach at a transect as far as 25 m removed from the cell. Refer to the process steps for details. Beach width values were spot-checked while verifying the reliability of the transect values. Spot checks were performed by plotting the beach width on a cross-shore elevation profile with the available dune positions positioned on the plot as well. These values were always found to be in agreement unless reported elsewhere.
More detail is provided elsewhere below (Process Steps and Entity and Attribute Information), in the associated Open-File Report (Zeigler and others, 2019), and in the source code (Sturdivant, 2019).
Logical_Consistency_Report:
These datasets consist of data compiled from multiple sources and aggregated spatially. The data were reviewed using standard USGS review procedures. No checks for topological consistency in addition to those described in the Attribute Accuracy Report were performed on these data. The primary vertical datum used is NAVD88, consistent with the source datasets lidar and geomorph points. Some fields (those with a 'mhw' suffix and explained in the Entity and Attribute section) include the elevation adjusted to the mean high water (MHW) datum calculated by Weber and others (2005) for the area. The field 'MHW' in the transects (pari_trans.shp) indicates the MHW offset along the given transect.
pari14_pts.csv: With increasing distance of a point from the ocean-facing side of the barrier, there is less likely to be a direct orthogonal relationship between the value and the oceanside shoreline. Prior to segmenting transects into 5-m points, some transects were shortened to eliminate overlap (see first Process Step). Thus transect-based values at back-barrier points could pertain to a more distant shoreline. Where a given attribute value could not be calculated due to lack of input data in the lineage dataset, a NoData value of -99999 was recorded for the attribute. Where a transect does not intersect land, it corresponds to a single point with NoData values for all attributes. More detail is provided in the associated Open-File Report (Zeigler and others, 2019) and in the Entity and Attribute Information.
pari_trans.shp: This shapefile consists of line data compiled from NASC transects and manual additions. Original NASC transects include ID values ('TRANSECTID') that match them to the original transect and supplemental transects have a NoData value for NASC attributes ('TRANSECTID', 'LRR'). Transects are identified by the field 'sort_ID,' which orders transects sequentially (from south to north) along the shoreline. Transects are spaced alongshore approximately every 50 m within the study area, which is a rough delineation that extends beyond the island outline at most sites. Transect extent and distribution is based on the study area rather than the shoreline, to allow transect positions to encompass the land in years with different shoreline positions. As a result, some transects may not intersect land in certain years. Curves in the generalized shoreline may cause transect spacing to vary from the standard 50 m alongshore, especially along the inland side of the study area. Transects are not always orthogonal to the section of shore they intersect. Transects may overlap. In such cases, the complete transect was preserved allowing overlap so that each transect could measure the full width of the barrier. Transects are the base features for pari14_pts.csv and pari14_ubw.tif.
pari14_ubw.tif: With increasing distance of a cell from the ocean-facing side of the barrier, there is less likely to be a direct orthogonal relationship between the cell value and the beach because transects were shortened to eliminate overlap prior to assigning the line values to the raster grid. Cells may not have the same value as neighboring cells directly oceanward because of the same overlap-elimination process applied to the transects. Where values could not be calculated due to lack of input data in the lineage dataset, a NoData value was recorded for the attribute.
Completeness_Report:
Dataset completeness is dependent on the completeness of the source data. Transects (pari_trans.shp) are spaced alongshore approximately every 50 m within the study area, with substantial variation on the inland side. Not all transects intersect land and transects may overlap. Points (pari14_pts.csv) are spaced every 5 m along the transects within the full island shoreline polygons (pari14_shoreline.shp in the larger work; see Process Steps). Points may not extend to the end of a transect to prevent oversampling (see the fourth Process Step). The beach width raster (pari14_ubw.tif) covers the same extent as the transects.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Depending on the attribute, the accuracy is assumed to be between 5 and 25 m. The horizontal positional accuracy is dependent on the accuracy of the source data and error incorporated during processing. Refer to the process steps for details.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The vertical accuracy of those attributes that incorporate vertical position is dependent on the digital elevation model and its source data (see Source Information in Process Steps) as well as the MHW datum produced by Weber and others (2005).
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Emily A. Himmelstoss
Originator: Meredith G. Kratzmann
Originator: Cheryl J. Hapke
Originator: E. Robert Thieler
Originator: Jeffrey List
Publication_Date: 2010
Title:
National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the New England and Mid-Atlantic Coasts
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2010-1119
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1119/
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1119/data_catalog.html
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2010
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NASC transects
Source_Contribution:
Shore-normal transects with long term shoreline change rates from the National Assessment of Shoreline Change (NASC) (DelmarvaS_SVA_LT.shp). The data are distributed as an Esri polyline shapefile referenced to World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84). They were downloaded in 2017.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), Remote Sensing Division
Publication_Date: 20150501
Title:
2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Online_Linkage: Online_Linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/htdata/raster1/imagery/Sandy_2014_4885
Online_Linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer
Online_Linkage: https://inport.nmfs.noaa.gov/inport/item/48588
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20140101
Ending_Date: 20140421
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Orthoimage
Source_Contribution:
Visual imagery used for digitizing shorefront development, tidal inlets, and for QA/QC. Source data were distributed at 0.35 m pixel resolution, in horizontal datum NAD83. Downloaded on 2/21/2017. Data were projected to UTM Zone 18N (EPSG:26918) using the ‘Project Raster’ tool in ArcToolbox (version 10.4.1).
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), Remote Sensing Division
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Office for Coastal Management (OCM)
Publication_Date: 20151220
Title:
2014 NOAA Post-Sandy Topobathymetric LiDAR: Void DEMs South Carolina to New York
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Online_Linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer/#/lidar/search/where:ID=4967
Online_Linkage: Online_Linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer
Online_Linkage: https://inport.nmfs.noaa.gov/inport/item/48367
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 201311
Ending_Date: 201406
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Contribution:
Elevation. Source data were downloaded from https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer in horizontal datum NAD 1983 (2011), UTM Zone 18N, vertical datum NAVD88. Downloaded on 4/8/2016.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019). The Jupyter notebook used for processing is distributed with this dataset (extractor_pari14.ipynb).
pari_trans.shp
NASC transects from Himmelstoss and others (2010) were modified for the purposes of this study. Transects were extended inland to cover the width of the barrier, and additional transects were added to fill alongshore gaps greater than 50 m.
Transects are extended by using the last two vertices of each transect to programmatically place the end of the line 3,000 m beyond the end of the original line segment. Python (version 3) with the modules ArcPy and Collections in an ArcGIS Pro 2.0 environment are used for programming (see function core/functions_warcpy.ExtendLine in bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019)). The process transforms the data from WGS84 to NAD83 UTM Zone 18N using WGS_1984_(ITRF00)_To_NAD_1983_2011 (WKID: 108354, accuracy: 0.1 m). It uses the coordinates of the last two vertices of each feature and calculates a new second coordinate at a specified distance (3,000 m) along the prolongation of the line from the first coordinate.
Next, transects are manually added to fill alongshore gaps greater than 50 m. To do so we copy the extended NASC transects, replace their attribute values with fill values (-99999), move groups of them to fill gaps, delete any that are unchanged, and then merge the altered file back to the NASC transects. ID values ('sort_ID') are assigned that order the transects consecutively along the oceanside shoreline using the ArcGIS Spatial Sort tool in spatial increments.
We eliminate transect overlap in certain locations by manually clipping the transects to the first intersection point with an overlapping transect. While doing so, we prioritize the original NASC transect geometries. Overlapping transects retain the azimuths of the original lines but in some cases are shortened.
Process_Date: 2018
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019) and technical steps can be found in the source code (Sturdivant, 2019). The Jupyter notebook used to create the point dataset (extractor_pari14.ipynb) is distributed in this data release. All steps described below were performed in the Jupyter notebook extractor_pari14.ipynb, which used Python 3 and ArcPy distributed with ArcGIS Pro 2.0. Manual steps indicated in the notebook were executed in a session of ArcGIS Pro 2.0.
The term "shoreline" is used to describe multiple components. "Shoreline polygon(s)" (pari14_shoreline.shp in larger work) outline the boundary between land and water for the entire study area. They are composed of the oceanside shoreline and the back-barrier shoreline. "Oceanside shoreline" refers to the MHW contour line adjacent to the open ocean and bounded by either tidal inlet or the study area extent. In some cases, we may use MHW shoreline interchangeably with oceanside shoreline. "Back-barrier shoreline" refers to the boundary between land and water on the inland side of the island; it usually follows the mean tidal level (MTL) contour line. We also refer to "shoreline points," which are precise MHW positions defined in the pari14_SLpts dataset in the larger work.
pari14_pts.csv, part 1
First, we calculate values that apply to entire cross-shore transects. Supplemented NASC transects are populated with the shoreline change rate values from the original NASC transects. Lines that are not present in the NASC transects are populated with fill values (-99999) for LRR, TRANSECTID, and TRANSORDER fields.
MHW position and foreshore slope along transect:
Each transect is assigned the foreshore slope (Bslope) from the nearest oceanside shoreline point within 25 m (see larger work). The MHW shoreline easting and northing locate the intersection of the transect with the oceanside shoreline. These values are populated for each transect as follows (using Python 3 distributed with ArcGIS Pro 2.0, especially the modules ArcPy, NumPy, and Pandas): (1) Create a line representing the oceanside shoreline by converting the shoreline polygons to lines, clipping them at the inlet lines, and selecting only those segments that intersect shoreline points (from the morphology feature positions, pari14_SLpts in larger work); (2) get 'SL_x' and 'SL_y' at the intersection point between the transect and the oceanside shoreline (created from pari14_shoreline.shp in larger work); (3) find the closest shoreline point to that intersection point; and (4) assign the slope value from the shoreline point to the transect ('Bslope'). In rare situations, this results in a transect with a slope value but without a shoreline position.
Dune positions along transects:
'DL_x', 'DL_y', and 'DL_zMHW' are the easting, northing, and height above MHW, respectively, of the nearest dune toe point (pari14_DLpts.shp in larger work) within 25 meters of the transect. Likewise, 'DH_x', 'DH_y', and 'DH_zMHW' are the easting, northing, and height above MHW, respectively, of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters (pari14_DCpts.shp in larger work). We find the XYZ positions of the nearest dune crest and dune toe within 25 meters for each transect using bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019) to execute the following, repeated for both dune crest and dune toe: (1) evaluate the distance from the transect to every dune crest/toe point and find the shortest of these distances (distanceTo geometry method in ArcPy); (2) if the distance is less than 25 m, return the elevation from the point and the XY position of the point ‘snapped’ to the transect (snapToLine geometry method); (3) if there are no points within 25 m of the transect, populate the transect with null/fill values (Pandas); and (4) convert the elevations to the MHW datum by subtracting the MHW offset value (0.34 m based on Weber and others, 2005).
'Arm_x', 'Arm_y', and 'Arm_zMHW' are the easting, northing, and height above MHW, respectively, where an artificial structure crosses the transect in the vicinity of the beach. These features are meant to supplement the dune toe dataset by providing an upper limit to the beach in areas where dune toe extraction was confounded by the presence of an artificial structure. Values are populated for each transect as follows: (1) prioritizing areas where dune toe features were not successfully extracted, use orthoimagery, supplemented with the DEM, to manually digitize line segments on the oceanside face of artificial impediments to sediment ("armoring"), such as sand-fencing, sandbags, seawalls, etc.; (2) get the positions of intersection between the digitized armoring lines and the transects (Intersect tool from the Overlay toolset); (3) extract the elevation value at each intersection point from the DEM (Extract Multi Values to Points tool from Spatial Analyst; see Source Information for DEM); and (4) convert the elevations to the MHW datum by subtracting the MHW offset value (0.34 m based on Weber and others, 2005).
Beach width and height:
Upper beach width ('uBW') and upper beach height ('uBH') are calculated based on the difference in position between two points: the position of MHW along the transect ('SL_x', 'SL_y') and the dune toe position or equivalent (usually 'DL_x', 'DL_y'). All calculations are performed by the function calc_BeachWidth_fill in bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019). In some cases, the dune toe is not appropriate to designate the "top of beach" so beach width and height are calculated from either the position of the dune toe, the dune crest, or the base of an armoring structure. The dune crest is only considered a possibility if the dune crest elevation (DH_zMHW) is less than or equal to 2.5 m, which was selected for this site through expert judgement. They are calculated as follows, relying primarily on NumPy and the snapToLine geometry method in ArcPy, and using Pandas for data storage/organization:
(1) Find the position along the transect of an orthogonal line drawn to the dune point ('DL_x', 'DL_y' and 'DH_x', 'DH_y'). (2) Calculate distances from MHW to the position along the transect of the dune toe ('DistDL'), dune crest ('DistDH'), and armoring ('DistArm'). (3) Conditionally select the appropriate feature to represent "top of beach." Dune toe is prioritized. If it is not available and 'DH_zMHW' is less than or equal to maxDH, use dune crest. If neither of the dune feature positions satisfy the conditions and an armoring feature intersects with the transect, use the armoring position. If none of the three are possible, 'uBW' and 'uBH' are given a NoData value of -99999. (4) Copy the distance to oceanside shoreline and height above MHW ('Dist--', '---zMHW') to 'uBW' and 'uBH', respectively.
Distance to inlet:
Distance to nearest tidal inlet ('Dist2Inlet') is computed as alongshore distance of each sampling transect from the nearest tidal inlet. Inlets are manually delineated during the creation of the shoreline polygon file. This distance includes changes in the path of the oceanside shoreline rather than just a straight-line distance between each transect and the inlet and reflects sediment transport pathways. It is measured using the shoreline polygon(s) and the delineated tidal inlets (pari14_inletLines.shp in larger work) as follows: (1) split the shoreline polygon(s) at the tidal inlets by converting the polygon(s) to polylines including the inlet lines (Feature to Line in Data Management); (2) retain only the oceanside segments of the shoreline by deleting all segments that do not intersect any shoreline points (disjoint geometry method in ArcPy data access module); (3) if the shoreline is bounded on both sides by an inlet, measure the distance to both and assign the minimum distance of the two or if the shoreline meets only one inlet (meaning the study area ends before the island ends), use the distance to the only inlet (cut, disjoint, and length geometry methods and properties in ArcPy)
Island widths:
Barrier Island Width ('WidthLand') is calculated as the aggregate above-water width between the back-barrier and oceanside shorelines along the transect. 'WidthLand' only included regions of the barrier within the shoreline polygon(s) (pari14_shoreline.shp in larger work). We also measure the shore-to-shore extent of the island, which includes space occupied by waterways ('WidthFull') and the width of only the most seaward portion of land within the shoreline ('WidthPart'). These are calculated as follows:
(1) Clip the transect to the shoreline polygon(s) (Clip in the Analysis toolbox); (2) for 'WidthLand', get the length of the multipart line segment from "SHAPE@LENGTH" feature class attribute, which will include only the remaining portions of the transect; (3) for 'WidthPart', convert the clipped transect from multipart to singlepart and get the length of the first line segment, which should be the most seaward; (4) for 'WidthFull', calculate the distance between the first vertex and the last vertex of the clipped transect (Feature Class to NumPy Array with explode to points, Pandas groupby, NumPy hypot).
The shoreline polygon may be artificially clipped where the site boundary or the available data do not include a back-barrier shoreline, which prevents the accurate calculation of island width values (e.g. Coast Guard Beach in Massachusetts). In these cases, transects that intersect a false back-barrier shoreline were manually identified and assigned fill values (-99999) for WidthLand, WidthFull, WidthPart, Dist_MHWbay as applicable.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Emily J. Sturdivant
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geographer
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2230
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: esturdivant@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019) and technical steps can be found in the source code (Sturdivant, 2019). The Jupyter notebook used to create the point dataset (extractor_pari14.ipynb) is distributed in this data release. All steps described below were performed in the Jupyter notebook extractor_pari14.ipynb, which used Python 3 and ArcPy distributed with ArcGIS Pro 2.0. Manual steps indicated in the notebook were executed in a session of ArcGIS Pro 2.0.
pari14_pts.csv, part 2
Nourishment, Construction, Development:
We manually assigned coded values for the attributes Nourishment, Construction, and Development by comparing the transect positions to ancillary datasets in ArcGIS 10.5. These datasets included the inventory of habitat modification (Rice, 2015), available aerial imagery, and the development layer included in this data release. See the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019) for details and example figures.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Benjamin T. Gutierrez
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2289
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bgutierrez@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019). All steps described below were performed in the Jupyter notebook extractor_pari14.ipynb, which used Python 3 and ArcPy distributed with ArcGIS Pro 2.0. Manual steps indicated in the notebook were executed in a session of ArcGIS Pro 2.0.
pari14_pts.csv, part 3
The point dataset represents 5 m sampling of the land along each shore-normal transect (pari_trans.shp; see Zeigler and others, 2019). The 5-m point file is created from the supplemented NASC transects as follows: (1) Manually shorten overlapping transects to the first point of intersection. Prioritize preserving original NASC transects and those that are oriented most orthogonally to the shore. (2) Clip the transects to the shoreline polygon(s) of the barrier island, retaining only those portions of the transects that represent land. (3) Create a point along each transect every 5 m starting from the oceanside shoreline.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Emily J. Sturdivant
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geographer
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2230
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: esturdivant@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019). All steps described below were performed in the Jupyter notebook extractor_pari14.ipynb, which used Python 3 and ArcPy distributed with ArcGIS Pro 2.0 (Sturdivant, 2019). Manual steps indicated in the notebook were executed in a session of ArcGIS Pro 2.0.
pari14_pts.csv, part 4
Point identifier:
We populate the 5-m points with a numerical identifier ('SplitSort') of the 5-m data sampling points at a particular study site, sorted by order along oceanside shoreline and by distance from the oceanside shoreline. 'SplitSort' values are populated by sorting the points by 'sort_ID' and 'Dist_Seg' (see below).
Distances:
'Dist_Seg' and 'Dist_MHWbay' measure the distance of the point from the shoreline adjacent to the open ocean and the shoreline adjacent to the back-barrier waterbody respectively. 'Dist_Seg' is calculated as the Euclidean distance between the point and the shoreline ('SL_x', 'SL_y'). 'Dist_MHWbay' is calculated by subtracting the 'Dist_Seg' value from the transect 'WidthPart'. A NoData value for WidthPart prevents the calculation of Dist_MHWbay. This is performed by the function prep_points in bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019).
'DistSegDH', 'DistSegDL', and 'DistSegArm' measure the distance of each 5-m point from the dune crest, dune toe, and dune armoring position respectively along a particular transect. They are calculated as the Euclidean distance between the 5-m point and the given feature.
Elevation and slope:
'ptZ' and 'ptSlp' are the elevation (NAVD88) and slope at the 5-m cell corresponding to the point. We use the 5-m DEM (see Source Information) to generate a slope surface (Slope tool in 3D Analyst). The elevation and slope values are assigned to the points using the Extract Multi Values to Points tool in Spatial Analyst, which is called by bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019). 'ptZmhw' is calculated from 'ptZ' by subtracting the MHW offset value (0.34 m based on Weber and others, 2005).
Transect-averaged elevation:
We calculate the per-transect mean and maximum barrier elevation (mean_Zmhw, max_Zmhw) from the 5-m elevations (ptZmhw). Mean barrier elevations are calculated for only those transects having less than 20 percent missing values within the 5-m points. Locations not satisfying this criterion are assigned a fill value. This is performed by the function aggregate_z in bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019).
Habitat variables:
Variables for vegetation type (VegType), vegetation density (VegDens), substrate type (SubType), distance to foraging habitat (DisMOSH), and geomorphic setting (GeoSet) are populated from the corresponding raster layers provided with the larger work (files ParI14_VegType.tif, ParI14_VegDen.tif, ParI14_SubType.tif, ParI14_DisMOSH.tif, ParI14_GeoSet.tif). They are assigned to the points using the Extract Multi Values to Points tool in Spatial Analyst, which is called by bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019).
The values are recoded as follows using bi-transect-extractor, which is documented in the file extractor_pari14.ipynb.
SubType: 7777:'{1111, 2222}', 1000:'{1111, 3333}’ VegType: 77:'{11, 22}', 88:'{22, 33}', 99:'{33, 44}' VegDens: 666: '{111, 222}', 777: '{222, 333}', 888: '{333, 444}', 999: '{222, 333, 444}'
To calculate the values, the data are passed between Pandas dataframe format and ArcGIS geodatabase feature class. Once all values have been calculated, the Pandas dataframe is saved in comma-separated values (CSV) format. Curly brackets ('{}') around two values are used in the modeling process.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Emily J. Sturdivant
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geographer
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2230
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: esturdivant@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Full methods are provided in the associated Methods OFR (Zeigler and others, 2019). For the detailed documentation of the processing, see the files extractor_pari14.ipynb and the source code bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019).
pari14_ubw.tif
The width of the upper beach (from oceanside mean high water (MHW) shoreline to either dune crest, dune toe, or coastal armoring/development) is calculated along the supplemented NASC transects.
Calculate beach width along transect:
To calculate the beach width for the transects, upper beach width ('uBW') is calculated based on the difference in position between two points: the position of MHW along the transect ('SL_x', 'SL_y') and the dune toe position or equivalent (usually 'DL_x', 'DL_y'). It is calculated using bi-transect-extractor (Sturdivant, 2019) and documented in extractor_pari14.ipynb as follows:
(1) Find the position along the transect of an orthogonal line drawn to the dune point ('DL_x', 'DL_y' and 'DH_x', 'DH_y'). (2) Calculate distances from MHW to the position along the transect of the dune toe ('DistDL'), dune crest ('DistDH'), and armoring ('DistArm'). (3) Conditionally select the appropriate feature to represent "top of beach." Dune toe is prioritized. If it is not available and 'DH_zMHW' is less than or equal to maxDH, use dune crest. If neither of the dune feature positions satisfy the conditions and an armoring feature intersects with the transect, use the armoring position. If none of the three are possible, 'uBW' is given a NoData value of -99999. (4) Copy the selected distance to oceanside shoreline and height above MHW ('Dist--') to 'uBW'.
Assign values to raster
A transect ID raster is created from the transect file. Transects are modified from the supplemented transect file (pari_trans.shp) by manually shortening overlapping transects to the first point of intersection. Overlapping transects were ignored if the area of overlap did not intersect land. When a transect overlaps with a supplementary transect, the supplementary transect is shortened to the intersection point. The beach width values from each transect are assigned to the cells that represent that transect using the JoinField tool in the data management toolbox, which is also an automated process performed by bi-transect-extractor.
The raster file is exported to GeoTiff using the Export Raster tool. Raster cells outside the bounds of the data are assigned a NoData value of 32767.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Emily J. Sturdivant
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geographer
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2230
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: esturdivant@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword.
Process_Date: 20200810
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 18
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
False_Easting: 500000.0
False_Northing: 0.0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: coordinate pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 0.6096
Ordinate_Resolution: 0.6096
Planar_Distance_Units: Meter
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_North_American_1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS_1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222101
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)
Altitude_Resolution: 0.001
Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: pari_trans.shp
Entity_Type_Definition:
Geometry of 256 shore-normal transects used as the base for sampling barrier island geomorphology. Various ID fields are included to permit later joining. NoData value for all: -99999.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: FID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number
Attribute_Definition_Source: Esri
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: Feature geometry.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Esri
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: sort_ID
Attribute_Definition:
Unique identifier that orders transects sequentially along the shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 256
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape_Leng
Attribute_Definition: Length of the feature automatically calculated by ArcGIS.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4738.735034460162
Range_Domain_Maximum: 5500.000001952272
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TRANSECTID
Attribute_Definition:
NASC transect ID: "Permanent and unique identification number for each [NASC] transect in the output rates table calculated by DSAS.""
Attribute_Definition_Source: Himmelstoss and others (2010)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 7259.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 7613.0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DD_ID
Attribute_Definition:
Identifier that orders transects sequentially along the shoreline and is unique across all sites analyzed for Zeigler and others, 2019.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 170001
Range_Domain_Maximum: 170256
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: MHW
Attribute_Definition: Mean high water offset in meters.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Weber and others (2005)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.34
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0.34
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: pari14_pts.csv
Entity_Type_Definition:
Geomorphology metrics at 89052 discrete points along shore-normal transects. Transect-averaged values are also included. For enumerated domains (e.g. GeoSet, SubType, Construction, etc.), these metadata list all possible values although all values described may not be present in this dataset.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SplitSort
Attribute_Definition:
Unique identifier that sorts the points by transect and distance from MHW. NoData value of -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 89051
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: seg_x
Attribute_Definition:
Point easting referenced to UTM Zone 18N, NAD 83. NoData value of -99999 occurs where the source transect did not intersect land, which results in a record without location.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 439804.83
Range_Domain_Maximum: 447153.37
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: seg_y
Attribute_Definition:
Point northing referenced to UTM Zone 18N, NAD 83. NoData value of -99999 occurs where the source transect did not intersect land, which results in a record without location.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4148617.34
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4159087.85
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: seg_lon
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude in NAD 83. Negative values indicate western hemisphere.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -75.680984
Range_Domain_Maximum: -75.598443
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: decimal degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: seg_lat
Attribute_Definition: Latitude in NAD 83
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 37.482546
Range_Domain_Maximum: 37.577297
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: decimal degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Dist_Seg
Attribute_Definition:
Along-transect distance to the mean high water (MHW) shoreline position. NoData value of -99999 most often indicates that the shoreline was not properly located for the given transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2973.7
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Dist_MHWbay
Attribute_Definition:
Distance of the point from the most seaward bayside shoreline. A negative value indicates that the point is inland (relative to the mainland) of the applicable bayside shoreline. NoData (-99999) occurs where the transect ends before intersecting a back-barrier shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -1915.5
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2910.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistSegDH
Attribute_Definition:
Distance to the dune crest position along the same transect. A negative value indicates that the point is seaward of the dune crest. NoData value of -99999 indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -265.8
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2914.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistSegDL
Attribute_Definition:
Distance to the dune toe position along the same transect. A negative value indicates that the point is seaward of the dune toe. NoData value of -99999 indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -249.8
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2933.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistSegArm
Attribute_Definition:
Distance to the armoring position along the same transect. A negative value indicates that the point is seaward of the armoring structure. NoData (-99999) indicates armoring was not identified to replace a dune toe along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ptZ
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation referenced to NAVD88. Derived from the corresponding pixel in the 5-m DEM. NoData value of -99999 occurs where elevation data was not available.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -1.99
Range_Domain_Maximum: 11.02
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ptSlp
Attribute_Definition:
Mean slope of the corresponding 5-m pixel in the slope surface, which is derived from the 5-m DEM. NoData value of -99999 occurs where a slope surface could not be generated, most likely because of a data gap in the DEM.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0014
Range_Domain_Maximum: 58.627
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ptZmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation referenced to MHW. Derived from attribute ptZ (ptZmhw = ptZ - MHW offset). NoData value of -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -2.33
Range_Domain_Maximum: 10.68
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: GeoSet
Attribute_Definition:
The geomorphic setting indicates the classification of the major topographic features within approximately 5 m. All possible values are defined here althoug some may not be present in this dataset. NoData value of -99999 indicates that geomorphic setting data not available (see larger work).
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 1
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Beach. The relatively thick and temporary accumulation of loose, water-borne material (usually well-sorted sand and pebbles, accompanied by mud, cobbles, boulders, and smoothed rock and shell fragments) that is in active transit along, or deposited on, the shore zone between the limits of low water and high water (Neuendorf and others, 2011). In this study, the beach geomorphic setting occurred between the ocean- or sound-side study area boundary and the mean high-water line (approximated for by the upper-most wrack line in the field).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 2
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Backshore. The upper, usually dry, zone of the shore or beach, lying between the high-water line of mean spring tides and the upper limit of shore-zone processes; it is acted upon by waves or covered by water only during exceptionally severe storms or unusually high tides (Neuendorf and others, 2011). In this study, the Backshore geomorphic setting occurred between the mean high-water line and either (i) the dune toe, (ii) the edge of developed areas, or (iii) the edge of dense vegetation (or forest).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Dunes. A low mound, ridge, bank, or hill of loose, windblown granular material (generally sand), either bare or covered by vegetation, capable of movement from place to place but retaining its characteristic shape (Neuendorf and others, 2011). In this study, “dune” also describes low-lying areas between dunes (or “interdune” regions) that are part of the larger dune complex.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 4
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Washover. A fan of material deposited from the ocean landward on a mainland beach or barrier island, produced by storm waves breaking over low parts of the mainland beach or barrier and depositing sediment either landward (mainland beaches) or across a barrier island into the bay/sound (barrier islands). A washover typically displays a characteristic fan-like shape (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 5
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Barrier Interior. In this study, the Barrier Interior geomorphic setting described all areas spanning the interior boundary of the dunes (or backshore in the absence of dunes) on the ocean-side to the interior boundary of the marsh, dunes, or backshore on the back-barrier side. This setting was typically used to describe areas that did not fall into any other geomorphic setting (e.g., washovers, ridge/swale complexes).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 6
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Marsh. A relatively flat, low-lying, intermittently water-covered area with generally halophytic grasses existing landward of a barrier island (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 7
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Ridge/Swale complex: Long subparallel ridges and swales aligned obliquely across the regional trend of the contours (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -99999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Missing value.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SubType
Attribute_Definition:
Substrate type: dominant classification of substrate within approximately 5 m. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. NoData value of -99999 indicates that substrate type data not available (see larger work). Curly brackets ('{}') around two values are used in the modeling process.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Zeigler and others, 2019
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 1000
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand or Mud/Peat: In this study, wet, sandy substrates could not be differentiated from mud/peat in marshy areas. Therefore, we identified substrate as being either of these two types in the Substrate raster layer. Mud/Peat is a sticky, fine-grained, predominantly clay- or silt-sized marine detrital sediment (Neuendorf and others, 2011). Sand included rock or mineral grains with diameters between 0.074 and 4.76 mm (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 1111
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand: predominantly sandy substrates that contain rock or mineral grains with diameters between 0.074 and 4.76 mm (Neuendorf and others, 2011) with no discernible shell fragments or large rock fragments.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 2222
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Shell/Gravel/Cobble: substrates containing a mixture of sand, shell or rock fragments, or large rocks.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3333
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
MudPeat: A sticky, fine-grained, predominantly clay- or silt-sized marine detrital sediment (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 4444
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Water: Any location that (i) is always submerged (e.g., locations several meters into the ocean, bay, or inland water body), (ii) was submerged at the time aerial imagery was captured (i.e., intertidal regions of beaches), or (iii) was not submerged at the time aerial imagery was captured but was outside of the shoreline polygon.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 6666
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Development: Any location that fell within areas obviously influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g., housing developments, paved roads or parking lots, recreational sports fields, etc.).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {1111, 2222}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand or ShellGravelCobble: Substrate is either predominantly sand or a mix of sand with shell or rock fragments. Sand included rock or mineral grains with diameters between 0.074 and 4.76 mm (Neuendorf and others, 2011) with no discernible shell fragments or large rock fragments. ShellGravelCobble described substrates containing a mixture of sand, shell or rock fragments, or large rocks.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {1111, 3333}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand or Mud/Peat: In this study, wet, sandy substrates could not be differentiated from mud/peat in marshy areas. Therefore, we identified substrate as being either of these two types in the Substrate raster layer. Mud/Peat is a sticky, fine-grained, predominantly clay- or silt-sized marine detrital sediment (Neuendorf and others, 2011). Sand included rock or mineral grains with diameters between 0.074 and 4.76 mm (Neuendorf and others, 2011).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Producer defined, definition modified from Neuendorf and others (2011).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -99999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unknown: Substrate type could not be determined based on aerial imagery
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: VegDens
Attribute_Definition:
The dominant type of vegetation within approximately 5 m. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. NoData value of -99999 indicates that vegetation density data not available (see larger work). Curly brackets ('{}') around two values are used in the modeling process.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Zeigler and others, 2019
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 111
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
None: Areas lacking terrestrial vegetation of any type. Such areas were most frequently associated with the beach geomorphic setting (found seaward of the study area shoreline) assumed to be covered by water.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 222
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sparse: areas where vegetation was apparent and covered less than 20% of the 5x5-m raster cell.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 333
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Moderate: areas where vegetation appeared to cover 20–90% of the 5x5-m raster cell.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 444
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Dense: areas where vegetation appeared to cover greater than 90% of the 5x5-m raster cell.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 555
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Development: In this study, we selected development as the vegetation density for any location that fell within areas obviously influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g., housing developments, paved roads or parking lots, recreational sports fields, etc.).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {111, 222}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
None or Sparse: The given location either appeared to lack vegetation completely in the aerial imagery or, if vegetation was apparent, covered less than 20% of the approximately 5 x 5 m area designated by the transect point.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {222, 333}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sparse or Moderate: In this study, areas with sparse vegetation could not consistently be differentiated from areas containing moderate vegetation in the orthoimagery alone. Therefore, we identified vegetation as being either of these two types in the Vegetation Density raster layer. Areas described as having 'Sparse' vegetation appeared to have vegetation that covered less than 20% of the 5x5-m raster cell. In areas described as 'Moderate', vegetation appeared to cover 20-90% of the 5x5-m raster cell.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {333, 444}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Moderate or Dense: The given location either appeared to have vegetation covering 20-90% or >90% of the approximately 5 x 5 m area designated by the transect point.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -99999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unknown: Vegetation density could not be determined based on the aerial imagery
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Zeigler and others, 2019
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: VegType
Attribute_Definition:
The dominant type of vegetation within approximately 5 m. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. NoData value of -99999 indicates that vegetation type data were not available (see larger work). Curly brackets ('{}') around two values are used in the modeling process.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Zeigler and others, 2019
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 11
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
None: Areas lacking terrestrial vegetation of any type. Such areas were associated with the beach geomorphic setting (found seaward of the study area shoreline) assumed to be covered by water.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 22
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Herbaceous: areas containing primarily herbaceous vegetation of the forb/herb growth habit (USDA, 2015) and lacking shrubs, trees, or any other vegetation with woody stems (Neuendorf and others, 2011). In this study, the Herbaceous vegetation type typically described the vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) (i) ‘grassland’ ecological zone along the backshore and dunes, dominated by beach grasses (e.g., Ammophila breviligulata) or (ii) ‘intertidal marsh’ ecological zone dominated by cordgrass (e.g., Spartina patens).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 33
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Shrub: Areas containing low (less than 5 m height), multi-stemmed woody plants of the subshrub or shrub growth habits (USDA, 2015). In this study, the Shrub vegetation type typically described vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) heath-like ‘shrublands’ ecological zone in stable dune systems.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 44
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Forest: Areas containing trees and tall (> 5 m) shrubs of the tree growth habit (USDA, 2015). In this study, the Forest vegetation type typically described vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) ‘woodlands–forests’ ecological zone found in barrier island interiors and dominated by deciduous (e.g., Quercus velutina), pine (e.g., Pinus rigida), and juniper (e.g., Juniperus virginiana) species.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 55
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Development: Located within areas obviously influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g., housing developments, paved roads or parking lots, recreational sports fields, etc.).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {11, 22}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
None or Herbaceous: The given location either lacked vegetation or contained primarily herbaceous vegetation of the forb/herb growth habit (USDA, 2015). In this study, the herbaceous vegetation type typically described the vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) (i) ‘grassland’ ecological zone along the backshore and dunes, dominated by beach grasses (e.g., Ammophila breviligulata) or (ii) ‘intertidal marsh’ ecological zone dominated by cordgrass (e.g., Spartina patens).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {22, 33}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Herbaceous or Shrub: The given location either contained primarily herbaceous vegetation of the forb/herb growth habit or low (less than 5 m height), multi-stemmed woody plants of the subshrub or shrub growth habits (USDA, 2015). In this study, the herbaceous vegetation type typically described the vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) (i) ‘grassland’ ecological zone along the backshore and dunes, dominated by beach grasses (e.g., Ammophila breviligulata) or (ii) ‘intertidal marsh’ ecological zone dominated by cordgrass (e.g., Spartina patens). The shrub vegetation type typically described vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) heath-like ‘shrublands’ ecological zone in stable dune systems.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: {33, 44}
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Shrub or Forest: The given location contained either tall (greater than 5 m height) multi-stemmed woody plants of the shrub growth habit or plants of the tree growth habit (USDA, 2015). In this study, the shrub vegetation type typically described vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) heath-like ‘shrublands’ ecological zone in stable dune systems. The forest vegetation type typically described vegetation cover found in Godfrey’s (1976) ‘woodlands–forests’ ecological zone found in barrier island interiors and dominated by deciduous (e.g., Quercus velutina), pine (e.g., Pinus rigida), and juniper (e.g., Juniperus virginiana) species.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -99999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unknown: Vegetation type could not be determined based on aerial imagery
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: sort_ID
Attribute_Definition:
Unique identifier that orders transects sequentially along the shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 256
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TRANSECTID
Attribute_Definition:
NASC transect ID: "Permanent and unique identification number for each [NASC] transect in the output rates table calculated by DSAS.""
Attribute_Definition_Source: Himmelstoss and others (2010)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 7259
Range_Domain_Maximum: 7613
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DD_ID
Attribute_Definition:
Identifier that orders transects sequentially along the shoreline and is unique across all sites analyzed for Zeigler and others, 2019.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 170001
Range_Domain_Maximum: 170256
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: MHW
Attribute_Definition: Mean high water offset in meters.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Weber and others (2005)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.34
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0.34
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Azimuth
Attribute_Definition:
Bearing of the transect measured in degrees clockwise from North. NoData value of -99999 occurs where the bearing could not be calculated.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 264.8
Range_Domain_Maximum: 302.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: LRR
Attribute_Definition:
"A linear regression rate-of-change statistic was calculated by fitting a least-squares regression line to all shoreline points for a particular transect. The best-fit regression line is placed so that the sum of the squared residuals (determined by squaring the offset distance of each data point from the regression line and adding the squared residuals together) is minimized. The linear regression rate is the slope of the line. The rate is reported in meters per year with positive values indicating accretion and negative values indicating erosion." NoData value of -99999 indicates an NASC transect is not present or does not have an LRR value.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Himmelstoss and others (2010)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -16.77
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4.39
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters/year
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SL_x
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of position of MHW shoreline along transect. NoData value of -99999 occurs where the shoreline could not be located along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 440536.46
Range_Domain_Maximum: 447153.37
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SL_y
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of position of MHW shoreline along transect. NoData value of -99999 occurs where the shoreline could not be located along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4148617.34
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4158998.74
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bslope
Attribute_Definition:
Beach slope calculated between dune toe and shoreline (NAVD88) at the shoreline point nearest to the transect. A negative value indicates decreasing elevation from dune toe to shoreline. NoData value of -99999 occurs where a shoreline point could not be located within 25 m of the transect or the nearest point did not have a beach slope calculated.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -0.1189
Range_Domain_Maximum: -0.008
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_x
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect. NoData value of -99999 indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 440965.21
Range_Domain_Maximum: 446968.11
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_y
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect. NoData value of -99999 indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4149056.93
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4158640.7
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_z
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to NAVD88. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect or the nearest point did not have an elevation value.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1.06
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2.54
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_zmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to MHW. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect or the nearest point did not have an elevation value.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.72
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_snapX
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect, snapped to the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 440964.98
Range_Domain_Maximum: 446965.95
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DL_snapY
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of the nearest dune toe point within 25 meters of the transect, snapped to the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune toe could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4149056.58
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4158649.44
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_x
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 440434.26
Range_Domain_Maximum: 446941.21
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_y
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4148755.67
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4158945.1
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_z
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to NAVD88. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect or the nearest point did not have an elevation value.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1.15
Range_Domain_Maximum: 3.79
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_zmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to MHW. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect or the nearest point did not have an elevation value.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.81
Range_Domain_Maximum: 3.45
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_snapX
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect, snapped to the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 440426.87
Range_Domain_Maximum: 446941.09
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DH_snapY
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of the nearest dune crest point within 25 meters of the transect, snapped to the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates a dune crest could not be identified within 25 m of the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4148745.38
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4158929.13
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Arm_x
Attribute_Definition:
Easting of the nearest armoring structure within 25 meters of the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates armoring was not found to replace a dune toe position along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Arm_y
Attribute_Definition:
Northing of the nearest armoring structure within 25 meters of the transect. NoData (-99999) indicates armoring was not found to replace a dune toe position along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Arm_z
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest armoring structure within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to NAVD88. NoData (-99999) indicates armoring was not found to replace a dune toe position along the transect or the elevation was not available at the point.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Arm_zmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Elevation of the nearest armoring structure within 25 meters of the transect, referenced to MHW. NoData (-99999) indicates armoring was not found to replace a dune toe position along the transect or the elevation was not available at the point.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistDH
Attribute_Definition:
Horizontal distance along transect from the MHW shoreline to the dune crest (DH_snapX, DH_snapY). NoData (-99999) occurs where a dune crest or shoreline position are not located along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 28.8
Range_Domain_Maximum: 265.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistDL
Attribute_Definition:
Horizontal distance along transect from the MHW shoreline to the dune toe (DL_snapX, DL_snapY). NoData (-99999) occurs where a dune toe or shoreline position are not located along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 14.4
Range_Domain_Maximum: 249.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DistArm
Attribute_Definition:
Horizontal distance along transect from the MHW shoreline to the first armoring structure (Arm_snapX, Arm_snapY). NoData (-99999) occurs where an armoring position or shoreline position are not located along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -99999
Range_Domain_Maximum: -99999
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Dist2Inlet
Attribute_Definition:
Alongshore distance to nearest inlet. NoData (-99999) occurs where the transect is outside the bounds of the shoreline, as constrained by the tidal inlet delineation.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 10.1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 6335.1
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: WidthPart
Attribute_Definition:
Horizontal distance between seaward shoreline and the first break in the land, such as intervening water bodies like back-barrier creeks. NoData (-99999) occurs where the transect does not intersect land or the transect does not intersect another back-barrier water body.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 183.9
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2910.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: WidthLand
Attribute_Definition:
Barrier Island Width (m). Width of the barrier island cross-section. Measurement only considers width of land and not intervening water bodies such as back barrier creeks. NoData (-99999) occurs where the transect does not intersect land or the transect ends before intersecting a back-barrier shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 312.6
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2910.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: WidthFull
Attribute_Definition:
Barrier Island Full Width (m). Horizontal distance along transect from seaward shoreline to farthest bayside shoreline. NoData (-99999) occurs where the transect does not intersect land or the transect ends before intersecting a back-barrier shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 351.7
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2977.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: uBW
Attribute_Definition:
Upper beach width. The horizontal distance from MHW shoreline to the dune toe or equivalent. NoData (-99999) occurs where beach width cannot be calculated because input values are missing or the calculation criteria are not met. A negative value indicates that the elevation of the identified top of beach feature is below the MHW elevation.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 14.4
Range_Domain_Maximum: 249.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: uBH
Attribute_Definition:
Upper beach height. The vertical distance from MHW to the dune toe or equivalent. NoData (-99999) occurs where beach height cannot be calculated because input values are missing or the calculation criteria are not met. A negative value indicates that the identified top of beach feature is seaward of the MHW shoreline.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.72
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ub_feat
Attribute_Definition:
Feature (dune toe, dune crest, or armoring) that indicates the top of beach, used to calculate beach width and beach height.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -99999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: No feature available to calculate beach width.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: DL
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Dune toe.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: DH
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Dune crest.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Arm
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Shorefront armoring used in place of dune toe to calculate beach width.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: mean_Zmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Mean elevation along transect, referenced to MHW tidal datum. NoData (-99999) indicates that elevation values are missing for 20 percent or more of the points along the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -0.21
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1.44
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: max_Zmhw
Attribute_Definition:
Maximum elevation along transect, referenced to MHW tidal datum. NoData (-99999) indicates that no elevation values were present for the transect.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.72
Range_Domain_Maximum: 10.68
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Construction
Attribute_Definition:
Construction: denotes presence of construction-based human erosion management activities. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. Unknown is indicated with a NoData value of -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 111
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes no constructed features.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 222
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes presence of soft approaches (sand fencing, geotubes).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 333
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Denotes presence of hard approaches (rip rap, seawall, jetty, groyne).
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 444
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes presence of hard and soft approaches.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Development
Attribute_Definition:
Development intensity: denotes intensity of human development. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. Unknown is indicated with a NoData value of -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 111
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes no human development.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 222
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Denotes light development: the presence of a road, paved or unpaved, and the occasional structure.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 333
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Denotes moderate development: the presence of more extensive roads and/or buildings along a transect.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 444
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Denotes heavy development: a high density of paved surfaces, houses, or buildings along a transect.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Nourishment
Attribute_Definition:
Nourishment activity: denotes presence of nourishment-based human erosion management activities. Some values listed here may not be present these data; the list defines all values possible. Unknown is indicated with a NoData value of -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 111
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes no nourishment.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 222
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes occasional nourishment.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 333
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Denotes frequent nourishment.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: pari14_ubw.tif values attribute table
Entity_Type_Definition:
Values attribute table (pari14_ubw.tif.vat.dbf), which indicates the beach width of every cell in the raster (pari14_ubw.tif). The raster is composed of 2177 x 2517 grid cells. Raster cells outside the bounds of the data have a NoData value of 32767.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute_Definition:
Matches the sort_ID identifier values used to uniquely identify transects in the supplemented NASC transects and the 5-m points
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 256
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: integer
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Count
Attribute_Definition:
Number of pixels pertaining to the transect identified by the Value field.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 3888
Range_Domain_Maximum: 16990
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: count
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: uBW
Attribute_Definition:
Upper beach width. The horizontal distance from the MHW shoreline to the dune toe or equivalent. The fill value for unavailable data is -99999.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Producer defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 14.4
Range_Domain_Maximum: 249.8
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
This section provides a separate detailed entity and attribute information section for each dataset described in these metadata. The complete dataset is included in the 5-m points. The other files are included for convenience. Each point represents a 5 x 5 m sample area with the geomorphological characteristics specified. All calculations for length are in meter units and were based on the UTM zone 18N NAD83 projection. These metadata list all possible values for enumerated domains (e.g. GeoSet, SubType, Construction, etc.); however, some of the values described may not be present in this dataset. NoData is indicated with the value -99999. Please review the individual attribute descriptions for detailed information.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Methods Open-File Report by Zeigler and others, 2019
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-275-8747
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sciencebase@usgs.gov
Resource_Description:
This dataset contains three individual datasets: point data as a generic comma-separated ASCII formatted data file (pari14_pts.csv); an Esri shapefile with transect geometries and index values (pari_trans.shp and other shapefile components); and a 16-bit GeoTIFF file containing the upper beach width values (pari14_ubw.tif and associated value attribute table). The CSDGM FGDC metadata describing the datasets in XML format (pari14_pts_trans_ubw_meta.xml) and the browse graphic (pts_browse.png) are also included as well as the Jupyter notebook (extractor_pari14.ipynb) used for processing. These datasets can be downloaded individually or packaged on-demand in a zip file (see the Digital Transfer Option section).
Distribution_Liability:
Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS or the U.S. Government shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: CSV
Format_Version_Number: ArcGIS Pro 2.0
Format_Specification: comma-separated values table
Format_Information_Content:
This dataset contains 5-m point data as a comma-separated values (CSV) table (35 MB), a polyline shapefile (0.5 MB), and a 16-bit GeoTIFF of beach width (11.8 MB). The GeoTIFF and its values attribute table must be stored together. Also included are the Jupyter notebook used for processing, the CSDGM metadata, and the browse graphic.
Transfer_Size: 47
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information: Access_Instructions:
The first link is to the page containing the data. The second is a direct link to download all data available from the page as a zip file. The final link is to the publication landing page. The data page (first link) may have additional data access options, including web services.
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: ArcGIS Pro 2.0
Format_Specification: GeoTIFF
Format_Information_Content:
This dataset contains 5-m point data as a comma-separated values (CSV) table (35 MB), a polyline shapefile (0.5 MB), and a 16-bit GeoTIFF of beach width (11.8 MB). The GeoTIFF and its values attribute table must be stored together. Also included are the Jupyter notebook used for processing, the CSDGM metadata, and the browse graphic.
Transfer_Size: 50.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Access_Instructions:
The first link is to the page containing the data. The second is a direct link to download all data available from the page as a zip file. The final link is to the publication landing page. The data page (first link) may have additional data access options, including web services.
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Shapefile
Format_Version_Number: ArcGIS Pro 2.0
Format_Specification: Esri polyline shapefile
Format_Information_Content:
This dataset contains 5-m point data as a comma-separated values (CSV) table (35 MB), a polyline shapefile (0.5 MB), and a 16-bit GeoTIFF of beach width (11.8 MB). The GeoTIFF and its values attribute table must be stored together. Also included are the Jupyter notebook used for processing, the CSDGM metadata, and the browse graphic.
Transfer_Size: 47
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Network_Resource_Name: ***
Access_Instructions:
The first link is to the page containing the data. The second is a direct link to download all data available from the page as a zip file. The final link is to the publication landing page. The data page (first link) may have additional data access options, including web services.
Fees: None
Technical_Prerequisites:
To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of reading a comma-delimited data file, shapefile format, and 16-bit GeoTIFF with associated values attribute table.
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20200810
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Sara L. Zeigler
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2290
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: szeigler@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

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