Grain-size analysis data of sediment samples from the beach and nearshore environments at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge DUNEX site, North Carolina in 2021

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Grain-size analysis data of sediment samples from the beach and nearshore environments at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge DUNEX site, North Carolina in 2021
Abstract:
These data provide grain-size measurements from sediment samples collected as part of the USGS DUring Nearshore Event eXperiment (DUNEX) site on Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, NC. DUNEX is a multi-agency, academic, and non-governmental organization collaborative community experiment designed to study nearshore coastal processes during storm events. USGS participation in DUNEX will contribute new measurements and models that will increase our understanding of storm impacts to coastal environments, including hazards to humans and infrastructure and changes in landscape and natural habitats. The grain-size analysis data are part of USGS field activities 2021-028-FA and 2021-032-FA and are related to field activity 2021-029-FA.
Supplemental_Information:
For more information about the WHCMSC Field Activities, see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2021-028-FA and https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2021-032-FA. Information about the DUNEX project is available at https://usgs.gov/dunex2021.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Bales, Robert D., Over, Jin-Si R., Sherwood, Christopher R., Olson, Alexander J., Randall, Noa R., and Suttles, Steven E., 20220915, Grain-size analysis data of sediment samples from the beach and nearshore environments at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge DUNEX site, North Carolina in 2021: data release DOI:10.5066/P9XEFRYR, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Bales, R.D., Over, J.R., Sherwood, C.R., Olson, A.J., Randall, N.R., and Suttles, S.E., 2022, Grain-size analysis data of sediment samples from the beach and nearshore environments at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge DUNEX site, North Carolina in 2021: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9XEFRYR.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.48064
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.46275
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 35.68073
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 35.67729
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/62be07fcd34e82c548ced4d8?name=PeaIslandDUNEXsite.JPG (JPEG)
    Image displaying a section of the cross-shore pipe array at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge DUNEX site.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 02-Sep-2021
    Ending_Date: 02-Nov-2021
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition. Sediment samples were collected on the following dates: September 02, 2021, September 14, 2021, September 16, 2021, October 11, 2021, October 21, 2021, October 26, 2021, and November 02, 2021.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector and tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (95)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.001
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method:
      Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Local Mean Sea Level
      Depth_Resolution: 0.001
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Explicit depth coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    DUNEX_GrainSize_Results.csv
    Data spreadsheet containing grain-size analysis results analyzed using the HORIBA laser diffraction unit and sieving of the ≥ -2 phi fraction. These are the attributes for the CSV file. The shapefile has two additional software-generated attributes, FID and Shape, and some modified field names that are truncated and have underscores instead of spaces and hyphens. See the entity and attribute overview section for a description of the shapefile attributes. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ANALYSIS_ID
    An identifier for the sample which is unique to the database. This identifier begins with the assigned multi-letter code GS-, which corresponds to the type of analysis performed on the sample (grain-size analysis), followed by a six-digit number assigned sequentially as samples are registered for analysis. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    SAMPLE_ID
    The identification value assigned to the sample at the time of collection. This varies from field activity to field activity and the ID can contain any combination of letters and numbers. Sample IDs in this dataset begin with “DX” for DUNEX, followed by _nn. For example, DX_1. Some sample IDs are also followed by “dup” meaning “duplicate”, for the samples collected at the same location. For example, DX_39 and DX_39dup are different samples, but were collected at the same location. Samples ending with “(replicate)” are samples that were analyzed in the sediment laboratory twice to confirm HORIBA LA-960 accuracy. (Source: Compiler) Character string.
    PROJECT
    Name of project or project number under which samples were taken or data generated; sometimes project name indicates a more specific area. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary) Character string.
    FAN
    The serial number assigned to the dataset field activity during which the sample was collected. This value is in the format YYYY-XXX-FA where YYYY is the year, XXX is the number assigned to the activity within the year, and FA indicates Field Activity. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary) Character string.
    SUBMITTER
    Name of Principal Investigator or Chief Scientist responsible for data collection (usually first initial and last name) when available. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary) Character string.
    AREA
    General geographic area of data collection. Name is general enough to easily locate area on a state map. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary) Character string.
    SUBMISSION
    Unique sample submission identifier. This identifier begins with the initials of the submitter, followed by a two-digit number assigned sequentially relative to previous submissions. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    LATITUDE
    Latitude coordinate, in decimal-degrees, of sample location. South latitude is recorded as negative values. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:35.67729
    Maximum:35.68073
    Units:Decimal degrees
    LONGITUDE
    Longitude coordinate, in decimal degrees, of sample location. West longitude is recorded as negative values. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-75.48064
    Maximum:-75.46275
    Units:Decimal degrees
    NAVD88_m
    Height, in meters, of the sediment sample relative to NAVD88 (m). WKID: 5703; using positive up convention. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-13.340
    Maximum:3.895
    Units:meters
    DEPTH_M
    Depth referenced to local mean sea level (LMSL), in meters, using positive down convention (sounding). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-5.017
    Maximum:13.314
    Units:meters
    T_DEPTH
    Top depth of sample, in centimeters, below the sediment-water interface, using positive down convention. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0
    Units:centimeters
    B_DEPTH
    Bottom depth of sample, in centimeters, below the sediment-water interface, using positive down convention. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:4
    Units:centimeters
    DEVICE
    Sampling device used to collect the sample. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    ValueDefinition
    SHIPEK GRABBenthic grab sampler (Shipek Grab) made by ENVCO.
    SCOOPHand sample collected by using metal scoop
    DIVERHand sample collected by diver hand.
    DATE COLLECTED
    Calendar date indicating when the sample was collected in the format MM/DD/YYYY where MM is the numeric month, DD is the day of the month, and YYYY is the year. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    ANALYSIS COMPLETION DATE
    Calendar date indicating when sample analysis was completed in the format MM/DD/YYYY where MM is the numeric month, DD is the day of the month, and YYYY is the year. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    ANALYSIS METHOD
    Method used to analyze the sample for grain-size distribution. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    GS-LDGrain-size analysis using the HORIBA laser diffraction unit and sieving of the >= -2 phi fraction.
    WEIGHT WET SAMPLE
    Weight of wet sample in grams. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8.0488
    Maximum:10.9904
    Units:grams
    Resolution:0.0001
    GRAVEL
    Gravel content in percent dry weight of the sample (particles with nominal diameters greater than 2 mm; -1 phi and larger). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:10.1402
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.0001
    SAND
    Sand content in percent dry weight of the sample (particles with nominal diameters less than 2 mm, but greater than or equal to 0.0625 mm; 0 phi through 4 phi). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:89.8310
    Maximum:100.0025
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.0001
    SILT
    Silt content in percent dry weight of the sample (particles with nominal diameters less than 0.0625 mm, but greater than or equal to 0.004 mm; 5 phi through 8 phi, inclusive). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:5.1370
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.0001
    CLAY
    Clay content in percent dry weight of the sample (particles with nominal diameters less than 0.004 mm; 9 phi and smaller). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:0.1835
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.0001
    CLASSIFICATION
    Sediment description based on a rigorous definition (Shepard [1954] as modified by Schlee and Webster [1967], Schlee [1973], and Poppe and others [2014]). These values represent the classifications that are present in this dataset, not all possible sediment classifications. (Source: Modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    ValueDefinition
    sandSediment whose main phase is less than 2 mm, but greater than or equal to 0.0625 mm.
    gravelly sedimentSediment whose main phase is greater than 2 mm, but with significant other sediment. Gravel greater than 10 percent.
    MEAN_PHI
    Average value in the grain-size distribution in phi units. (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.31
    Maximum:2.61
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    STDEV_PHI
    Standard deviation (root mean square of the deviations) of the grain-size distribution in phi units (sorting). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.58
    Maximum:1.14
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    SKEWNESS_PHI
    Skewness (deviation from symmetrical form) of the grain-size distribution using logarithmic method of moments in phi units. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.38
    Maximum:2.99
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    KURTOSIS_PHI
    Kurtosis (degree of curvature near the mode) of the grain-size distribution using logarithmic method of moments in phi units. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.17
    Maximum:21.68
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    D10_PHI
    Diameter at which 10 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.02
    Maximum:1.49
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    D25_PHI
    Diameter at which 25 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.41
    Maximum:2.08
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    D50_PHI
    Diameter at which 50 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value and 50 percent is larger; middle point in the grain-size distribution in phi units. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.35
    Maximum:2.46
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    D75_PHI
    Diameter at which 75 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.76
    Maximum:2.84
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    D90_PHI
    Diameter at which 90 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.00
    Maximum:3.48
    Units:phi
    Resolution:0.01
    MEAN_uM
    Average value in the grain-size distribution in microns. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:180.07
    Maximum:952.38
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    STDEV_uM
    Standard deviation (root mean square of the deviations) of the grain-size distribution in microns (sorting). (Source: USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:75.80
    Maximum:961.49
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    SKEWNESS_uM
    Skewness (deviation from symmetrical form) of the grain-size distribution in microns. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.81
    Maximum:18.10
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    KURTOSIS_uM
    Kurtosis (degree of curvature near the mode) of the grain-size distribution in microns. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.37
    Maximum:364.34
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    D10_uM
    Diameter at which 10 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:118.02
    Maximum:516.65
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    D25_uM
    Diameter at which 25 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:155.59
    Maximum:668.73
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    D50_uM
    Diameter at which 50 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value and 50 percent is larger; middle point in the grain-size distribution in microns. (Source: modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    Range of values
    Minimum:196.19
    Maximum:852.17
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    D75_uM
    Diameter at which 75 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:247.91
    Maximum:1274.30
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    D90_uM
    Diameter at which 90 percent of the sample mass is comprised of sediment particles with a diameter less than this value. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:315.01
    Maximum:2025.08
    Units:microns
    Resolution:0.01
    PHI_16
    16 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 16 phi fraction and smaller (nominal diameter of particles less than 0.00003125 mm); colloid. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_15
    15 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 15 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.00003125 mm, but less than 0.0000625 mm); colloid. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_14
    14 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 14 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.0000625 mm, but less than 0.000125 mm); colloid. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_13
    13 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 13 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.000125 mm, but less than 0.00025 mm); fine clay. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_12
    12 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 12 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.00025 mm, but less than 0.0005 mm); fine clay. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_11
    11 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 11 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.0005 mm, but less than 0.001 mm); fine clay. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_10
    10 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 10 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.001 mm, but less than 0.002 mm); medium clay. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_9
    9 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 9 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.002 mm, but less than 0.004 mm); coarse clay. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.184
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_8
    8 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 8 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.004 mm, but less than 0.008 mm); very fine silt. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:1.951
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_7
    7 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 7 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.008 mm, but less than 0.016 mm); fine silt. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:2.542
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_6
    6 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 6 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.016 mm, but less than 0.031 mm); medium silt. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.535
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_5
    5 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 5 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.031 mm, but less than 0.0625 mm); coarse silt. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.262
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_4
    4 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 4 phi fraction (nominal diameters of particles greater than or equal to 0.0625 mm, but less than 0.125 mm); very fine sand. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:9.042
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_3
    3 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 3 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.125 mm, but less than 0.25 mm); fine sand. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.370
    Maximum:66.946
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_2
    2 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 2 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, but less than 0.5 mm); medium sand. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:9.666
    Maximum:66.910
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_1
    1 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 1 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, but less than 1 mm); coarse sand. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.869
    Maximum:61.350
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_0
    0 phi: weight percent of the sample in the 0 phi fraction (nominal diameters of particles greater than or equal to 1 mm, but less than 2 mm); very coarse sand. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:27.705
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-1
    -1 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -1 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 2 mm, but less than 4 mm); very fine pebbles (granules). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:7.431
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-2
    -2 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -2 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 4 mm, but less than 8 mm); fine pebbles. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:2.709
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-3
    -3 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -3 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 8 mm, but less than 16 mm); medium pebbles. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-4
    -4 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -4 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 16 mm, but less than 32 mm); coarse pebbles. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-5
    -5 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -5 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 32 mm, but less than 64 mm); very coarse pebbles. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PHI_-6
    -6 phi: weight percent of the sample in the -6 phi fraction and larger (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 64 mm); cobbles and boulders. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000
    Maximum:0.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    ANALYST
    Name (usually first, middle, and last initials) of person who performed the grain-size or physical properties analysis. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    QUALITY GRADE
    Samples are assigned a quality grade based on the examination of the analytical data. Data quality grades may be determined by several factors, and any comments or notes that indicate the data for a particular sample may be suspect are included in the "QA/QC COMMENTS" attribute. Quality grades for sample data that do not have any additional comments are assigned based on the calculated percent difference between the weights of the coarse fraction remaining after wet sieving and the sum of all of the weighed fractions after dry sieving the coarse fraction, indicating an estimated differing amount of material which could skew the calculated grain-size results: A = percent differences between 0 percent and ±1.5 percent, B = percent differences between ±1.5 percent and ±3 percent, C = percent differences between ±3 percent and ±4.5 percent, and D = percent differences greater than ±4.5 percent. The quality grade is followed by a hyphen and the analyst's initials. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    QA/QC COMMENTS
    Relevant comments on analytical observations or anomalies that may affect the quality of the data. Entries with no comments are left blank. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character string.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data are available in a CSV format and an Esri shapefile. The first line of the CSV file is a header line and those labels are the same as defined in the attribute section. The shapefile has the same fields as the CSV file and two additional attributes, FID (an internal feature number) and Shape (feature geometry). Please note that some of the field names in the shapefile were modified to include underscores instead of spaces and hyphens and truncated to 10 characters since a shapefile has restrictions on field name characters and length (e.g., the "DATE_COLLE" attribute in the shapefile is the same as the "DATE COLLECTED" attribute in the CSV file). Additionally, where negative phi values appear in the field name in the shapefile, they have been replaced with an 'M' for minus, since the shapefile cannot accommodate negative values in the field names (e.g. PHI_-1 is written as PHI_M1).
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS Field Activities 2021-028-FA and 2021-032-FA.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Robert D. Bales
    • Jin-Si R. Over
    • Christopher R. Sherwood
    • Alexander J. Olson
    • Noa R. Randall
    • Steven E. Suttles
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Robert D. Bales
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    11 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-457-8700 x2257 (voice)
    508-457-2313 (FAX)
    rbales@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Grain-size analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from the DUNEX site on Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, NC in support of hydrodynamic, topographic, and bathymetric DUNEX measurements. The sediment samples were collected at or near DUNEX moorings that were installed for instruments that collected hydrodynamic data. These moorings included jetted, vertical pipes in a cross-shore array that spanned the dune/beach and nearshore environments as well as a bottom landing frame (nanopod) in the nearshore environment. These grain-size analysis data may also be used in numerical models of coastal dynamics as part of the DUNEX experiment.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 02-Sep-2021 (process 1 of 13)
    Nanopod deployment sample collection: Collected 12 sediment samples from the R/V Shearwater using the Shipek surficial grab sampler at nanopod site in the nearshore environment off of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in September 2021.
    Date: 14-Sep-2021 (process 2 of 13)
    Surfzone deployment sample collection: Collected 8 sediment samples via diver at sites of jetted pipes in nearshore environment of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in September 2021.
    Date: 16-Sep-2021 (process 3 of 13)
    Beach sample collection: Collected 20 sediment samples via scoop at jetted pipe sites of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in September 2021.
    Date: 11-Oct-2021 (process 4 of 13)
    Beach sample collection: Collected 4 sediment samples at jetted pipe sites of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in October 2021.
    Date: 21-Oct-2021 (process 5 of 13)
    Surfzone recovery sample collection: Collected 10 sediment samples via diver at sites of jetted pipes in nearshore environment of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in October 2021.
    Date: 26-Oct-2021 (process 6 of 13)
    Beach sample collection: Collected 11 sediment samples via scoop at jetted pipe sites of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in October 2021.
    Date: 02-Nov-2021 (process 7 of 13)
    Nanopod recovery sample collection: Collected 6 sediment samples from the R/V Shearwater using the Shipek surficial grab sampler at nanopod site in the nearshore environment off of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, in November 2021.
    Date: 2021 (process 8 of 13)
    The samples were analyzed in the sediment laboratory at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center using the HORIBA LA-960 laser diffraction unit and sieving of the ≥ -2 phi fraction. Samples submitted to the sediment laboratory for grain-size analysis were assigned unique analysis identifiers (ANALYSIS_ID) and divided into batches of no more than 30 samples. There were 4 batches for this sample set: batch_01, batch_02, batch_03, or batch_replicates. The batch named “batch_replicates” refers to samples that were analyzed in the sediment laboratory twice to confirm HORIBA LA-960 accuracy. Each batch is entered into a Microsoft Excel data entry spreadsheet (LD Worksheet Template_SS05.xlsx, where SS05 is the identifier assigned to the sample submission) to record the initial and dried sample weights, as well as the sieved coarse fraction weights. Each batch was also entered into macro-enabled Microsoft Excel data entry spreadsheets (GrainSizeWorksheet_LD1-30_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm or GrainSizeWorksheet_LD31-60_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm), where "LD1-30” and “LD31-60” refer to the pre-labeled and weighed glass laser diffraction vials in which the samples will be run, and “batch_nn” refers to the sample batch) to record the measurement data coming from the laser diffraction unit and incorporate the initial, dried, and sieved weights. The sample submission identifier for these samples is "SS05".
    About 10 to15 grams of wet sediment were placed in a pre-weighed beaker and the gross weight was recorded. The sample was wet sieved through a 4 mm (No. 5) sieve. Any remaining coarse material was oven dried at 100°C in a pre-weighed beaker and weighed again when dry. This coarse fraction was dry sieved to determine the individual weights of the -2 to -5 phi fractions, and the weights were recorded in the data entry spreadsheet LD Worksheet Template_SS05.xlsx. The fine fraction in water was collected in a pre-labeled and weighed glass laser diffraction vial. Any coarse fraction remaining in the sieve after wet sieving, this vial was also oven dried at 100°C and weighed when dry. If there was no coarse fraction remaining from wet sieving, the sample proceeded directly to processing for analyses by the HORIBA LA-960 laser diffraction unit.
    Dry, fine fractions ready for analysis by the HORIBA laser diffraction unit were rehydrated with distilled water. Fifteen (15) ml of pre-mixed 40 g/l sodium hexametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] was added to each sample. If the height of the fluid in the laser diffraction vial was less than 5 cm, more distilled water was added to raise the level to no more than 8 cm in the vial. The samples were gently stirred, covered, and allowed to soak for at least 1 hour (for samples that were not dried) or up to 24 hours (for samples that were dried). Soaked vials were placed into an ultrasonic bath and run for 10 minutes at a frequency of 37 Hz with a power level of 100. If the samples appeared to be fully disaggregated, they were placed into pre-determined autosampler locations and fine fraction grain-size distributions were determined using the HORIBA LA-960 for Windows software. The fine fraction distribution data was added to the appropriate data entry spreadsheets (GrainSizeWorksheet_LD1-30_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm or GrainSizeWorksheet_LD31-60_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm). The spreadsheet was used to calculate a continuous phi class distribution from the original fractions. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Buczkowski
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Lab Manager
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2310 (voice)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
    Date: 2021 (process 9 of 13)
    A continuous phi class distribution from the original fractions was transposed to the "results" tab in the macro-enabled Microsoft Excel data entry workbook (GrainSizeWorksheet_LD1-30_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm or GrainSizeWorksheet_LD31-60_SS05(batch_nn).xlsm, where SS05 is the identifier assigned to the sample submission, “LD1-30” and “LD31-60” refer to the pre-labeled and weighed glass laser diffraction vials in which the samples were run, and “batch_nn” refers to the sample batch). Macros in the workbook (“GS_MoM_Arithmatic,” "GS_statistics," and "sedimentname") were run to calculate grain-size classification and statistical analyses and finish processing the data. Sample, navigation, and field identifiers, along with continuous phi class distribution data, grain-size classification, and statistical analysis results were copied and pasted into the final Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (SS05_GS-LD_results.xlsx). The processed data were quality control checked and assigned a quality grade based on the examination of the analytical data. Processed data were released to the submitter and incorporated into the laboratory's database. All raw analytical data generated by the samples were archived in the sediment analysis laboratory.
    Date: 01-Jul-2022 (process 10 of 13)
    The results from the final Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (SS05_GS-LD_results.xlsx) were imported into Microsoft Excel for Microsoft 365 MSO 32-bit and the significant figures were adjusted appropriately. The final data was then saved as a .csv file and header names were changed in Notepad++ v8.4.1. Person who carried out this activity:
    Robert D. Bales
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    11 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-457-8700 x2257 (voice)
    rbales@usgs.gov
    Date: 31-Aug-2022 (process 11 of 13)
    Elevations of the sediment samples were extracted from topographic and bathymetric maps of the study site provided in Over and others (2022) using the maps created with data collected closest to the sample collection date. This may be up to twelve days apart, but it is not expected that the elevation values would differ by more than half a meter. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jin-Si R. Over
    U.S Geological Survey, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2297 (voice)
    jover@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2022 (process 12 of 13)
    Elevations (NAVD88_M) were transformed to height referenced to local mean sea level (LMSL) using VDatum Online v. 4.4.2, developed by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS). These values were calculated for DEPTH_M. Visit https://vdatum.noaa.gov/welcome.html for more information about VDatum. Person who carried out this activity:
    Robert D. Bales
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    11 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-457-8700 x2257 (voice)
    rbales@usgs.gov
    Date: 02-Sep-2022 (process 13 of 13)
    The CSV file was imported into ArcMAP 10.8.1 and a shapefile (.shp) and associated files were saved using the XY to Table function.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Over, Jin-Si R., Sherwood, Christopher R., Traykovski, Peter A., Olson, Alex J., Randall, Noa R., Marsjanik, Eric, and Brosnahan, Sandra M., 2022, DUNEX topographic, bathymetric, and supporting GPS data collected in Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina 2020-2021: data release DOI:10.5066/P9DPZZG2, U.S. Geological Survey, Sciencebase, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This topobathy products in this publication are used to extract sediment sample elevations and also provide additional context for the Pea Island field site.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Laboratory analyses were conducted at USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Sediment Laboratory using a HORIBA LA-960 laser diffraction size analyzer with manufacturer guaranteed accuracy of +/- 0.6 percent. The performance of every HORIBA LA-960 laser diffraction unit is verified with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable mono- and polydisperse size standards. Due to rounding, the sum of the aggregate class percentages (e.g., GRAVEL, SAND, etc.) and the sum of the phi fraction percentages (e.g., PHI_16, PHI_15, etc.) may not always add up to exactly 100.000 percent.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Horizontal position was determined using a Garmin GPSMAP 78sc handheld GPS. The expected absolute, horizontal accuracy is stated to be 3 to 5 m at the 95 percent confidence level using the WAAS setting. Additional sources of error in the position for the water sample locations are caused by the offset from the GPS and the exact location of the Shipek grab sampler at the time the sample was taken, which could be as large as 2 m; therefore, overall expected accuracy of the reported horizontal position for these water sample locations is on the order of 7 m or better. Horizontal position for hand samples DX_20 through DX_32dup were determined with SP80 RTK systems. The SP80 RTK systems used to collect location data have a theoretical horizontal accuracy of 5 to10 cm; however, horizontal accuracy for samples DX_23 to DX_30 may be up to 0.5m because horizontal position was determined at a jetted beach pipe and hand sample was collected beside the jetted pipe.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Elevations of the sediment samples are provided in reference to NAVD88 (m). These values were extracted from topobathy grids either from 2022-09-11 or 2022-10-20 that have vertical accuracies of 0.1 m or better. DEPTH_M values were transformed from NAVD88 elevations using VDatum, decreasing the accuracy to about .12 m or better. Grids were not necessarily created from data the same day as sediment samples were collected, rather the closest grid was chosen to extract values from and some geomorphological change is to be expected, but on scales less than 1 meter.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset represents all the samples that were collected.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Sediment samples were collected using a Shipek grab sampler (SHIPEK GRAB), small metal scoop (SCOOP) or by diver’s hand (DIVER). Samples were shipped from the field site in a dark cooler with ice to the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center. They were then stored in a refrigerated and dark location until analyzed in the laboratory on the HORIBA LA-960 laser diffraction size analyzer as described in the process steps below.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints None. Please see "Distribution Information" for details.
Use_Constraints Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    United States

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? This dataset contains grain-size analysis of sediment samples collected from Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina in 2021 (DUNEX_GrainSize_Results.csv and DUNEX_GrainSize_Results.shp).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 15-Sep-2022
Metadata author:
Robert D. Bales
U.S. Geological Survey
Oceanographer
11 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
US

508-457-8700 x2257 (voice)
508-457-2313 (FAX)
whsc_data_contact@usgs.gov
Contact_Instructions:
The metadata contact email address is a generic address in the event the person is no longer with the USGS
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/SB_data_release/DR_P9XEFRYR/DUNEX_GrainSize_metadata.faq.html>
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