Dependence of sediment compressibility and recompressibility on pore fluid chemistry for pure, endmember fines

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Dependence of sediment compressibility and recompressibility on pore fluid chemistry for pure, endmember fines
Abstract:
The safety, effectiveness and longevity of many construction and geotechnical engineering projects rely on correctly accounting for the evolution of soil properties over time. Critical sediment properties, such as compressibility, can change in response to pore-fluid chemistry changes, particularly if the sediment contains appreciable concentrations of fine-grained materials. Pore-fluid changes act at the micro scale, altering interactions between sediment particles, or between sediment particles and the pore fluid. These micro-scale alterations change how sediment fabrics and void ratios develop, which directly impacts macro-scale properties such as sediment compressibility. The goal of this study is to correlate sediment compressibility, a macro-scale property, to the micro-scale pore-fluid chemistry effects and ultimately to the electrical sensitivity for each sediment. Such a correlation would allow compressibility behavior to be estimated from knowledge of the index properties and mineralogy profile for each sediment. The data in this release support the correlation effort by providing: 1) sedimentation results that provide insight into micro-scale sediment fabric and void ratio dependence on sediment/fluid interactions, and 2) consolidation results that quantify the macro-scale compressibility and recompressibility parameters for a suite of fine-grained sediments and differing pore fluids. The related journal publication (Jang and others, 2018) demonstrates how the macro-scale compressibility and recompressibility results from the consolidation tests are linked back, through the sediment fabric and void ratio data from the sedimentation tests, to the micro-scale impact of pore-fluid chemistry and sediment electrical sensitivity.
Supplemental_Information:
In addition to funding from the U.S. Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Project, this work is sponsored in part by the Department of Energy, both through an interagency agreement (DE-FE0026166) and a grant awarded to Louisiana State University (DE-FE0028966). More information about the project can be found at: https://www.netl.doe.gov/research/oil-and-gas/project-summaries/methane-hydrate/fe0028966-lsu-fe0026166-usgs
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Jang, Junbong, 2018, Dependence of sediment compressibility and recompressibility on pore fluid chemistry for pure, endmember fines: data release DOI:10.5066/F77M076K, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Jang, Junbong, Cao, Shuang C., Stern, Laura A., Jung, Jongwon, and Waite, William F., 2018, Effect of pore fluid chemistry on the sedimentation and compression behavior of pure, endmember fines: data release DOI:10.5066/F77M076K, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Jang, J., Cao, S.C., Stern, L.A., Jung, J., and Waite, W.F., 2018, Effect of pore fluid chemistry on the sedimentation and compression behavior of pure, endmember fines: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F77M076K.
    This dataset supports the following publication:
    Jang, J., Cao, S.C., Stern, L.A., Jung, J., and Waite, W.F., 2018, Impact of pore-fluid chemistry on fine-grained sediment fabric and compressibility: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2018JB015872, 20 p., https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB015872.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 90
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -90
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5a8ca00ce4b069906054dff9?name=Endmember_Fines_Consolidation_BrowseGraphic.png (PNG)
    Image showing consolidation test setup steps.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2018
    Currentness_Reference:
    These data are collected from laboratory measurements of generic endmember sediment types that were purchased rather than collected. The relevant reference for currentness is given as the publication date.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Endmember_Fines_Consolidation_Data
    Dependence of specimen void ratio on applied vertical stress (One dimensional consolidation) in fine-grained sediment specimens saturated with various fluids. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Sediment
    Type of sediment used in the consolidation test (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Laboratory
    Where the test was conducted. USGS = U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA by Junbong Jang. LSU = Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA by Shuang Cao. Tests used sediment from the same purchased batches, identical consolidometers and the same standard test sequence. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Step
    Sequential index indicating where in the 17-step consolidation process the data were measured. In the related journal article publication into which these data were incorporated, only data for Step #3 and beyond were used from each test. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:17
    Units:none
    Action
    Describes action associate with the Step. Options are: “initial,” which describes the initial state of the specimen as the system is put together; “loading,” which describes an experimental step in which the vertical stress was increased to the value listed in that row for “Vertical Stress [kPa]” and “unloading,” which describes an experimental step in which the vertical stress was decreased to the value listed in that row for “Vertical Stress [kPa].” (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Vertical Stress [kPa]
    This is the 1-dimensional (vertical) stress applied to the specimen during the consolidation test. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.1
    Maximum:1283.7
    Units:kilopascals
    Void Ratio_Deionized Water
    Void ratio is the volume of void space (filled with deionized water in tests with data in this column) divided by the volume of solid sediment in the specimen. This parameter has no units. As the applied vertical stress increases, the specimen tends to become shorter and the volume of void space decreases. The volume of solids is assumed to remain constant. Blank entries mean deionized water was not the fluid being tested at the vertical stress given for that row of the spreadsheet. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:9.5
    Units:None
    Void Ratio_Brine
    Void ratio is the volume of void space (filled with 2-Molar brine in tests with data in this column) divided by the volume of solid sediment in the specimen. This parameter has no units. As the applied vertical stress increases, the specimen tends to become shorter and the volume of void space decreases. The volume of solids is assumed to remain constant. Blank entries mean 2-Molar brine was not the fluid being tested at the vertical stress given for that row of the spreadsheet. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:3.5
    Units:None
    Void Ratio_Kerosene
    Void ratio is the volume of void space (filled with kerosene in tests with data in this column) divided by the volume of solid sediment in the specimen. This parameter has no units. As the applied vertical stress increases, the specimen tends to become shorter and the volume of void space decreases. The volume of solids is assumed to remain constant. Blank entries mean kerosene was not the fluid being tested at the vertical stress given for that row of the spreadsheet. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.9
    Maximum:5.6
    Units:None
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data are available in a Microsoft Excel XLSX as well as a CSV format. The first line in the XLSX and CSV file is a header line and those labels are the same as those defined in the attribute section.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Junbong Jang
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Junbong Jang
    Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2278 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jjang@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Consolidation data provide the macro-scale expression of a set of micro-scale interactions between fine-grained particles and between those particles and the pore fluid surrounding them. These data support an effort to connect the micro- and macro-scale sediment response to changes in pore fluid chemistry. Data contained in this report cover a suite of fine-grained sediment types and pore fluid chemistries to provide trends for interpreting sediment compressibility over a range of environments, applications and system-evolution scenarios. Specifically, the consolidation data are used to build a correlation with a sediment index property (electrical sensitivity, which is based on the liquid limit of each sediment). The correlation is presented in the related journal article (Jang and others, 2018).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2017 (process 1 of 3)
    Specimen set-up:
    The specimen setup process is imaged in the browse graphic: (A) sediment from one of the seven tested sediment types was mixed with one of the three tested pore fluids. The specimen was mixed with enough water to attain a fluid content of 1.2 times the liquid limit (liquid limit values provided in Table 1 of the related journal article publication (Jang and others, 2018) linked to this data release) and allowed to stabilize for 12 hours. This fluid content ensures the sediment is fully saturated with pore fluid. (B) The sediment-fluid mixture was placed into a Geotac 2.5 inch, 1-dimensional fixed-ring consolidometer, and (C, D) loaded into the Geotac load frame with additional water added above the specimen to ensure it would remain fully saturated for the entire test. Tests were completed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA (USGS) by Junbong Jang, and also at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA (LSU) by Shuang Cao. The two sites used identical Geotac 2.5 inch, 1-dimensional fixed-ring consolidometers. Sediment used in this study was purchased and delivered to the USGS in Woods Hole, where sediment splits were generated and shipped to LSU for testing. Only the specimen height differed between the two laboratories: USGS specimen height = 25.4 mm; LSU specimen height = 19.05 mm. Junbong Jang is the long-term contact for questions regarding results derived in either laboratory. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Junbong Jang
    Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2278 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jjang@usgs.gov
    Date: 2017 (process 2 of 3)
    Measurement: Consolidation measurements were run according to American Society for Testing and Materials standard D2435 [ASTM, 2011]. The applied vertical stress schedule was: 1) loading from 20 to 1280 kPa, doubling the load with each step; 2) unloading at 640, 160 and 40 kPa; 3) reloading from 80 to 1280 kPa, again doubling the loading stress at each step. Vertical stress measurements, taken from a load cell above the consolidometer, had a precision of ± 0.05 kPa. Void ratio measurements were made based on the specimen height (tracked continuously with a linear voltage displacement transducer) at a given vertical stress step, and calculated according to the derivation in ASTM D2435 [ASTM, 2011]. Void ratio results had a precision of ± 0.0005 [unitless]. Tests were completed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA (USGS) by Junbong Jang, and also at the Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA (LSU) by Shuang Cao, both according to ASTM-D2435 [ASTM, 2011]. Junbong Jang is the long-term contact for questions regarding results derived in either laboratory.
    Full reference citation: ASTM D2435 / D2435M-11, Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org , DOI: 10.1520/D2435_D2435M-11. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Junbong Jang
    Geophysicist
     84 Woods Hole Road
     oods Hole,  assachusetts
     SA

     08-548-8700 x2278 (voice)
     08-457-2310 (FAX)
     jang@usgs.gov
    Date: 2017 (process 3 of 3)
    Data archiving: Microsoft Excel version 15.33 was used to gather all data in a spreadsheet. Measured interface heights and elapsed times were arranged by sediment and pore fluid type. Results were then exported to a comma-separated values (csv) file format. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Junbong Jang
    Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2278 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jjang@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    These are laboratory measurements made on pure, endmember sediment specimens that were purchased rather than acquired through a field activity. There are no relevant horizontal position data for this work.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    These are laboratory measurements made on pure, endmember sediment specimens that were purchased rather than acquired through a field activity. There are no relevant vertical position data for this work.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All 21 combinations of the 7 sediment types and 3 pore fluids were tested. Because small variations in the applied vertical stress for the oedometer could occur from one run to the next, the data are laid out in the spreadsheet assuming the applied vertical stress is unique to each run. This means each data row represents just one step in one experiment for a given pairing of sediment and pore fluid. For a given row, there are blanks in two of the three void ratio data columns, indicating the pore fluids associated with those data columns were not used in that particular test.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The sediment used in these experiments were purchased rather than acquired through a field activity, so there is very little specimen-to-specimen variation for a given sediment. Sediment was shared between the two participating laboratories as described in the first process step, so each laboratory ran using sediment from the same batch. Pore fluid preparations were made in the same fashion each time, and the specimen set-up procedure always used the same initial fluid saturation. All tests were run on the same type of oedometer with the same number of loading/unloading steps. The major variation between runs is the pairing of a particular sediment with a particular pore fluid, and investigating that variation is the purpose of the larger study these data support.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? This dataset contains four files: Endmember_Fines_ Consolidation_Data.xlsx (data in an Excel spreadsheet), Endmember_Fines_ Consolidation_Data.csv (same data in a comma-separated text file), Endmember_Fines_ Consolidation_BrowseGraphic.png (browse graphic), and FGDC CSDGM metadata in XML format.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available in XLSX and CSV formats, and a browse graphic in PNG format. The user must have software capable of reading the data formats.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 19-Jul-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: William F. Waite
Geophysicist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
wwaite@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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