Coastal Groundwater Chemical Data from the North and South Shores of Long Island, New York

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Coastal Groundwater Chemical Data from the North and South Shores of Long Island, New York
Abstract:
Groundwater data were collected in the spring and fall of 2008 from three sites representing different geological settings and biogeochemical conditions within the surficial glacial aquifer of Long Island, NY. Investigations were designed to examine the extent to which average vadose zone thickness in contributing watersheds controlled biogeochemical conditions and processes, including dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (Eh), dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC), and microbial dinitrogen (N2) production. Greatest N2 production was observed at the south shore of Long Island, which is characterized by a thin vadose zone, low DO and Eh, and relatively high DOC. Limited N2 production occurred at the north shore of Long Island, which is characterized by a thick vadose zone, higher DO, higher Eh, and lower DOC. Our results show that vadose zone thickness exerts an important control on the extent of microbial N2 production in aquifers that lack a significant supply of sediment-bound reducing potential. We interpret heterotrophic denitrification to be the primary driver of N2 production in the present study, while acknowledging that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) likely plays an unquantified role as well.
Supplemental_Information:
Data presented here are to support the following publication: Szymczycha, B., Kroeger, K.D., Crusius, J., Bratton, J.F., Depth of the vadose zone controls aquifer biogeochemical conditions and extent of anthropogenic nitrogen removal, Water Research (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.06.048.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Brooks, T.W., Kroeger, K.D., Bratton, J.F., Crusius, J., Szymczycha, B., Mann, A.G., Brosnahan, S.M., Casso, M., and Erban, L., 2017, Coastal Groundwater Chemical Data from the North and South Shores of Long Island, New York: data release DOI:10.5066/F78S4NT5, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Brooks, T.W., Kroeger, K.D., Bratton, J.F., Crusius, John, Szymczycha, Beata, Mann, A.G., Brosnahan, S.M., Casso, Michael, and Erban, Laura, 2017, Coastal groundwater chemical data from the north and south shores of Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F78S4NT5.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.7162
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.0009
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.90648
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.72947
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5953a36de4b062508e3c7b5a?name=Map_study_sites_LongIslandNY.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of the sampling sites.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 06-May-2008
    Ending_Date: 31-Oct-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: comma-separated values file and xlsx file
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (117)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS 84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Sediment surface
      Depth_Resolution: 0.01
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    coastal_groundwater_chemical_data_LongIslandNY_2008
    Coastal groundwater data from the north and south shores of Long Island, NY, collected during spring and fall of 2008. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    brief text describing sampling location (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text)
    Sample ID
    unique sample identifier assigned in the field (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text)
    Sampling date
    Date on which the groundwater sample was collected (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5/6/2008
    Maximum:10/31/2008
    Units:m/dd/yyyy
    Latitude, decimal degrees N
    latitude of the sample location, decimal degrees north (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:40.72947
    Maximum:40.90648
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude, decimal degrees W
    longitude of the sample location, decimal degrees west (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-73.71617
    Maximum:-73.00093
    Units:decimal degrees
    Depth (m)
    depth of the well screen below the sediment surface. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:10.1
    Units:meters
    Salinity (PSU)
    salinity of the water sample (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:6.3
    Units:PSU
    pH
    negative logarithm of hydronium ion activity, -log[H+], in the water sample. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.7
    Maximum:7.4
    Units:unitless
    Eh (mV)
    oxidation/ reduction potential of the water sample, converted to units of Eh. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-117
    Maximum:417
    Units:mV
    DO (uM)
    dissolved oxygen concentration. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:364
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    DOC (uM)
    dissolved organic carbon concentration. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.7
    Maximum:1285.7
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    Nitrate + Nitrite (uM)
    concentration of nitrate (NO3-) plus nitrite (NO2-). Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:434.5
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    Ammonium (uM)
    ammonium ion (NH4+) concentration. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:919.8
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    28N2 A (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 28 grams, replicate 1 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:573
    Maximum:975
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    29N2 A (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 29 grams, replicate 1 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.2
    Maximum:7.0
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    30N2 A (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 30 grams, replicate 1 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:0.1
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    N2TOT A (uM)
    concentration of total dissolved dinitrogen gas (sum of concentrations of masses 28, 29, and 30), replicate 1 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:577
    Maximum:982
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    Ar A (uM)
    concentration of dissolved argon gas, replicate 1 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:13.9
    Maximum:21.8
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    28N2 B (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 28 grams, replicate 2 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:553
    Maximum:916
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    29N2 B (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 29 grams, replicate 2 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.1
    Maximum:6.6
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    30N2 B (uM)
    concentration of dissolved dinitrogen gas having a molar mass of 30 grams, replicate 2 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:0.1
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    N2TOT B (uM)
    concentration of total dissolved dinitrogen gas (sum of concentrations of masses 28, 29, and 30), replicate 2 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:557
    Maximum:923
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    Ar B (uM)
    concentration of dissolved argon gas, replicate 2 of 2. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:13.9
    Maximum:21.7
    Units:micromoles per liter (uM)
    Age, uncorrected (y)
    groundwater age, uncorrected for terrigenic helium. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-10.5
    Maximum:12.3
    Units:years
    1sigma, uncorrected age (y)
    standard deviation of uncorrected groundwater age. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:1.2
    Units:years
    Age, corrected for terrigenic He (y)
    groundwater age, corrected for terrigenic helium. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-6.9
    Maximum:15.0
    Units:years
    1sigma, corrected age (y)
    standard deviation of corrected groundwater age. Cells for which data do not exist are intentionally left blank, specifics are outlined in the Completeness Report. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:0.6
    Units:years
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data are also available in a CSV format. The first line of the CSV file is a header line and those labels are the same as defined in the attribute section for the XLSX file. Cells of missing data indicate either that the sample was not collected due to sampling difficulties, the field parameter was not recorded, the sample was lost post-collection, or problems with measurement or analysis rendered the data quality inadequate to include in this dataset.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Brooks, T.W.
    • Kroeger, K.D.
    • Bratton, J.F.
    • Crusius, J.
    • Szymczycha, B.
    • Mann, A.G.
    • Brosnahan, S.M.
    • Casso, M.
    • Erban, L.
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: T.W. Brooks
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
    wallybrooks@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset was produced in order to examine the relationship between average vadose zone thickness and biogeochemical conditions and processes within the surficial glacial aquifer of Long Island, NY.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2008 (process 1 of 7)
    Groundwater samples were collected with AMS drive-point samplers and peristaltic pumps (Charette and Allen, 2006) from within or near the intertidal zones of the three study areas, and at depths of 0.3 to 10.1 meters below the sediment surface. Contact details are listed below for this process step and are the same for all subsequent process steps.
    Charette, M. A., and Allen, M. C., 2006, Precision ground water sampling in coastal aquifers using a direct‐push, Shielded‐Screen Well‐Point System. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, v. 26 no. 23, p. 87-93. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: T.W. Brooks
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
    wallybrooks@usgs.gov
    Date: 2008 (process 2 of 7)
    Salinity, pH, oxidation/ reduction potential (ORP), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in the field with either a calibrated YSI 600XLM multi-parameter sonde with a flow through cell, or calibrated InSitu Troll 9500 multi-parameter sonde with flow through cell. ORP values were converted to Eh (mV) by adding 200 to the values. DO was calibrated daily, and the remaining parameters were calibrated biweekly, with additional periodic checks in calibration standards performed throughout the sampling campaign as needed. Calibration frequency, accuracy, and precision for the two sondes were the same, therefore it is of no concern when comparing their measurements.
    Date: Feb-2009 (process 3 of 7)
    Samples for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were filtered through Pall cartridge filters (0.45 micron pore size) into combusted glass vials with teflon-lined septa, and stored at 4 degrees C until analysis. Samples were analyzed at University of California Stable Isotope Facility on an O.I. Analytical 1030 TOC analyzer by persulfate digestion and nondispersive infrared detection. Average relative standard deviation of an intermediate standard was typically less than or equal to 5 percent.
    Date: 2008 (process 4 of 7)
    Samples for nitrate and ammonium were filtered through Pall cartridge filters (0.45 micron pore size) and frozen until analysis. Samples were analyzed at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, MA on a Lachat FIA-6000 autoanalyzer using standard colorimetric methods (Strickland and Parsons, 1972). Nitrate and nitrite were not quantified separately and their sum is referred to here as nitrate.
    Strickland, J. D., and Parsons, T. R., 1972, A practical handbook of seawater analysis.
    Date: 2008 (process 5 of 7)
    Samples for N2 and Ar analysis were collected in duplicate into 12 mL glass exetainers with screw-cap butyl rubber septa. Exetainers were filled from the bottom, overflowed with >5 void volumes, capped immediately without headspace, and stored underwater at 4 degrees C until analysis. Samples were analyzed at the Ecosystems Center at MBL by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), for 28N2, 29N2, 30N2, and 40Ar, to a precision of <0.5 percent (Kana and others, 1994; Kana, 2004). Samples were typically analyzed within a month or two of collection. Total N2 was obtained by summing the masses 28, 29 and 30. Total Ar was calculated based on assumption that the measured isotope of mass 40 comprised 99.6% of total Ar. Four N2 and Ar data points were eliminated because low gas concentrations indicated that the samples had degassed during collection. In this data report, no further judgements were made regarding whether a more subtle level of degassing had occurred in the remaining samples. The Szymczycha and others, 2017 analysis involved further judgements of minimum gas concentrations based on estimated recharge temperatures, and thus represent a subset of the data contained in this data report.
    Kana, T. M., Darkangelo, C., Hunt, M. D., Oldham, J. B., Bennett, G. E., and Cornwell, J. C., 1994, Membrane inlet mass spectrometer for rapid high-precision determination of N2, O2, and Ar in environmental water samples: Analytical Chemistry, v. 66 no. 23, p. 4166-4170.
    Kana, T. M., 2004, Comment on “Comparison of isotope pairing and N 2: Ar methods for measuring sediment denitrification” by B.D. Eyre, S. Rysgaard, T. Dalsgaard, and P. Bondo Christensen. 2002. Estuaries 25: 1077–1087. Estuaries and Coasts, v. 27 no. 1, p. 173-176.
    Date: Jun-2009 (process 6 of 7)
    Groundwater age, or time since recharge, was estimated based on mass spectrometric measurement of helium isotopes and tritium analysis of water samples. Sample analysis and age estimation were conducted by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Noble Gas Laboratory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, by the 3He ingrowth method. Precisions for measurement of tritium, delta 3He, and the 4He and Ne concentrations are ±1 to 2%, ±0.15 to 0.2%, and ±0.2 to 0.3%, respectively, and reported age uncertainty for the samples analyzed ranged from 0.1 yr to 1.2 yr.
    Date: 06-Sep-2018 (process 7 of 7)
    One author had an incorrect middle initial, so this was fixed in the originator list and the suggested citation. The correct authorship is S.M. Brosnahan, not S.B. Brosnahan. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Szymczycha, B., Kroeger, K.D., Crusius, J., and Bratton, J.F., 2017, Depth of the vadose zone controls aquifer biogeochemical conditions and extent of anthropogenic nitrogen removal.: Water Research v. 123, p. 1-8, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Cross, V.A., Bratton, J.F., Kroeger, K.D., Crusius, J., and Worley, C.R., 2013, Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York: Open-File Report 2011-1040, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Cross, V.A., Bratton, J.F., Kroeger, K.D., Crusius, J., and Worley, C.R., 2012, Continuous resistivity profiling data from Northport Harbor and Manhasset Bay, Long Island, New York: Open-File Report 2011-1041, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Zhao, S., Zhang, P., Crusius, J., Kroeger, K.D., and Bratton, J.F., 2011, Use of pharmaceuticals and pesticides to constrain nutrient sources in coastal groundwater of northwestern Long Island, New York, USA: Journal of Environmental Monitoring 13(5), 1337-1343, Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Location was measured with a handheld Garmin GPSMAP 76Cx using the WGS84 datum to an accuracy of approximately 3 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Vertical position (depth of well screen below sediment surface) was measured by subtracting the exposed length of the AMS drive-point sampling device from the total length to an accuracy of a few centimeters.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data support an investigation of hydrogeological controls on biogeochemical processes occurring within the surficial glacial aquifer of Long Island, NY, prior to any mixing with saltwater. Thus, with the exception of groundwater samples for which age was measured, groundwater samples with salinity greater than 0.8 practical salinity units (PSU) are excluded from this dataset. Due to substantial investment of time for sample collection and cost of analysis, we had only a small number of age results and therefore utilized all available age data to estimate the range of ages at time of discharge. Salinity of groundwater samples for which age was determined ranged from 0.1 to 6.3 PSU. Cells of missing data indicate either that the sample was not collected due to sampling difficulties, the field parameter was not recorded, the sample was lost post-collection, or problems with measurement or analysis rendered the data quality inadequate to include in this dataset.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Field sampling, laboratory analyses, and subsequent handling and processing of data followed strict protocols and were consistent for each process step outlined below.
    In order to avoid the use of special characters, no subscripts are used in the metadata. N2 is actually N subscript 2 and represents dinitrogen.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The dataset contains the following files: coastal_groundwater_chemical_data_LongIslandNY_2008.xlsx (data in an Excel spreadsheet), coastal_groundwater_chemical_data_LongIslandNY_2008.csv (same data in a comma-separated text file), map_study_sites_LongIslandNY.jpg (browse graphic), and FGDC CSDGM metadata in XML, text and HTML formats.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This data are available in XLSX and CSV formats. The user must have software capable of reading these data formats.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Sep-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: T.W. Brooks
Physical Scientist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2359 (voice)
wallybrooks@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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