Physical Properties of Sediment Collected during India's National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 Expedition in the Krishna-Godavari Basin Offshore Eastern India, 2015

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Title:
Physical Properties of Sediment Collected during India's National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 Expedition in the Krishna-Godavari Basin Offshore Eastern India, 2015
Abstract:
During the spring and summer of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey participated in India’s National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 expedition in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore eastern India. The expedition included conventional and pressure coring of sediment, samples of which were transferred to the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA for post-cruise testing. This data release contains measurement results for physical properties measured on recovered core material, including measurements on gas-hydrate-bearing sediment preserved in pressure cores, and physical properties of gas hydrate-free sediment recovered from conventional cores. This work is part of an international NGHP-02 collaboration culminating in a comprehensive collection of publications in a special volume of the journal Marine and Petroleum Geology.
Supplemental_Information:
In addition to funding from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Gas Hydrate Project, this work is sponsored in part by the Department of Energy through an interagency agreement (DE-FE0026166). For more information on the NGHP-02 expedition results, see the special volume of Marine and Petroleum Geology. This work is also part of the NGHP-02 expedition. Links to related data and publications within the NGHP-02 project are collected in the USGS Field Activity Report 2015-023-FA, found at: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2015-023-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Waite, William F., Jang, Junbong, Collett, Timothy S., and Kumar, Pushpendra, 2018, Physical Properties of Sediment Collected during India's National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 Expedition in the Krishna-Godavari Basin Offshore Eastern India, 2015: data release DOI:10.5066/P97RL4X4, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Waite, W.F., Jang, J., Collett, T.S., and Kumar, P., 2018, Physical properties of sediment collected during India's National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 expedition in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore eastern India, 2015: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P97RL4X4.
    This dataset supports the following publications:
    Jang, J., Waite, W.F., Stern, L.A., Collett, T.S., and Kumar, P., 2018. Physical property characteristics of gas hydrate-bearing reservoir and associated seal sediments collected during NGHP-02 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, in the offshore of India: Marine and Petroleum Geology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.09.027.
    Waite, W.F., Jang, J., Collett, T.S., and Kumar, P., 2018, Downhole physical property-based description of a gas hydrate petroleum system in NGHP-02 Area C — A channel, levee, fan complex in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore eastern India: Marine and Petroleum Geology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.05.021.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 81.26213167
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 84.2285450
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 17.4971983
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 15.4462300
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/file/get/5b0415b5e4b0da30c1c36710?name=NGHP02_GrainSize_BrowseGraphic.png (PNG)
    Image showing grain size distribution (A) and clay content (B) for NGHP-02 Site 05 sediment specimens. Gas hydrate occurs primarily in the low clay-content sediment (1-4R), not the coarsest sediment (e.g. 1I, 3I).
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 04-Mar-2015
    Ending_Date: 31-Jul-2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of the field activity when the samples were collected
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Comma-separated values (CSV)
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (210)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Meters below seafloor
      Depth_Resolution: 1
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    NGHP-02_Grain_Size_Data
    Grain size distribution and statistics data for sediment specimens collected during India’s National Gas Hydrate Program NGHP-02 expedition in the Krishna Godavari Basin offshore eastern India. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Site
    Site: NGHP-02 site name designation. Format is: Expedition Name (NGHP-02)-Site Number and Hole Designation Letter. Hole A was used only for logging-while-drilling (no core recovery). Holes B and C were used for coring. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    J-CORES sample ID
    sampleID:Unique, sequential identifier given at the time of collection to any shipboard subsample taken for any measurement type. Specimens were collected on the D/V Chikyu, so each ID begins with CKY. (Source: Shipboard science party, D/V Chikyu) Character set (text).
    USGS Lab ID
    USGS_LabID: Unique, sequential identifier given by the USGS PCMSC Sediment Lab at the time of the grain size analysis. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude coordinate, in degrees (°) minutes (’) decimal seconds (”), of the sample’s location. North latitude recorded as positive values. (Source: Shipboard science party, D/V Chikyu)
    Range of values
    Minimum:15°26'46.428"
    Maximum:17°29'50.946"
    Units:degrees (°) minutes (’) decimal seconds (”)
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude coordinate, in degrees (°) minutes (’) decimal seconds (”), of the sample’s location. East longitude is recorded as positive values. (Source: Shipboard science party, D/V Chikyu)
    Range of values
    Minimum:81°15'43.674"
    Maximum:84°13'42.762"
    Units:degrees (°) minutes (’) decimal seconds (”)
    Latitude (decimal degrees)
    Lat_DD: Latitude coordinate, in decimal-degrees, of sample’s location. North latitude recorded as positive values. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:15.4462300
    Maximum:17.497485
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude (decimal degrees)
    Long_DD: Longitude coordinate, in decimal degrees, of the sample’s location. East longitude is recorded as positive values. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:81.26213167
    Maximum:84.2285450
    Units:decimal degrees
    Average Depth (m CSF-A), mbsf
    CSFA_Depth_mbsf: Depth of sample in meters below the seafloor (mbsf), using the CSF-A convention in which gas expansion gaps, if present, are included in the depth. (Source: Shipboard science party, D/V Chikyu)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.33
    Maximum:505.05
    Units:meters
    Average Depth (m CSF-B), mbsf
    CSFB_Depth_mbsf: Depth of sample in meters below the seafloor (mbsf), using the CSF-B convention in which gas expansion gaps, if present at the time of core recovery, have been removed. (Source: Shipboard science party, D/V Chikyu)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.33
    Maximum:505.05
    Units:meters
    MM, Phi Bin
    MM_ PhiBin: “MM” indicates that the upper value for the next 65 column headers represents the particles size, in millimeters, for one of the given “bins” or size ranges used by the Beckman Coulter LS 13-320 laser diffraction particle size analyzer (for grain sizes less than 2 mm) and sieves (for grain sizes greater than 2 mm). “Phi Bin” represents the same grain size as the “MM” listing, but in units of sieve mesh size, or “phi.” The grain size relationship between millimeters and phi is: 2(-phi) = particle diameter in millimeters (MM or mm). This column separates the sample identification and location information in the first nine columns from the next 65 columns showing the percentage of the specimen with grain sizes in the bin range around the particle size given in each column’s header. This column contains only the text “Bin weight percent.” (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    16, -4
    16_-4: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 16 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -4. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0
    Units:weight percent
    13.5, -3.75
    13.5_-3.75: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 13.5 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -3.75. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0
    Units:weight percent
    11.2, -3.5
    11.2_-3.5: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 11.2 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -3.5. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:0
    Units:weight percent
    9.51, -3.25
    9.51_-3.25: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 9.51 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -3.25. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:12.462652
    Units:weight percent
    8, -3
    8_-3: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 8 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -3. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:6.846801
    Units:weight percent
    6.73, -2.75
    6.73_-2.75: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 6.73 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -2.75. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:11.133954
    Units:weight percent
    5.66, -2.5
    5.66_-2.5: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 5.66 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -2.5. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:12.882171
    Units:weight percent
    4.76, -2.25
    4.76_-2.25: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 4.76 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -2.25. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:5.434673
    Units:weight percent
    4, -2
    4_-2: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 4 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -2. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:5.583842
    Units:weight percent
    3.36, -1.75
    3.36_-1.75: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 3.36 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -1.75. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3.464989
    Units:weight percent
    2.83, -1.5
    2.83_-1.5: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 2.83 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -1.5. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:4.771016
    Units:weight percent
    2.38, -1.25
    2.38_-1.25: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 2.38 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -1.25. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:5.367096
    Units:weight percent
    2, -1
    2_-1: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 2 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -1. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:5.507127
    Units:weight percent
    1.68, -0.75
    1.68_-0.75: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 1.68 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -0.75. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:14.743784
    Units:weight percent
    1.41, -0.5
    1.41_-0.5: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 1.41 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -0.5. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:16.539501
    Units:weight percent
    1.19, -0.25
    1.19_-0.25: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 1.19 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = -0.25. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:17.579127
    Units:weight percent
    1, 0
    1_0: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 1 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 0. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:15.972432
    Units:weight percent
    0.8409, 0.249994
    0.8409_0.249994: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.8409 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 0.249994. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:17.240005
    Units:weight percent
    0.7071, 0.499993
    0.7071_0.499993: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.7071 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 0.499993. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:20.509661
    Units:weight percent
    0.5946, 0.750009
    0.5946_0.750009: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.5946 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 0.750009. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:23.407749
    Units:weight percent
    0.5, 1
    0.5_1: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.5 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 1. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:27.192832
    Units:weight percent
    0.4204, 1.249994
    0.4204_1.249994: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.4204 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 1.249994. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:24.116356
    Units:weight percent
    0.3536, 1.500014
    0.3536_1.500014: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.3536 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 1.500014. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:28.086127
    Units:weight percent
    0.2973, 1.750009
    0.2973_1.750009: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.2973 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 1.750009. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:21.139028
    Units:weight percent
    0.25, 2
    0.25_2: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.25 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 2. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:10.152635
    Units:weight percent
    0.2102, 2.250028
    0.2102_2.250028: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.2102 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 2.250028. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:12.231874
    Units:weight percent
    0.1768, 2.499973
    0.1768_2.499973: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.1768 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 2.499973. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:14.312349
    Units:weight percent
    0.1487, 2.750009
    0.1487_2.750009: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.1487 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 2.750009. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:17.334723
    Units:weight percent
    0.125, 3
    0.125_3: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.125 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 3. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:16.988591
    Units:weight percent
    0.1051, 3.250028
    0.1051_3.250028: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.1051 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 3.250028. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:13.513298
    Units:weight percent
    0.088388, 3.499973
    0.088388_3.499973: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.088388 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 3.499973. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:10.356153
    Units:weight percent
    0.074325, 3.749912
    0.074325_3.749912: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.074325 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 3.749912. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:13.317421
    Units:weight percent
    0.0625, 4
    0.0625_4: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.0625 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 4. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:15.091822
    Units:weight percent
    0.052556, 4.249891
    0.052556_4.249891: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.052556 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 4.249891. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:13.437862
    Units:weight percent
    0.044194, 4.500136
    0.044194_4.500136: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.044194 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 4.500136. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00008
    Maximum:11.431551
    Units:weight percent
    0.037163, 4.750106
    0.037163_4.750106: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.037163 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 4.750106. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.003206
    Maximum:12.352013
    Units:weight percent
    0.03125, 5
    0.03125_5: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.03125 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 5. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005444
    Maximum:11.643937
    Units:weight percent
    0.026278, 5.249891
    0.026278_5.249891: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.026278 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 5.249891. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004198
    Maximum:9.654765
    Units:weight percent
    0.022097, 5.49981
    0.022097_5.49981: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.022097 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 5.49981. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005552
    Maximum:7.724933
    Units:weight percent
    0.018581, 5.750106
    0.018581_5.750106: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.018581 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 5.750106. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.006305
    Maximum:6.974966
    Units:weight percent
    0.015625, 5.999538
    0.015625_5.999538: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.015625 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 5.999538. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005658
    Maximum:6.911431
    Units:weight percent
    0.013139, 6.249891
    0.013139_6.249891: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.013139 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 6.249891. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005173
    Maximum:7.201491
    Units:weight percent
    0.011049, 6.49981
    0.011049_6.49981: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.011049 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 6.49981. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004607
    Maximum:7.05146
    Units:weight percent
    0.009291, 6.750106
    0.009291_6.750106: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.009291 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 6.750106. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004042
    Maximum:6.671381
    Units:weight percent
    0.007813, 7.000462
    0.007813_7.000462: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.007813 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 7.000462. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.003637
    Maximum:6.514717
    Units:weight percent
    0.00657, 7.249891
    0.00657_7.249891: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.00657 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 7.249891. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.003395
    Maximum:6.773668
    Units:weight percent
    0.005524, 7.501116
    0.005524_7.501116: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.005524 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 7.501116. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.003152
    Maximum:6.891276
    Units:weight percent
    0.004645, 7.748554
    0.004645_7.748554: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.004645 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 7.748554. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.002748
    Maximum:6.655581
    Units:weight percent
    0.003906, 7.998616
    0.003906_7.998616: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.003906 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 7.998616. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.002344
    Maximum:6.4757
    Units:weight percent
    0.003285, 8.252088
    0.003285_8.252088: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.003285 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 8.252088. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00194
    Maximum:6.105946
    Units:weight percent
    0.002762, 8.501116
    0.002762_8.501116: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.002762 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 8.501116. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.001697
    Maximum:5.456377
    Units:weight percent
    0.002323, 8.751659
    0.002323_8.751659: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.002323 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 8.751659. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.008153
    Maximum:4.906742
    Units:weight percent
    0.001953, 9.00231
    0.001953_9.00231: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.001953 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 9.00231. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.010758
    Maximum:4.689858
    Units:weight percent
    0.001642, 9.252088
    0.001642_9.252088: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.001642 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 9.252088. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.010086
    Maximum:4.490981
    Units:weight percent
    0.001381, 9.501116
    0.001381_9.501116: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.001381 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 9.501116. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00947
    Maximum:4.302106
    Units:weight percent
    0.001161, 9.751659
    0.001161_9.751659: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.001161 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 9.751659. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.009021
    Maximum:4.277098
    Units:weight percent
    0.000983, 9.994931
    0.000983_9.994931: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000983 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 9.994931. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.008012
    Maximum:4.064211
    Units:weight percent
    0.000821, 10.252088
    0.000821_10.252088: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000821 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 10.252088. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00747
    Maximum:4.035181
    Units:weight percent
    0.000691, 10.501116
    0.000691_10.501116: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000691 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 10.501116. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.006696
    Maximum:3.435226
    Units:weight percent
    0.000581, 10.751659
    0.000581_10.751659: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000581 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 10.751659. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005463
    Maximum:2.806241
    Units:weight percent
    0.000492, 10.994831
    0.000492_10.994931: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000492 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 10.994831. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.003838
    Maximum:1.974045
    Units:weight percent
    0.000411, 11.25209
    0.000411_11.252088: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000411 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 11.25209. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.002185
    Maximum:1.122496
    Units:weight percent
    0.000035, 11.480357
    0.00035_11.480357: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000035 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 11.480357. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.000504
    Maximum:0.263718
    Units:weight percent
    0.0000241, 12.024678
    0.000241_12.024678: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.0000241 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 12.024678. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:0.0
    Units:weight percent
    0.000012, 13.024678
    0.00012_13.024678: Percentage of the specimen that has a size in the bin defined as 0.000012 mm in diameter, or (equivalently) a sieve mesh of phi = 13.024678. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:0.0
    Units:weight percent
    weight percent Gravel
    Percent_Gravel: Percentage of the specimen that has a grain size greater than 2 mm, which is defined as “Gravel." (Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments: Journal of Geology, v. 30, p. 377-392) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:47.506835
    Units:weight percent
    weight percent Sand
    Percent_Sand: Percentage of the specimen that has a grain size between 63 micrometers and 2 mm, which is defined as “Sand.” (Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments: Journal of Geology, v. 30, p. 377-392) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.022305
    Maximum:99.677169
    Units:weight percent
    weight percent Silt
    Percent_Silt: Percentage of the specimen that has a grain size between 3.9 micrometers and 63 micrometers, which is defined as “Silt.” (Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments: Journal of Geology, v. 30, p. 377-392) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.113004
    Maximum:79.019207
    Units:weight percent
    weight percent Clay
    Percent_Clay: Percentage of the specimen that has a grain size less than 3.9 micrometers, which is defined as “Clay.” (Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments: Journal of Geology, v. 30, p. 377-392) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.110665
    Maximum:48.130925
    Units:weight percent
    weight percent Mud
    Percent_Mud: Percentage of the specimen that has a grain size less than 63 micrometers, which is the sum of the Clay and Silt contributions and defined as “Mud.” (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.322831
    Maximum:99.977695
    Units:weight percent
    Gravel/Sand
    Gravel_Sand: The ratio of Gravel to Sand in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:1.162
    Units:unitless
    Sand/Silt
    Sand_Silt: The ratio of Sand to Silt in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:714.449
    Units:unitless
    Silt/Clay
    Silt_Clay: The ratio of Silt to Clay in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.445
    Maximum:14.188
    Units:unitless
    Sand/Clay
    Sand_Clay: The ratio of Sand to Clay in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.001
    Maximum:900.713
    Units:unitless
    Sand/Mud
    Sand_Mud: The ratio of Sand to Mud in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:308.759
    Units:unitless
    Gravel/Mud
    Gravel_Mud: The ratio of Gravel to Mud in the specimen (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:51.534
    Units:unitless
    D5 Phi
    D5Phi: Particle diameter representing the 5 weight percent cumulative percentile value (5 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d5 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.33
    Maximum:5.464
    Units:phi
    D10 Phi
    D10Phi: Particle diameter representing the 10 weight percent cumulative percentile value (10 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d10 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.821
    Maximum:6.031
    Units:phi
    D16 Phi
    D16Phi: Particle diameter representing the 16 weight percent cumulative percentile value (16 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d16 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.648
    Maximum:6.429
    Units:phi
    D25 Phi
    D25Phi: Particle diameter representing the 25 weight percent cumulative percentile value (25 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d25 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.456
    Maximum:6.835
    Units:phi
    D50 Phi
    D50Phi: Particle diameter representing the 50 weight percent cumulative percentile value (50 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d50 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.761
    Maximum:7.914
    D75 Phi
    D75Phi: Particle diameter representing the 75 weight percent cumulative percentile value (75 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d75 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.132
    Maximum:9.324
    Units:phi
    D84 Phi
    D84Phi: Particle diameter representing the 84 weight percent cumulative percentile value (84 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d84 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.37
    Maximum:9.854
    Units:phi
    D90 Phi
    D90Phi: Particle diameter representing the 90 weight percent cumulative percentile value (90 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d90 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.65
    Maximum:10.227
    D95 Phi
    D95Phi: Particle diameter representing the 95 weight percent cumulative percentile value (95 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d75 grain size) in units of phi. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.05
    Maximum:10.603
    Units:phi
    D5 mm
    D5mm: Particle diameter representing the 5 weight percent cumulative percentile value (5 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d5 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0006
    Maximum:0.483
    Units:mm
    D10 mm
    D10mm: Particle diameter representing the 10 weight percent cumulative percentile value (10 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d10 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0008
    Maximum:0.6375
    Units:mm
    D16 mm
    D16mm: Particle diameter representing the 16 weight percent cumulative percentile value (16 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d16 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0011
    Maximum:0.7736
    Units:mm
    D25 mm
    D25mm: Particle diameter representing the 25 weight percent cumulative percentile value (25 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d25 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0016
    Maximum:0.9123
    Units:mm
    D50 mm
    D50mm: Particle diameter representing the 50 weight percent cumulative percentile value (50 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d50 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0041
    Maximum:1.6952
    Units:mm
    D75 mm
    D75mm: Particle diameter representing the 75 weight percent cumulative percentile value (75 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d75 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0088
    Maximum:5.4862
    Units:mm
    D84 mm
    D84mm: Particle diameter representing the 84 weight percent cumulative percentile value (84 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d84 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0116
    Maximum:6.2682
    Units:mm
    D90 mm
    D90mm: Particle diameter representing the 90 weight percent cumulative percentile value (90 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d90 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0153
    Maximum:7.0651
    Units:mm
    D95 mm
    D95mm: Particle diameter representing the 95 weight percent cumulative percentile value (95 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the d95 grain size) in units of mm. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0227
    Maximum:5.0281
    Units:mm
    F-W Median
    F-WMedian: Particle diameter representing the 50 weight percent cumulative percentile value (50 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the F-W Median grain size) in units of phi. This is equivalent to d50 grain size in units of phi. F-W is short for the 1957 publication by Folk and Ward: Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.761484
    Maximum:7.914291
    Units:phi
    F-W Mean
    F-WMean: The Folk and Ward mean (average) grain size, given by: F-W Mean = (d16 phi + d50 phi + d84 phi)/3, in units of phi. F-W is short for the 1957 publication by Folk and Ward: Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.32858
    Maximum:7.92277
    Units:phi
    F-W Sorting
    F-WSorting: The Folk and Ward measure of the variation in grain sizes within the specimen, given by: F-W Sorting = ((d84 phi – d16 phi)/4) + ((d95 phi – d5 phi)/6.6), in units of phi. F-W is short for the 1957 publication by Folk and Ward: Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.327524
    Maximum:4.277035
    Units:phi
    F-W Skewness
    F-WSkewness: The Folk and Ward measure of the grain size symmetry around the median grain size within the specimen, given by: F-W Skewness = ((d16 phi + d84 phi – 2·d50 phi)/(2·(d84 phi – d16 phi))) +… ((d5 phi + d95 phi – 2·d50 phi)/(2·(d95 phi – d5 phi))). F-W is short for the 1957 publication by Folk and Ward: Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.326719
    Maximum:0.695002
    Units:unitless
    F-W Kurtosis
    F-WKurtosis: The Folk and Ward measure of how peaked the grain size distribution is within the specimen, given by: F-W Kurtosis = ((d95 phi – d5 phi)/(2.44·(d75 phi – d25 phi))). F-W is short for the 1957 publication by Folk and Ward: Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.617483
    Maximum:2.783692
    Units:unitless
    Inman Median
    InmanMedian: Particle diameter representing the 50 weight percent cumulative percentile value (50 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the Inman Median grain size) in units of phi. This is equivalent to d50 grain size in units of phi. Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.761484
    Maximum:7.914291
    Units:phi
    Inman Mean
    InmanMean: The Inman mean (average) grain size, given by: Inman Mean = (d16 phi + d84 phi)/2, in units of phi. Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.313088
    Maximum:7.966812
    Units:phi
    Inman Sorting
    InmanSorting: The Inman measure of the variation in grain sizes within the specimen, given by: Inman Sorting = (d84 phi – d16 phi)/2, in units of phi. Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.341693
    Maximum:4.852055
    Units:phi
    Inman Skewness 16-84
    InmanSkew_16-84: One of the two Inman measures of the grain size symmetry around the median grain size within the specimen, given by: Inman Skewness = (((d16 phi + d84 phi)/2) – d50 phi)/((d84 phi – d16 phi)/2). Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.346899
    Maximum:0.691765
    Units:unitless
    Inman Skewness 05-95
    InmanSkew_05-95: One of the two Inman measures of the grain size symmetry around the median grain size within the specimen, given by: Inman Skewness = (((d05 phi + d95 phi)/2) – d50 phi)/((d84 phi – d16 phi)/2). Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.795402
    Maximum:2.275478
    Units:unitless
    Inman Kurtosis
    InmanKurtosis: The Inman measure of how peaked the grain size distribution is within the specimen, given by: Inman Kurtosis = (((d95 phi – d05 phi)/2) – ((d84 phi – d16 phi)/2))/((d84 phi – d16 phi)/2). Inman is short for his 1952 publication: Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.258915
    Maximum:2.937238
    Units:unitless
    Trask Median
    TraskMedian: Particle diameter representing the 50 weight percent cumulative percentile value (50 weight percent of the particles in the sediment are finer than the Trask Median grain size) in units of mm. This is equivalent to d50 grain size in units of mm. Trask is short for the 1930 publication by Trask: Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004145
    Maximum:1.695234
    Units:mm
    Trask Mean
    TraskMean: The Trask mean (average) grain size, given by: Trask Mean = (d25 mm + d75 mm)/2, in units of mm. Trask is short for the 1930 publication by Trask: Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005409
    Maximum:2.967741
    Units:mm
    Trask Sorting
    TraskSorting: The Trask measure of the variation in grain sizes within the specimen, given by: Trask Sorting = square root(d25 mm/d75 mm). Trask is short for the 1930 publication by Trask: Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.174995
    Maximum:16.612805
    Units:unitless
    Trask Skewness
    TraskSkewness: The Trask measure of the grain size symmetry around the median grain size within the specimen, given by: Trask Skewness = (d25 mm·d75 mm)/d50 mm. Trask is short for the 1930 publication by Trask: Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.064724
    Maximum:4.615582
    Units:unitless
    Trask Kurtosis
    TraskKurtosis: The Trask measure of how peaked the grain size distribution is within the specimen, given by: Trask Kurtosis = (d75 mm – d25 mm)/(2·(d90 mm – d10 mm)). Trask is short for the 1930 publication by Trask: Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.028421
    Maximum:0.449355
    Units:unitless
    1st Moment, Mean Phi
    1stmoment_ MeanPhi: The mean (average) grain size, given by: 1st Moment, Mean Phi = (1/100)·(sum over all Bins(Bin weight percent·BinSize phi)), in units of phi. Bin weight percent is assumed to be in units of weight percent, and the bin grain size (BinSize) is taken to be the midpoint phi size within that bin. The sum of the Bin weight percent values for the entire distribution is assumed to be 100. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.298688
    Maximum:7.882774
    Units:phi
    1st Moment, Mean mm
    1stmoment_ Mean_mm: The mean (average) grain size, given by: 1st Moment, Mean mm = (1/100)·(sum over all Bins(Bin weight percent·BinSize mm)), in units of mm. Bin weight percent is assumed to be in units of weight percent, and the bin grain size (BinSize) is taken to be the midpoint mm size within that bin. The sum of the Bin weight percent values for the entire distribution is assumed to be 100. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.004237
    Maximum:1.230025
    Units:mm
    2nd Moment, Variance
    2ndmoment_ Variance: The spread, or variance in the grain size distribution, given by: 2nd Moment, Variance = (1/100)·(sum over all Bins(Bin weight percent·(BinSize phi – Mean phi)2), in units of phi2. Bin weight percent is assumed to be in units of weight percent, and the bin grain size (BinSize) is taken to be the midpoint phi size within that bin. The sum of the Bin weight percent values for the entire distribution is assumed to be 100. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.297155
    Maximum:18.193229
    Units:phi2
    2nd Moment, Std. Dev.
    2ndmoment_ StdDev: The standard deviation of the grain size distribution, given by: 2nd Moment, Std. Dev. = square root(Variance), in units of phi. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.545119
    Maximum:4.265352
    Units:phi
    3rd Moment, Skewness
    3rdmoment_ Skewness: The Moment Method measure of the grain size symmetry around the median grain size within the specimen, given by: 3rd Moment, Skewness =… (Standard Deviation-3)· (1/100)·(sum over all Bins(Bin weight percent·(BinSize phi – Mean phi)3), assuming the Bin weight percent is in units of weight percent, and the bin grain size (BinSize) is taken to be the midpoint phi size within that bin. The sum of the Bin weight percent values for the entire distribution is assumed to be 100. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.184709
    Maximum:8.106059
    Units:unitless
    4th Moment, Kurtosis
    4thmoment_ Kurtosis: The Moment Method measure of how peaked the grain size distribution is within the specimen, given by: 4th Moment, Kurtosis =… (Standard Deviation-4)· (1/100)·(sum over all Bins(Bin weight percent·(BinSize phi – Mean phi)4), assuming the Bin weight percent is in units of weight percent, and the bin grain size (BinSize) is taken to be the midpoint phi size within that bin. The sum of the Bin weight percent values for the entire distribution is assumed to be 100. For further information, see: Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data, Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.511481
    Maximum:93.246556
    Units:unitless
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data are available in a Microsoft Excel XLSX as well as a CSV format. The first two lines in the XLSX are header lines, where the second line is an abbreviated column label intended for software packages that are unable to cope with longer labels available in the first row of the XLSX file. The first part of the attribute definition (before the colon) indicates the abbreviated column label. The first row of the CSV file is a header line and is the same as the abbreviated column label on the second row of the XLSX file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • William F. Waite
    • Junbong Jang
    • Timothy S. Collett
    • Pushpendra Kumar
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: William F. Waite
    Research Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wwaite@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The coring sites chosen for NGHP-02 target a range of subsurface geologic settings in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore eastern India. Previous research has indicated a connection between the sediment grain size distribution and the capacity for that sediment to host gas hydrates. The grain size data in this data release are used to advance the understanding of lithological controls on the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate within the geologic framework established by the NGHP-02 sites. As shown in the browse graphic, gas hydrate occurs primarily in the low clay-content sediment (1-4R), not the coarsest sediment (e.g. 1I, 3I).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 31-Jul-2015 (process 1 of 4)
    Deployment sample collection: All specimens were collected from the working half of split cores collected from 20150428 – 20150731. Specimens were stored in heat-sealed plastic specimen bags and refrigerated during the expedition. Depth below seafloor was determined from centimeter scales running alongside the cores during processing, then tied to the continuous downhole depth log using both the IODP standard depth terminologies, which are each based on drilling records of the drill pipe length: CSF-A (total depth from seafloor to target sediment, including gas expansion gaps in the core, if present) and CSF-B (total depth from seafloor to target sediment, after all gas expansion gaps have been removed). The seafloor depth reference (mudline) determined from a combination of noting when the drill string contacts the seafloor and increases the measured weight-on-bit, and visual verification of the drill bit position using an ROV. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: William F. Waite
    Research Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
    wwaite@usgs.gov
    Date: 09-Dec-2015 (process 2 of 4)
    After the specimens were shipped in coolers with cold packs to the WHCMSC, they were subsampled for grain size. Specimens of ~20 grams were sealed in plastic specimen bags and shipped to PCMSC for analysis. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: William F. Waite
    Research Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
    wwaite@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Mar-2016 (process 3 of 4)
    Samples used for particle size determination were placed into a 1000 ml beaker filled with 200-500 ml of deionized water. Organics were removed by adding 5-10 ml of 30weight percent hydrogen peroxide and allowing the sample to oxidize overnight.  Following the oxidation the samples were heated to drive off excess hydrogen peroxide.  Samples were than washed twice via centrifugation in order to remove all solubles and excess organic material.  Following washing the samples were wet sieved to segregate them into three broad size fractions: Coarse/Gravel (greater than 2mm); Intermediate/Sand (2.00 mm - 0.063mm); and Mud (silt and clay) composed of the material greater than 0.063mm.
    The gravel fraction was sized with sieves binned at 1/4phi intervals.  The sand and mud fractions were sized with a Beckman Coulter LS 13-320 laser diffraction particle size analyzer at 1/4 phi size intervals.  The particle size data were then combined and processed with the PCMSC proprietary software called pcSDSZ. The pcSDSZ software determines the particle size distribution according to graphical statistics using the formulas of Folk (1966, 1974); Folk and Ward (1957), Inman (1952), and Trask (1930, 1932), as well as Moment Measures (Collias and others 1963; Jaquet J.-M., Vernet J.-P., 1976).
    Collias, E.E., Rona, M.R., McManus, D.A., and Creager, J.S., 1963, Machine processing of geological data: Univ. Washington Tech. Rept. 87, 119 pp.
    Folk, R.L., 1966, A review of grain-size parameters, Sedimentology, 6, p. 73-93.
    Folk, R.L., 1974, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Hemphill, Austin, TX, p. 1-159.
    Folk, R.L., and Ward, W.C., 1957, Brazos River bar - a study in the significance of grain size parameters: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 27, p. 3-26.
    Inman, D.L., 1952, Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 22, p. 125-145.
    Jaquet J.-M., Vernet J.-P., 1976, Moment and graphic size parameters in sediments of Lake Geneva (Switzerland): Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 46, p. 305–312.
    Trask, P.D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge: Economic Geology, 25, p. 581-599.
    Trask P.D., 1932, Origin and Environment of Source Sediments of Petroleum: Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 323 pp.
    Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments: Journal of Geology, v. 30, p. 377-392. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Angela Tan
    Physical Scientist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, California
    USA

    831-460-7409 (voice)
    atan@usgs.gov
    Date: 30-Dec-2017 (process 4 of 4)
    Data archiving: Microsoft Excel version 15.33 was used to gather all data in a spreadsheet. Specimen locations (latitude/longitude) and depth below seafloor is added to the compiled tabular results spreadsheet. Results spreadsheet is exported to a comma-separated values (csv) file format. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: William F. Waite
    Research Geophysicist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
    wwaite@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Horizontal position was determined by GPS satellite data, which provided guidance information for the dynamic positioning system (DPS) utilized by the D/V Chikyu. The DPS also utilizes inputs from tidal, wind and wave data to control six azimuthal thrusters beneath the ship’s hull. The thrusters are capable of 360° adjustment. Given the DPS capabilities, borehole locations for the D/V Chikyu are considered to be accurate to a radius of 15 meters. Details are provided in: Chikyu Hakken – Earth Discovery, Volume 1, Spring 2005, published by JAMSTEC’s Center for Deep Earth Exploration: https://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/e/magazine/backnum/pdf/hk_01_e.pdf
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Coring depth measurements used on the D/V Chikyu during NGHP-02 followed standard International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) protocols. Assessment of these protocols by IODP had determined the vertical position accuracy is on the order of centimeters to meters. Additional information about the depth conventions and accuracy are on pages 8 and 9 of the IODP report “IODP Depth Scales Terminology”: http://www.iodp.org/policies-and-guidelines/142-iodp-depth-scales-terminology-april-2011/file. Depth resolution ranges from 0.01 to 1 meter.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This data set represents a total of 210 grain size analyses, including the duplicate runs on selected specimens. Additional shipboard grain-size analyses were completed during NGHP-02 using the same make and model of the particle size analyzer used at PCMSC. The shipboard results are included graphically in the related journal articles listed in “Other Citation Details” (Jang and others, 2018; Waite and others, 2018), but are neither owned nor curated by a United States entity.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Grain size specimens were all collected, stored in sealed plastic bags and refrigerated aboard the D/V Chikyu. Specimens were all stored at refrigerated conditions at the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA subsampled and shipped together to the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) in Santa Cruz, CA. Grain-size processing, using a combination of sieve and laser particle-size analyzer techniques, was carried out uniformly for all specimens, and checked via duplicate analyses run on selected specimens for each NGHP-02 site. All grain-size analyses were performed according to procedures standardized by PCMSC sediment lab, and modified from those described in Folk (1974) Carver (1971): Carver, R.E., 1971, Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology, New York: Wiley. Folk, R.L., 1974, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Hemphill, Austin, TX, pp. 1-159.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    USA

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The dataset includes the following files: NGHP02_GrainSize_Data.xlsx (data in an Excel spreadsheet), NGHP02_GrainSize_Data.csv (same data in a comma-separated text file), NGHP02_GrainSize_BrowseGraphic.png (browse graphic), and FGDC CSDGM metadata in XML format.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    If the zip file download option was used, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the zip file and reading the data formats.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 29-Jan-2019
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: William F. Waite
Geophysicist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2346 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
wwaite@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/data_release/DR_P97RL4X4/NGHP02_GrainSize_Metadata.faq.html>
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