Temporal hydrologic and chemical records from the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, from January 2015 to January 2016

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Temporal hydrologic and chemical records from the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, from January 2015 to January 2016
Abstract:
Natural cave passages penetrating a coastal aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) were accessed to investigate how regional meteorology and hydrology control methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries. Three field trips were carried out in January 2015, June 2015, and January 2016 to obtain year-long high-resolution temporal records of water chemistry and environmental parameters below and above the surface at a site (Cenote Bang) within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. These efforts resulted in chemical records of dissolved methane concentrations and its stable carbon isotopic content and major ion concentrations (i.e., chloride and sulfate) in approximately 2.5-day resolution from January 2015 to January 2016, sampled by OsmoSamplers. In addition, sensor-based measurements of environmental parameters include year-long precipitation, barometric pressure, water level, flow velocity, and water temperature records. Field activities were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program in conjunction with Texas AM University at Galveston.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information regarding the field activities associated with these data can be obtained from https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2015-013-FA and https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-003-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Brankovits, David, Pohlman, John W., Mann, Adrian G., and Lapham, Laura L., 2018, Temporal hydrologic and chemical records from the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, from January 2015 to January 2016: data release DOI:10.5066/P9U0KRVM, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Brankovits, D., Pohlman, J.W., Mann, A.G., and Lapham, L.L., 2018, Temporal hydrologic and chemical records from the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, from January 2015 to January 2016: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9U0KRVM.
    This data release is in support of: Brankovits, D., Pohlman, J.W., Ganju, N.K., Iliffe, T.M., Lowell, N., Roth, E., Sylva, S.P., Emmert, J.A., and Lapham, L.L., 2018, Hydrologic controls of methan dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GB006026.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -87.6215
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -87.4155
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.3111
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.1359
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5be06ae9e4b0b3fc5cf3355f/?name=CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.jpg (jpg)
    Browse graphic of precipitation, hydrologic, and chemical records from 15 January 2015 to 20 January 2016. Upper plot shows the precipitation record. Second panel from top is water level and flow velocity from the brackish water (BW) where conduit flow is concentrated. Chemical records from fresh water (FW; at approximately 3.5 m water depth) and brackish water (BW; at approximately 7.5 m water depth) include methane concentrations (red diamond), stable carbon isotopic values of methane (green square), and salinity (blue circle).
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 15-Jan-2015
    Ending_Date: 23-Jan-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of two distinct deployments: first deployment January-15-2015 to June-15-2015 and the second deployment was from June-15-2015 to January-23-2016.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS-84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Local surface
      Depth_Resolution: 0.01
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    barometer
    Logger data from Speleotech in Tulum, 3.5 km from the Cenote Bang study site. The data were collected by a logger (model: Onset U20) which was co-deployed with the rain gauge during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Speleotech is a facility in the town of Tulum where the weather station was installed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.20660
    Maximum:20.20660
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.46798
    Maximum:-87.46798
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    RoofRoof of the one house within the Speleotech dive facility that is located in the town of Tulum.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Pressure (kPa)
    Pressure(kPa): Barometric pressure (kPa) obtained with a logger (model: Onset U20) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:99.98
    Maximum:102.08
    Units:kiloPascal (kPa)
    Temp (°C)
    Temp(degC): Air temperature (degrees C) obtained with a logger (model: Onset U20) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:11.82
    Maximum:40.76
    Units:degrees Celsius
    precipitation
    Logger data from Speleotech in Tulum, 3.5 km from the Cenote Bang study site. The data were collected by a logger (model: Onset RG3 rain gauge) which was co-deployed with a pressure logger during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Speleotech is a facility in the town of Tulum where the weather station was installed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.20660
    Maximum:20.20660
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.46798
    Maximum:-87.46798
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    RoofRoof of the one house within the Speleotech dive facility that is located in the town of Tulum.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Rainfall (mm)
    Rainfall(mm): amount of daily precipitation (mm) obtained with a logger (model: Onset RG3 rain gauge) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:154.43
    Units:millimeter (mm)
    water_level_BW
    Logger data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by a logger (model: Onset U20) which was co-deployed with a current meter (see simultaneous record of Excel sheet flow_BW) during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the brackish water (BW) layer of the groundwater. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage2Interior cave passage where logger was deployed. Cave Passage2 is the main corridor located approximately 300m upstream beyond the domed room near the entrance.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text)
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Depth (m)
    Depth(m): water depth (m) of data collection as measured with an Onset U20 device (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:16.83
    Maximum:18.20
    Units:meters (m)
    Temp (°C)
    Temp(degC): water temperature (degrees C) as measured with an Onset U20 device (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25.51
    Maximum:25.90
    Units:degrees Celsius
    water_level_SG
    Logger data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by a logger (model: Onset U20) which was co-deployed with a current meter (see simultaneous record of Excel sheet flow_SG) during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the saline groundwater (SG) layer. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage2Interior cave passage where logger was deployed. CavePassage2 is the main corridor located approximately 300m upstream beyond the domed room near the entrance.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Depth (m)
    Depth(m): water depth (m) of data collection as measured with an Onset U20 device (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.79
    Maximum:21.92
    Units:meters (m)
    Temp (°C)
    Temp(degC): water temperature (degrees C) as measured with an Onset U20 device (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25.71
    Maximum:25.90
    Units:degrees Celsius
    flow_BW
    Logger data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by a tilt-current meter (model: TCM-1 by Lowell Instruments) which was co-deployed with water level logger (see simultaneous record of Excel sheet water_level_BW) during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the brackish water (BW) layer of the groundwater (at approximately 17 meters water depth). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage2Interior cave passage where logger was deployed. Cave Passage2 is the main corridor located approximately 300m upstream beyond the domed room near the entrance.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Speed (cm/s)
    Speed(cm/s): current speed (cm/s) as measured with a TCM-1 Lowell tilt-current meter (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.31
    Maximum:32.60
    Units:centimeters per second (cm/s)
    Bearing (degress)
    Bearing(degrees): flow direction (degrees) as measured with a TCM-1 Lowell tilt-current meter (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:165.32
    Maximum:203.19
    Units:degrees
    flow_SG
    Logger data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by a tilt-current meter (model: TCM-1 by Lowell Instruments) which was co-deployed with a water level logger (see simultaneous record of Excel sheetwater_level_SG) during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the saline groundwater (SG) layer (at approximately 22 meters water depth). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage2Interior cave passage where logger was deployed. CavePassage2 is the main corridor located approximately 300m upstream beyond the domed room near the entrance.
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date data were obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Speed (cm/s)
    Speed(cm/s): current speed (cm/s) as measured with a TCM-1 Lowell tilt-current meter (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:1.04
    Units:centimeters per second (cm/s)
    Bearing (degrees)
    Bearing(degrees): flow direction (degrees) as measured with a TCM-1 Lowell tilt-current meter (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:17.59
    Maximum:323.87
    Units:degrees
    osmosampler_FW
    Temporal chemical record data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by an OsmoSampler that was deployed during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the fresh water (FW) layer of the groundwater at 3.5±0.3 m water depth. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text)
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage1Interior cave passage where OsmoSampler was deployed. Cave Passage1 is the main corridor located approximately 30m upstream from the cave entrance in a domed room.
    Sample_ID
    Sample_ID: Format for sample ID for the individual copper coil sections from the OsmoSampler. 'S' represents 'SHALLOW' referring to the water depth (3.5 m) where the sampler was installed in the first deployment (S-A-##) and in the second deployment (S-B-##). The numeric code is the unique identifier of the sample. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date sample was obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS. Time indicates an average time (the mid-time point) of the time period represented by the sample. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Period (days)
    Period(days): Length of time represented by the sample in days. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.200
    Maximum:2.215
    Units:days
    Salinity (psu)
    Salinity(psu): Salinity (psu) value of water sample calculated by multiplying the ion chromatograph determined chloride concentration by 0.0018066. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.093
    Maximum:0.524
    Units:unitless
    Chloride (mM)
    Chloride(milliM): Chloride concentration of water sample measured by ion chromatography. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.447
    Maximum:8.184
    Units:millimolar (mM)
    Sulfate (mM)
    Sulfate(milliM): Sulfate concentration of water sample measured by ion chromatography. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.102
    Maximum:0.496
    Units:millimolar (mM)
    [SO42-]/[Cl-]
    SO4/Cl: Calculated ratio of sulfate to chloride concentration of the water sample. Blank values indicate measurements needed to determine this attribute were not analyzed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.033
    Maximum:0.100
    Units:unitless
    CH4 (nM)
    CH4(nanoM): Dissolved methane concentration (nM) of the water sample determined by analysis by gas chromatography flame-ionization detection. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2164.53
    Maximum:13550.77
    Units:nanomolar (nM)
    δ13C-CH4 (‰)
    delta13C-CH4(permil): Carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of dissolved methane (CH4) in the water sample relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) standard expressed in the standard permil notation. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.55
    Maximum:-62.33
    Units:per mil relative to VPDB
    osmosampler_BW
    Temporal chemical record data from a coastal cave penetrating a karst subterranean estuary. The data were collected by an OsmoSampler that was deployed during two consecutive time periods for a total of one year between Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 in the brackish water (BW) layer of the groundwater at 7.5±0.3 m water depth. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Location
    Location: the surface location where the measurements were taken. Cenote Bang is a small pool located in the interior of a tropical forest that provides access to the caves we investigated within the Ox Bel Ha cave network. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Latitude
    Latitude: Latitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20.21026
    Maximum:20.21026
    Units:decimal degrees
    Longitude
    Longitude: Longitude of the sample location as determined by Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS in decimal degrees (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-87.50107
    Maximum:-87.50107
    Units:decimal degrees
    Station
    Station: sampling station where device was deployed within cave environment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    CavePassage1Interior cave passage where OsmoSampler was deployed. Cave Passage1 is the main corridor located approximately 30m upstream from the cave entrance in a domed room.
    Sample_ID
    Sample_ID: Format for sample ID for the individual copper coil sections from the OsmoSampler. 'D' represents 'DEEP' referring to the water depth (7.5 m) where the sampler was installed in the first deployment (D-A-##) and in the second deployment (D-B-##). The numeric code is the unique identifier of the sample section. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text)
    Date (MM/DD/YYYY)
    Date: Calendar date sample was obtained in the format MM/DD/YYYY (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Time (HH:MM:SS)
    Time: Time of day of data collection, local time, Central Standard Time (CST) in the format HH:MM:SS. Time indicates an average time (the mid-time point) of the time period represented by the sample. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Character set (text).
    Period (days)
    Period(days): Length of time represented by the sample in days. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.310
    Maximum:2.602
    Units:days
    Salinity (psu)
    Salinity(psu): Salinity (psu) value of water sample calculated by multiplying the ion chromatograph determined chloride concentration by 0.0018066. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.621
    Maximum:3.010
    Units:unitless
    Chloride (mM)
    Chloride(milliM): Chloride concentration (mM) of water sample measured by ion chromatography. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25.313
    Maximum:46.996
    Units:millimolar (mM)
    Sulfate (mM)
    Sulfate(milliM): Sulfate concentration (mM) of water sample measured by ion chromatography. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.403
    Maximum:2.619
    Units:millimolar (mM)
    [SO42-]/[Cl-]
    SO4/Cl: Calculated ratio of sulfate to chloride concentration of the water sample. Blank values indicate measurements needed to determine this attribute were not analyzed. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.050
    Maximum:0.074
    Units:unitless
    CH4 (nM)
    CH4(nanoM): Dissolved methane concentration (nM) of the water sample determined by analysis by gas chromatography flame-ionization detection. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:27.23
    Maximum:6214.20
    Units:nanomolar (nM)
    δ13C-CH4 (‰)
    delta13C-CH4(permil): Carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of dissolved methane (CH4) in the water sample relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) standard expressed in the standard permil notation. Blank values indicate section sample has not been analyzed for this attribute. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-47.43
    Maximum:-33.24
    Units:per mil relative to VPDB
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data are available in a XLSX and CSV format. The Excel spreadsheet has 8 individual sheets, each containing data obtained with an individual logger or sampler. The entity type label is the same as the Excel sheet label and the CSV filename. The first row of the Excel spreadsheet contains a header line that includes the type of record (i.e., chemical record, sensor-based data record from meteorological station, sensor-based data record from groundwater), a general description of the study, and the years the data were obtained; the second row indicates the type of logger or sampler utilized and, for cave deployments, includes information regarding the deployment depth and specific water layer sampled; the third row corresponds to the attribute label described above (and may contain special characters), and the fourth row of the Excel sheet corresponds to the first row of the CSV file (which has a simplified column heading). The CSV column headers are also the first part of the attribute definition in the detailed entity and attribute section. Each Excel sheet corresponds to a CSV file as described below:
    Sheet barometer corresponds to file barometer.csv;
    Sheet precipitation corresponds to file precipitation.csv;
    Sheet water_level_BW corresponds file water_level_BW.csv;
    Sheet water_level_SG corresponds to file water_level_SG.csv;
    Sheet flow_BW corresponds to file flow_BW.csv;
    Sheet flow_SG corresponds to file flow_SG.csv;
    Sheet osmosampler_FW corresponds to file osmosampler_FW.csv;
    Sheet osmosampler_BW corresponds to file osmosampler_BW.csv.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • David Brankovits
    • John W. Pohlman
    • Adrian G. Mann
    • Laura L. Lapham
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Texas AM University at Galveston
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    John Pohlman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Research Geochemist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    US

    508-548-8700 x2213 (voice)
    jpohlman@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data are used to investigate how regional meteorology and hydrology control carbon cycling and methane dynamics in the karst subterranean estuary.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2016 (process 1 of 3)
    The year-long records were obtained during two deployment periods at two locations. The first deployment was from January-15-2015 to June-15-2015 and the second deployment was from June-15-2015 to January-23-2016. Meteorological parameters (i.e., precipitation, barometric pressure and air temperature) were acquired at a meteorological station installed on the roof of Speleotech facility, located approximately 3.5 km from the Cenote Bang cave entrance. OsmoSamplers (to obtain chemical records) and data-loggers (to monitor water level, flow, water temperature) were deployed in the cave environment accessed through Cenote Bang by scuba divers who followed protocols established by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences and the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section.
    Full details related to the processing of the samples, storage, analysis, and attribute accuracy are provided in the Methods section of Brankovits and others, 2018. Processing took place after each deployment period in 2015 and 2016.
    Source cited: Brankovits, D., Pohlman, J.W., Ganju, N.K., Iliffe, T.M., Lowell, N., Roth, E., Sylva, S.P., Emmert, J.A., and Lapham, L.L., 2018, Hydrologic controls of methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GB006026. (see Cross Reference 2) Person who carried out this activity:
    David Brankovits
    U.S. Geological Survey, Northeast Region
    postdoc scholar
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    United States

    508-548-8700 x2235 (voice)
    dbrankovits@usgs.gov
    Date: 2016 (process 2 of 3)
    I. Passive measurements made at the meteorological station using sensor-based data loggers:
    Precipitation was measured with a rain gauge (Onset RG-3, calibration accuracy of ± 1.0%, up to 2 centimeter per hour (cm h−1); 0.2 mm resolution; time accuracy ± 1 minute per month) and is presented as daily total precipitation in millimeter per day (mm d−1). For resulting data, see data sheet 'precipitation' in data file 'CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx'.
    Barometric pressure was monitored at 15-min time intervals alongside the rain gauge with an Onset U20 data logger (less than 0.02 kPa resolution and a ± 0.3% FS or 0.62 kPa accuracy as the maximum error) that also measured air temperature (0.1 degC resolution, ± 0.44 degC accuracy). For resulting data, see data sheet 'barometer' in data file 'CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx'.
    II. Passive measurements within the flooded cave environment using sensor-based data loggers:
    Within the cave, groundwater flow velocity, water level, and water temperature were monitored at 17 m water depth in the brackish water (BW) and at 22 m water depth in the saline groundwater (SG). Velocity was measured as current speed and direction with a TCM-1 (Lowell Instruments, LLC) tilt current meter (TCM; ± 2 centimeter per second (cm s−1) ± 3% of reading accuracy and 0.1 centimeter per second (cm s−1) resolution; bearing ± 5 degree accuracy for speed greater than 5 centimeter per second (cm s−1) with a 0.1 degree resolution) at 1-minute intervals. For resulting data, see data sheets 'flow_BW' and 'flow_SG' in data file 'CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx'.
    Water level, measured with an Onset U20 logger (± 0.21 cm with an error less than ± 1.0 cm at 15-min intervals), is reported as absolute depth and departure from the mean value after compensating for barometric pressure changes measured at the meteorological station. This logger also measured water temperature (0.1 degC resolution, ± 0.44 degC accuracy). For resulting data, see data sheets 'water_level_BW' and 'water_level_SG' in data file 'CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx'.
    III. Chemical analyses of water samples collected with the OsmoSamplers in the cave environment:
    Analysis of the samples was performed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Woods Hole MA, USA. Sulfate and chloride concentrations were determined using a Metrohm 881 Compact Plus ion chromatograph (IC) equipped with a Metrosep A Supp 5-250 anion column. Chloride concentrations in millimolar (mM) were converted to milligrams per liter (mg l-1) and multiplied by 0.0018066 to determine salinity (psu - practical salinity unit). The analytical error for chloride and sulfate was +/- 3.5% of the IAPSO (International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans) standard sulfate and chloride values.
    Headspace methane concentrations were determined using a Shimadzu GC-14-B gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). Headspace concentrations were converted to dissolved concentrations using the method of Magen and others, 2014 and are reported with an relative standard deviation of 2%.
    The stable carbon isotope composition of methane from the headspace of the serum vials was determined using a Thermo-Finnigan DELTAPlus XL isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) coupled to an Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatograph (GC) via a Finnigan GCCIII combustion interface with 1-sigma deviation of 1.6 per mil.
    For resulting data, see data sheets 'osmosampler_FW' and 'osmosampler_BW' in data file 'CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx'.
    Full details related to the processing of the samples, storage, analysis, and attribute accuracy are provided in the Methods section of Brankovits and others, 2018. Processing took place after each deployment period in 2015 and 2016.
    Sources cited: Brankovits, D., Pohlman, J.W., Ganju, N.K., Iliffe, T.M., Lowell, N., Roth, E., Sylva, S.P., Emmert, J.A., and Lapham, L.L., 2018, Hydrologic controls of methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GB006026. (see Cross Reference 2)
    Magen, C., Lapham, L.L., Pohlman, J.W., Marshall, K., Bosman, S., Casso, M., and Chanton, J.P., 2014, A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane: Limnology and Oceanography Methods, vol. 12, issue 9, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2014.12.637 (see Cross Reference 1) Person who carried out this activity:
    David Brankovits
    U.S. Geological Survey, Northeast Region
    postdoc scholar
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    United States

    508-548-8700 x2235 (voice)
    dbrankovits@usgs.gov
    Date: 2016 (process 3 of 3)
    The obtained data are organized in an Excel spreadsheet (CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx) that has eight separate sheets containing data. Each sheet was used to generate a CSV file using Excel Professional Plus 2016. The eight sheets correspond to the eight CSV files as follows:
    Sheet barometer corresponds to file barometer.csv; Sheet precipitation corresponds to file precipitation.csv; Sheet water_level_BW corresponds file water_level_BW.csv; Sheet water_level_SG corresponds to file water_level_SG.csv; Sheet flow_BW corresponds to file flow_BW.csv; Sheet flow_SG corresponds to file flow_SG.csv; Sheet osmosampler_FW corresponds to file osmosampler_FW.csv; Sheet osmosampler_BW corresponds to file osmosampler_BW.csv. Person who carried out this activity:
    David Brankovits
    U.S. Geological Survey, Northeast Region
    postdoc scholar
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    United States

    508-548-8700 x2235 (voice)
    dbrankovits@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Magen, Cédric, Lapham, Laura L., Pohlman, John W., Marshall, Kathleen, Bosman, Samantha, Casso, Michael, and Chanton, Jeffrey P., 20140908, A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods vol. 12, issue 9, Wiley, New Jersey.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: pp. 637-650
    Brankovits, David, Pohlman, John W., Ganju, Neil K., Iliffe, Thomas M., Lowell, Nick, Roth, Erich, Sylva, Sean P., Emmert, Jake A., and Lapham, Laura L., 2018, Hydrologic controls of methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries: Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2018GB006026, Wiley, New Jersey.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This publication is the journal article related to this data release. The journal article contains the detailed information with regards to the data collection, processing of the samples, storage, analysis, and attribute accuracy.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The accuracy of each attribute is determined by that analysis specific to that attribute, and is provided in the process step for each measurement.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The horizontal position (coordinates) of the entrance pool of Cenote Bang was obtained with a Garmin GPSmap 60CSx GPS, which has a positional accuracy of less than 10 meters. Coordinates for the locations where the individual profiles were collected are not available because the GPS does not operate in overhead or underwater settings. The bounding coordinates provided in this data release incorporate the horizontal extent of the passages investigated in this study. However, as stated previously, the precise locations of the passages are unknown.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    The depth associated with deployed devices was obtained from the diver's depth gauge, which is accurate to +/- 0.3 m.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    For missing values, the sample has not been analyzed or it was not possible to analyze. The condition of the missing values (i.e., why it was not analyzed) is not specified.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All data provided in this release were obtained by David Brankovits during his Ph.D. studies under the supervision of USGS Research Geochemist John Pohlman. Data were obtained during two consecutive deployments. The obtained data were processed and handled the same way after each deployment.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    United States

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? This dataset contains data in an Excel spreadsheet (CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.xlsx). The spreadsheet has 8 sheets, which correspond to the data in CSV format (Barometers.csv, precipitation.csv, water_level_BW.csv, water_level_SG.csv, flow_BW.csv, flow_SG.csv, osmosampler_FW.csv and osmosampler_BW.csv). Additionally, the dataset contains a browse graphic (CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.jpg) and the CSDGM metadata in XML format.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 09-Nov-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: David Brankovits
Postdoc Scholar
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
US

508-548-8700 x2235 (voice)
dbrankovits@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001.1-1999)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/data_release/DR_P9U0KRVM/CenoteBangTemporalRecords_2015-2016.faq.html>
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