Conceptual marsh units for Plum Island Estuary and Parker River salt marsh complex, Massachusetts

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Conceptual marsh units for Plum Island Estuary and Parker River salt marsh complex, Massachusetts
Abstract:
The salt marsh complex of Plum Island Estuary and Parker River (PIEPR) was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location was used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit while the surface slope was used to automatically assign each unit a drainage point, where water is expected to drain through. Through scientific efforts initiated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has been expanding national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands, including the Plum Island Estuary and Parker River salt marsh complex, with the intent of providing Federal, State, and local managers with tools to estimate the vulnerability and ecosystem service potential of these wetlands. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Defne, Zafer, and Ganju, Neil K., 2018, Conceptual marsh units for Plum Island Estuary and Parker River salt marsh complex, Massachusetts: data release DOI:10.5066/P9XF54QF, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Defne, Z., and Ganju, N.K., 2018, Conceptual marsh units for Plum Island Estuary and Parker River salt marsh complex, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/P9XF54QF
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.928234635
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.768945223
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.843340605
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.679945448
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5b621055e4b006a11f6f83e4?name=CMU_PIEPRp.png (PNG)
    Graphic that shows conceptual marsh units of PIEPR salt marsh complex overlaying Esri basemap.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2018
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Vector Digital Data Set (Polygon)
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • G-polygon (2429)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is WGS 1984 Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere (ESRI Full Name: WGS_1984_Web_Mercator_Auxiliary_Sphere).
      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 0.0
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 0.0
      False_Easting: 0.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.6096
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.6096
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meter
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    CMU_PIEPRp
    Attribute information associated with the conceptual marsh units of PIEPR salt marsh complex. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    FID_CMU
    Sequential whole numbers that represents the identification number for each conceptual marsh units. These numbers are duplicated when a marsh unit has both vegetated and unvegetated sub-polygons. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:1229
    Units:none
    ATOT_M2
    Total surface area of the marsh unit. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.699117
    Maximum:814996.616952
    Units:square meters
    APGN_M2
    Surface area of the selected polygon type (vegetated or unvegetated). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.263635
    Maximum:782582.767657
    Units:square meters
    TYP
    Classification of the polygon features in a marsh unit as vegetated or unvegetated. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    unvegetatedUnvegetated part of the marsh unit.
    vegetatedVegetated part of the marsh unit.
    FLG
    Marsh unit flag indicating anomalous marsh units based on absence of vegetation, elevation and surface area. FLG values indicate: (-1) no vegetated area; (-10) marsh unit elevation higher than the 99.8 percentile; (-100) marsh unit elevation less than 0.2 percentile; (-1000) marsh unit surface area less than 900 m2; and (0) no flag. Combination of negative values indicate combination of flags. For example, -1001 indicates no vegetated area and area less than 900m2. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1010
    Maximum:0
    Units:None
    COLORID
    Recycling sequential whole numbers (0-9) that are used for display purposes when plotting conceptual marsh units. These numbers are duplicated when a marsh unit has both vegetated and unvegetated sub-polygons. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:none
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    In this dataset, the salt marsh complex PIEPR has been delineated to conceptual salt marsh units to facilitate unit by unit evaluation of response and resiliency of marsh system to physical and biogeochemical drivers. Each unit is also analyzed based on the vegetated and unvegetated surface area coverage, the ratio of which can be an independent measure of marsh health for microtidal marshes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States. UVVR is calculated as the ratio of unvegetated area to vegetated area in a marsh unit. Decimal values in the attribute table are a result of double precision calculations while significant digits are considered in defining the attribute measurement resolutions. Therefore, the smallest unit increment for area values is assumed to be 1 meter. COLORID is defined to limit the legend entries to 10 instead of the total number of entities for practical reasons. It is used for display purposes only.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Zafer Defne
    • Neil K. Ganju
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Zafer Defne
    Ocean Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2254 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    zdefne@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These polygons were created to be used in evaluating the spatial variation of the response and resiliency of the salt marsh complex based on consistently defined marsh units while facilitating a better understanding of the relative importance of the processes involved.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    USDA DEM (source 1 of 4)
    U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Soils (USDA NRCS) - National Geospatial Center of Excellence, 20110215, LiDAR Elevation Dataset - Bare Earth DEM - 1 Meter: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Worth, TX.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The following 1-meter DEM files were used in analyses:
    1) lidar01m42070g8.tif
    2) lidar01m42070g7.tif
    3) lidar01m42070f7.tif
    
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    Elevation data from USDA 1-meter DEM were used in analyses. Projection was NAD 1983 UTM Zone 19N with the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). Download date was 2017/09/01.
    NED (source 2 of 4)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2012, USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1/9 arc-second: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The following USGS NED ned19 tiles were used in analyses:
    1) USGS NED ned19_n43x00_w071x00_ma_lftne_lot7_2011 1/9 arc-second 2012 15 x 15 minute IMG
    2) USGS NED ned19_n42x75_w071x00_ma_lftne_lot7_2011 1/9 arc-second 2012 15 x 15 minute IMG
    
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    Elevation data from USGS NED ned19 tiles were used in analyses. Projection was NAD 1983 UTM Zone 19N with the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). Download date was 2017/09/01.
    NAIP (source 3 of 4)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Imagery 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map: USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office, Salt Lake City, Utah.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The following NAIP Imagery tiles were used in analyses:
    1) NAIP Imagery m_4207010_sw_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    2) NAIP Imagery m_4207018_nw_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    3) NAIP Imagery m_4207017_ne_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    4) NAIP Imagery m_4207009_se_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    5) NAIP Imagery m_4207018_ne_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    6) NAIP Imagery m_4207010_se_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    7) NAIP Imagery m_4207010_nw_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    8) NAIP Imagery m_4207010_nw_19_1_20140712_20141007 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    9) NAIP Imagery m_4207009_ne_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    10) NAIP Imagery m_4207010_ne_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    11) NAIP Imagery m_4207018_sw_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    12) NAIP Imagery m_4207017_se_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    13) NAIP Imagery m_4207018_se_19_1_20140712_20140923 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map
    
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    Downloaded NAIP 1-meter resolution imagery from the USGS National Map. Projection was WGS 1984 Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere. Download date was 2017/08/01.
    NWI (source 4 of 4)
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2017, National Wetland Inventory Massachusetts Wetlands: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Madison, WI.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    Downloaded wetlands data for the state of Massachusetts in Shapefile format from the NWI download page. Projection was NAD 1983 Albers. Download date was 2017/08/01.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2018 (process 1 of 6)
    This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by the same person, Zafer Defne, in ArcMap (ver. 10.5.1) using tools from ArcToolbox, unless otherwise stated. For complex operations, names of specific tools used are given in CAPITAL letters (any critical parameters used are given in parentheses, separated by a semicolon, immediately after the tool name). The input and output file names are provided in [square brackets] when necessary. Units for length and area calculations are meters (m) and square meters (m2) unless otherwise stated.
    Set the data frame coordinate system and projection to NAD 1983 UTM Zone 19N. Prepare elevation dataset to be clipped to the boundaries polygon. MOSAIC TO NEW RASTER(Pixel type= 32 bit float; Mosaic operator=Mean; Cellsize=1 m) all of the USGS NED tiles and USDA DEM raster to a new raster dataset with 1 m resolution [elev_mosaic.tif]. Resolution is increased from 3 m to 1 m to have a finer representation of the polygon boundaries in the horizontal during this step. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Zafer Defne
    Ocean Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2254 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    zdefne@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • USDA DEM
    • NED
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • elev_mosaic
    Date: 2018 (process 2 of 6)
    Prepare mask polygon to define analysis boundaries. In order to account for the possible influence of the surrounding terrain on the analysis, first a mask area larger than the salt marsh extent is created [UVVR_mask]. At the end of the analysis the results are clipped to the boundaries of the salt marsh area [MU_mask]. Both UVVR_mask and MU_mask are edited to decide which interior polygons are removed.
    a) EXPORT features from NWI dataset after SELECT("ATTRIBUTE" LIKE 'E2%EM%' OR "ATTRIBUTE" LIKE 'E2AB3%' OR "ATTRIBUTE" LIKE 'E2EM%' OR "ATTRIBUTE" LIKE 'E2SS%' OR "ATTRIBUTE" LIKE 'E2US4%') to select from estuarine intertidal areas of 1) Emergent, 2) Scrub-shrub, 3) Rooted vascular aquatic bed, 4) Organic unconsolidated shore classes [NWI_exclusive_select.shp].
    b) BUFFER(Input features=[NWI_exclusive_select.shp]; Linear unit=5 meters; Dissolve type=All) to obtain the mask polygon [buff5m.shp] and ELIMINATE POLYGON PART(Condition=Percentage; Percentage=99; Eliminate contained part only) to obtain [UVVR_mask01.shp]. Apply buffer with -5 meters to obtain [MU_mask01.shp].
    c) EXPORT features from NWI dataset after SELECT("ATTRIBUTE" NOT LIKE 'E%' OR "ATTRIBUTE" LIKE '%FO')to obtain features that are not estuarine or are forested estuarine. MULTIPART TO SINGLEPART to separate individual polygons [NWI_inclusive_single.shp].
    d)To exclude the voids in the NWI map during the analysis these interior polygons need to be removed from the mask. Create a rectangular polygon that covers the domain [extent.shp]. ERASE [NWI_excusive_select.shp] from [extent.shp] and MULTIPART TO SINGLEPART to get [NWI_voids_single.shp].
    e) SELECT BY LOCATION from [NWI_inclusive_single.shp] that are completely within the [MU_mask01.shp], and SELECT BY LOCATION from [NWI_voids_single.shp] that are completely within the [MU_mask01.shp]. If any of additional polygons need to be removed from the mask include them in a new feature layer [erase_mask_manual.shp]. Merge all three feature sets to get polygons to be excluded [erase_inside.shp] from the final masks.
    f) ERASE [erase_inside.shp] from [MU_mask01.shp] and [UVVR_mask01.shp] to obtain [MU_mask.shp] and [UVVR_mask.shp], respectively. Data sources used in this process:
    • NWI
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • UVVR_mask
    Date: 2018 (process 3 of 6)
    Define preliminary boundaries for marsh units by basin analysis:
    a) EXTRACT BY MASK from mosaicked elevation dataset using [UVVR_mask.shp] polygon.
    b) FILL(no Z limit) sinks in extracted elevation raster.
    c) Calculate FLOW DIRECTION(do not force edge cells flow outward) raster.
    d) Calculate BASIN based on flow direction raster [basin_buff5m.tif].
    e) Apply MAJORITY FILTER(Number of neighbors=8) to clean the raster and convert RASTER TO POLYGON. CLIP the polygon with 1-meter buffered marsh units mask [MU_mask_buff1m.shp]. This additional buffer is necessary to prevent any polygon smoothing algorithm from changing the exterior boundaries and will be removed by clipping to the [MU_mask.shp] later. MULTIPART TO SINGLEPART and ADD GEOMETRY ATTRIBUTES(Geometry properties=Area_geodesic; Area unit=Square_meters) to get [basin_single.shp] Data sources used in this process:
    • elev_mosaic
    • UVVR_mask
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • basin_single
    Date: 2018 (process 4 of 6)
    This step merges the "orphan marsh units", units that are less than 5000 m2 in area to the nearest to "parent marsh units", units that are larger than 5000 m2 to obtain the preliminary marsh units. A Python script that iteratively calls a list of ArcMap tools to aggregate orphan units on parent units is used:
    a) Create orphan marsh units features by exporting marsh units with an area less than 5000 m2 [lt5000.shp].
    b) Create parent marsh units features by exporting marsh units with an area greater than or equal to 5000 m2 [ge5000.shp].
    c) Run Python script (hydUnitloop.py). At each iteration step the script uses NEAR tool to find orphan marsh units within 1 m of a parent marsh unit and merges them to the parent using UNION and DISSOLVE tools. The orphan units merged with a parent unit are removed from the orphan units data set. Script will iterate until there is no change in the number of parent or orphan marsh units.
    d) The remaining orphan marsh units are those that are more than 1 m away from any parent. DISSOLVE them to create larger orphan units by grouping the orphans attached together into larger units.
    e) MULTIPART TO SINGLEPART to have single part polygons with unique identifiers.
    f) UNION(with gaps) single part features with parent units to obtain preliminary marsh units [pMUopt1.shp].
    g) SMOOTH POLYGON(Smoothing algorithm=PAEK; Smoothing tolerance=15 meters) to get the smoothed marsh units polygon [pMUopt1_smooth.shp].
    h) CLIP the extra buffer around the smoothed marsh units using the marsh units mask, [MU_mask.shp]. If this results in any additional marsh units with an area less than 5000 m2, dissolve into the nearest parent units repeating the same steps above to obtain [pMUopt1_clip_final.shp]
    i) Compute the final marsh units by removing any artefacts from [pMuOpt1_clip_final.shp] using ELIMINATE and REPAIR GEOMETRY tools. ELIMINATE(Expression="Area_geo" less than 900; Eliminating by border) polygon slivers smaller than 900 m2 by merging them to the main polygon. MULTIPART TO SINGLEPART to get conceptual marsh units [CMU.shp]. This only applies to polygons that are bordering other polygons. Polygons that are not bordering other polygons are not affected as those are more likely to be real features as opposed to geoprocessing artefacts.
    j) DISSOLVE the conceptual marsh units to get the final outlines for the marsh complex [CMU_mask_final.shp]. Data sources used in this process:
    • basin_single
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • CMU
    Date: 2018 (process 5 of 6)
    Determine the vegetated and unvegetated areas by image processing.
    a) EXTRACT BY MASK from elevation raster [elev_mosaic.tif] using [UVVR_mask.shp] polygon. Rescale the elevation raster values to the same range with 8-bit NAIP imagery (0 to 255) using min-max scaling. Perform ISO CLUSTER UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION with4-bands (Near Infra Red , Blue, Green, Red from the NAIP imagery and the rescaled elevation raster with 32 classes a minimum class size of 5000 cells. RECLASSIFY the classified raster by visually comparing the NAIP imagery to obtain the unvegetated-vegetated raster [UVVc.tif].
    b) Dissolve unvegetated regions smaller than a threshold value to the surrounding vegetated regions and vice versa to clean the UVV raster. For this purpose use the REGION(Number of neighbors=4; Zone grouping method=Within; Add Link field to output) to get the [UVV_region.tif], and TEST("Count" less than 9) to set a threshold value of 9 raster cells [UVV_test.tif]. Use RASTER CALCULATOR to toggle the value of the Link field in the region raster, where the test raster indicates regions with areas smaller than the threshold.
    c) RASTER TO POLYGON(Simplify polygons=False) and CLIP with the final marsh complex outline [CMU_mask_final.shp] to obtain [UVVc_filt_clip.shp].
    d) REPAIR GEOMETRY and DISSOLVE(Create multipart features=False) to get filtered, clipped and dissolved unvegetated-vegetated polygons [UVVc_filt_clip_diss.shp].
    e) INTERSECT the final conceptual marsh units [CMU.shp] with unvegetated-vegetated polygons [UVVc_filt_clip.shp], REPAIR GEOMETRY, and calculate the area of unvegetated and vegetated polygons in each marsh unit. To do this ADD GEOMETRY ATTRIBUTES(Geometry properties=Area_geodesic; Area unit=Square_meters) to get [UVV_poly.shp], and DISSOLVE(Input features=UVV_poly.shp; Dissolve fields=FID_CMU, gridcode; Statistics field=gridcode.MEAN, Area_geo.SUM) and REPAIR GEOMETRY to get [UVV_poly_diss.shp]. Edit the fields to have "TYP", "APGN_M2", and "ATOT_M2" fields for type of polygon indicating vegetated or unvegetated, surface area of the polygon, and total surface area of the marsh unit, respectively.
    f) Add field "UVVR" and calculate unvegetated to vegetated ratio based on "TYP", "APGN_M2" and "ATOT_M2" fields. If the vegetated area is zero for a marsh unit set the value of UVVR to -1.
    g) Calculate the mean elevation for each marsh unit with ZONAL STATISTICS AS TABLE(Raster layer=[elev_mosaic.tif]; Zone features=[CMU.shp], Zone field=FID_CMU; Statistics type=Mean; Ignore Nodata=True) and JOIN with [CMU.shp] to get [mu_elev.shp]. Data sources used in this process:
    • elev_mosaic
    • NAIP
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • mu_elev
    • UVV_poly_diss
    Date: 2018 (process 6 of 6)
    Finalize the conceptual marsh units.
    a) Add field "COLORID" to cycle through integers from 0 to 9 to be used for coloring the marsh units. This field is used for display purposes only to distinguish between each marsh unit.
    b) Add field "FLG" to flag anomalous marsh units based on absence of vegetation, elevation and surface area. Set FLG to (-1) no vegetated area; (-10) marsh unit elevation higher than the 99.8 percentile; (-100) marsh unit elevation less than 0.2 percentile; (-1000) marsh unit surface area less than 900 m2; and (0) no flag. Combination of negative values indicate combination of flags. For example, -1001 indicates no vegetated area and area less than 900m2.
    c) Rearrange field names and change the projection for better performance of web services with online base maps. PROJECT(Input coordinate system=NAD 1983 UTM Zone 19N; Output coordinate system=WGS 1984 Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere; Geographic transformation=WGS 1984 (ITRF00) to NAD 1983) the feature dataset to obtain the final conceptual marsh units [CMU_PIEPRp.shp]. Data sources used in this process:
    • CMU
    • mu_elev
    • UVV_poly_diss
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • CMU_PIEPRp
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Marsh units, water and land boundaries inherit their accuracy from the accuracy of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetland Inventory (USFWS NWI) data dated 2017. However, the lineage of the source data indicates that the underlying data span over multiple years and the mapped features may have changed since the date of imagery. Accuracy of marsh unit delineation depends on the vertical and horizontal accuracy of the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data (USGS NED) collected in 2011 and U.S. Department of Agriculture Digital Elevation Model (USDA DEM) with a processing date of 2016. Vegetated and unvegetated polygons accuracy is based on the 1-meter resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery acquired in 2014. Any vegetated or unvegetated polygons less than 9 square meters were merged to the surrounding majority class. While creating marsh units conterminous polygons smaller than 900 square meters have been merged with the larger polygon of the same type.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Horizontal accuracy is inherited from NED 1/9 second (~3-meter) and the 1-meter resolution USDA DEM from lidar. Although the analyses were performed at 1-meter resolution for smoother conformity with the clipping polygons, the resolution of the final product should be considered to be 1 to 3 meters. Vegetated and unvegetated polygons were based on the 1-meter resolution NAIP imagery with +/- 6 meters accuracy.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The marsh polygons are bound to the boundaries of the PIEPR areas that include Estuarine intertidal areas of 1) Emergent, 2) Scrub-shrub, 3) Rooted vascular aquatic bed, 4) Organic unconsolidated shore, and 5) channels of open water that are wider than 10 meters. Sliver polygons of open salt water along the marsh edges may also be included in some instances as a result of geoprocessing. A detailed on-the-ground analysis of a single site may result in a different interpretation of the wetland and marsh unit boundaries than established through this analysis.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Topological errors that occurred during geoprocessing were automatically removed by the topological rules used for the analysis. The polygons are checked for correct geometry and do not overlap. Small polygons (less than 9 square meters) during converting from raster to polygon were assumed to be marginal and were assigned the classification from the surrounding majority value. A visual comparison between NAIP imagery was performed at randomly selected sites to verify the land and water boundaries.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These polygons are defined for scientific research purposes and should not be used as a sole source of reference for any regulations and policy making. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? CMU_PIEPRp
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Not for navigational use.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 25-Aug-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Zafer Defne
Ocean Scientist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2254 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
zdefne@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/data_release/DR_P9XF54QF/CMU_PIEPRp.faq.html>
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