6-m resolution gray-scale image of multibeam backscatter intensity in western Massachusetts Bay map Quadrangle 1 (Q1_BACKGS.TIF)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
6-m resolution gray-scale image of multibeam backscatter intensity in western Massachusetts Bay map Quadrangle 1 (Q1_BACKGS.TIF)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted geologic mapping to characterize the sea floor offshore of Massachusetts. The mapping was carried out using a Simrad Subsea EM 1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder on the Frederick G. Creed on four cruises conducted between 1994 and 1998. The mapping was conducted in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with support from the Canadian Hydrographic Service and the University of New Brunswick.
The long-term goal of this mapping effort is to produce high-resolution geologic maps and a Geographic Information System (GIS) project that presents images and grids of bathymetry, shaded relief bathymetry, and backscatter intensity data from these surveys that will serve the needs of research, management and the public.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Butman, Bradford, and Danforth, William W., 2007, 6-m resolution gray-scale image of multibeam backscatter intensity in western Massachusetts Bay map Quadrangle 1 (Q1_BACKGS.TIF): Data Series 99, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Butman, Bradford, Valentine, Page C., Middleton, Tammie J., and Danforth, William W., 2007, A GIS Library of Multibeam Data for Massachusetts Bay and the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts: Data Series 99, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.788907
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.599983
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.322212
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.203333
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1994
    Ending_Date: 1998
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 2233 x 2623 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Mercator.
      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 41.650000
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -70.316667
      False_Easting: 0.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 6.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 6.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Band_1
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Bradford Butman
    • William W. Danforth
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Bradford Butman
    Oceanographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2212 (voice)
    (508) 457-2309 (FAX)
    bbutman@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: 8 a.m. - 5 p.m.

Why was the data set created?

This GeoTIFF (Tagged Image File Format) image shows multibeam backscatter intensity in western Massachusetts Bay map Quadrangle 1 as grayscale at 6-m resolution.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Multibeam survey data collected by USGS in western Massachusetts Bay map quadrangle 1, 1994-1998.

    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution: Information unavailable from original metadata.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 4)
    A suite of processing software (called SwathEd) (www.omg.unb.ca/~jhc/SwathEd.html), developed by the Ocean Mapping Group at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, was used to process and grid the multibeam bathymetric soundings and produce shaded-relief images. The metadata for the grids describes the processing steps applied to the navigation and bathymetric soundings. The following processing steps produced the grayscale image of backscatter intensity:
    1. Anomalous soundings which were not edited in the field were removed using SwathEd (see metadata for bathymetric grids for description).
    2. Create a blank 8 bit map file:
    Command line: make_blank mosaic_file
    This command commences a dialog to enable an 8 bit image and input the map boundaries and resolution. Then the "blank" file is copied to two files required by the mosaic program:
    Command line: cp mosaic_file.blank mosaic_file.mos Command line: cp mosaic_file.blank mosaic_file.ran
    3. Create backscatter files that can be then mosaicked from the backscatter time series:
    Command line: getBeamPattern filename (prefix only) Command line: makess -pixel 3.0 -beam_patt beampatt filename (prefix only) output.ss Command line: glfill output.ss output.ss_fill (fills in data dropouts).
    4. Mosaic all the backscatter files created in the last step (for each output.ss_fill).
    Command line: mos2 -autoseam -maxazi 10 -maxdist 10 mosaic_file output.ss_fill
    5. Use a two point linear contrast stretch to enhance the shaded relief image:
    Command line: stretchacres -low 180 -high 220 -in mosaic_file -out mosaic_file.stretch
    6. Create a tiff from the backscatter mosaic file using the netpbm utilities (http://netpbm.sourceforge.net/):
    Command line: rawtopgm -headerskip 1024 image_width image_height mosaic_file.stretch | pnmtotiff -none - > mosaic_pseudo.tif
    7. Create an ESRI world file (tfw) for the mosaic tiff image for import to ArcView or ArcGIS. Copy bounding box and resolution from the jview program output to the .tfw file.
    Command line: jview mosaic_file.stretch Person who carried out this activity:
    William Danforth
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Operational Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2274 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    bdanforth@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST
    Date: Feb-2007 (process 2 of 4)
    Image shifted 1/2 grid cell to northwest (using the ArcMap/Data Management Tools/Projections and Transformations/Raster/Shift tool) to correct for an error identified in the SwathEd gridding algorithm in 2007. Correct world file. Person who carried out this activity:
    William Danforth
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Operational Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2274 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    bdanforth@usgs.gov
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • q1_backgs.tif
    Date: 03-Feb-2017 (process 3 of 4)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Attempted to modify http to https where appropriate. The source information was incomplete and had to be modified to meet the standard. Minor fixes to the attribute format for some attributes were needed. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 4 of 4)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    These data were navigated with a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS); they are accurate to +/- 3 meters, horizontally.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are complete. No further processing and/or modifications will be made to these data.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Information unavailable from original metadata.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 2)
    Bradford Butman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2212 (voice)
    (508) 457-2309 (FAX)
    bbutman@usgs.gov
    Hours_of_Service: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: A zip archive containing the GeoTIFF image, associated world file, and metadata. in format TIFF (version Information unavailable from original metadata.) GeoTIFF Size: 2
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/99/massbay_gis/2_multibeam/imagery/q1_backgs.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a GeoTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 2)
    U.S. Geological Survey Information Services
    Box 25286 Denver Federal Center
    Denver, Colorado
    USA

    (303) 202-4700 (voice)
    (303) 202-4188 (FAX)
    Hours_of_Service: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mountain Time
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: A zip archive containing the GeoTIFF image, associated world file, and metadata. in format TIFF (version Information unavailable from original metadata.) GeoTIFF Size: 2
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a GeoTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Jul-2018
Metadata author:
Bradford Butman
U.S. Geological Survey
Oceanographer
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA

(508) 548-8700 x2212 (voice)
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/data_series/DS-99/q1_backgs_meta.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Mon Sep 10 17:45:01 2018