30-m Hillshaded relief image produced from swath interferometric, multibeam, and lidar datasets (navd_bath_30m.tif GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
30-m Hillshaded relief image produced from swath interferometric, multibeam, and lidar datasets (navd_bath_30m.tif GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)
Abstract:
These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and physiographic zones of the sea floor from Nahant to Northern Cape Cod Bay. Much of the geophysical data used to create the interpretive layers were collected under a cooperative agreement among the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of seafloor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes because of natural or human effects. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts. Data collected during the mapping cooperative involving the USGS have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/html/current_map.html). The interpretations released in this study are for an area extending from the southern tip of Nahant to Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts. A combination of geophysical and sample data including high resolution bathymetry and lidar, acoustic-backscatter intensity, seismic-reflection profiles, bottom photographs, and sediment samples are used to create the data interpretations. Most of the nearshore geophysical and sample data (including the bottom photographs) were collected during several cruises between 2000 and 2008. More information about the cruises and the data collected can be found at the Geologic Mapping of the Seafloor Offshore of Massachusetts Web page: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Pendleton, Elizabeth, 2013, 30-m Hillshaded relief image produced from swath interferometric, multibeam, and lidar datasets (navd_bath_30m.tif GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84): Open-File Report 2012-1157, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Pendleton, E.A., Baldwin, W.E., Barnhardt., W.A., Ackerman, S.D., Foster, D.S., Andrews, B.D., and Schwab, W.C., 2013, Shallow Geology, Sea-floor Texture, and Physiographic Zones of the Inner Continental Shelf from Nahant to Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1157, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.082734
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.754817
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.254179
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.918875
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1157/GIS_catalog/SourceData/HS_browse.png (PNG)
    Hillshaded relief image
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-1994
    Ending_Date: 07-May-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 4885 x 3551 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 30.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 30.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    NAVD88_HS_30m.tif.vat
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    OID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    NODATA is represented by white (255). There are no attributes associated with a TIFF image
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Elizabeth Pendleton
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This hillshaded relief image was created as a single continuous surface of the shoreline and sea floor from Salisbury Beach to Northern Cape Cod Bay. These data in both this final form and at the input resolutions helped define the sediment texture and distribution maps presented as interpretive data layers in USGS OFR 2012-1157.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Ackerman and others (2006) (source 1 of 11)
    Ackerman, S.D., Butman, B., Barnhardt, W.A., Danforth, W.W., and Crocker, J.M., 2006, High-resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Boston Harbor and Approaches, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1008, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry data for the Boston Harbor and approaches region. These geophysical data were acquired between 2000 and 2001 by NOAA aboard the Ship Whiting and its launches. NOAA cruises acquired single-beam and multibeam bathymetric data. A hull-mounted RESON SeaBat 8101(240 kHz) was used to acquire the multibeam echosounder data. Single-beam echosounder data were acquired with an Odom Echotrac DF3200 MKII (100kHz).
    Andrews and others, 2010 (source 2 of 11)
    Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., Baldwin, W.E., and Barnhardt, W.A., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the Northern Cape Cod Bay region. These data were acquired between 2006 and 2008 by the USGS and CZM aboard the R/V Megan T. Miller and R/V Rafael. Bathymetric data were acquired using a Systems Engineering & Assessment, Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar system (234 or 117 kHz).
    Barnhardt and others, 2010 (source 3 of 11)
    Barnhardt, W.A., Ackerman, S.D., Andrews, B.D., and Baldwin, W.E., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Duxbury to Hull, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2009-1072, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the Duxbury to Hull, MA region. These data were acquired between 2006 and 2007 by the USGS, CZM, and NOAA aboard the R/V Megan T. Miller, R/V Rafael, and NOAA launches 1005 and 1014. USGS bathymetric data were acquired using a Systems Engineering & Assessment, Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar system (234 or 117 kHz). NOAA bathymetric data were acquired with a hull-mounted RESON SeaBat 3101 and 8125.
    Butman and others, 2007 (source 4 of 11)
    Butman, B., Valentine, P.C., Middleton, T.J., and Danforth, W.W., 2007, A GIS Library of Multibeam Data for Massachusetts Bay and the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts: Digital Data Series 99, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the western Massachusetts Bay region including Stellwagen Bank. These data were acquired between 1994 and 1998 by the USGS, Canadian Hydrographic Survey, and University of New Brunswick aboard the Frederick G. Creed. Bathymetric and backscatter data were acquired using Simrad Subsea EM 1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder.
    Barnhardt and others, 2009 (source 5 of 11)
    Barnhardt, W.A., Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., Baldwin, W.E., and Hein, C.J., 2009, High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2007-1373, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the Salisbury Beach to Cape Ann, MA region. These data were acquired between 2004 and 2005 by the USGS, CZM, and NOAA and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) aboard the R/V Ocean Explorer and the R/V Connecticut. USGS bathymetric data were acquired using a Systems Engineering & Assessment, Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar system (234 or 117 kHz). NOAA (SAIC) bathymetric data were acquired with a hull-mounted RESON SeaBat 8101 (240 kHz).
    Barnhardt and others, 2006 (source 6 of 11)
    Barnhardt, W.A., Andrews, B.D., and Butman, B., 2006, High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Nahant to Gloucester, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2005-1293, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the Nahant to Gloucester, MA region. These data were acquired between 2003 and 2004 by the USGS and CZM, aboard the R/V Rafael. USGS bathymetric data were acquired using a Systems Engineering & Assessment, Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar system (234 or 117 kHz).
    Poppe and othes, 2006 (source 7 of 11)
    Poppe, L.J., Paskevich, V.F., Butman, B., Ackerman, S.D., Danforth, W.W., Foster, D.S., and Blackwood, D.S, 2006, Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery: Open-File Report 2005-1048, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the Outer Cape Cod region including. These data were acquired between 1994 and 1998 by the USGS, Canadian Hydrographic Survey, and University of New Brunswick aboard the Frederick G. Creed. Bathymetric and backscatter data were acquired using Simrad Subsea EM 1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder.
    GOMMI survey (source 8 of 11)
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and University of New Hampshire (UNH), 2005, Gulf of Maine Mapping Initiative, Priority 1 Area Survey Report: SAIC Document 05-TR-017, Science Applications International Corporation, 221 Third Street, Newport, Rhode Island, 02840 USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Below a link is provided to both the raster digital data and the Survey Report.
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the most offshore region of the grid. These data were acquired in 2005 by NOAA, UNH and SAIC aboard the M/V Atlantic Surveyor. Bathymetric data were acquired using RESON 2101 MBS system.
    Hydrographic Survey H11421 (source 9 of 11)
    National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2006, Hydrographic Survey H11421 Descriptive Report: Basic Hydrographic Survey Descriptive Report H11421, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Below a link is provided to both the raster digital data and the Survey Descriptive Report.
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the most offshore region of the grid.These data were acquired in 2005 by NOAA aboard the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson. Bathymetric data were acquired using a Odom Echotrac DF3200 MK II Echosounder and a Simrad EM1002 MBS.
    Lidar (source 10 of 11)
    Joint Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Center of Expertise, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2008, Massachusetts LiDAR Grid Data in Coastal Areas: Fugro Pelagos, Inc, San Diego, CA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital raster data
    Source_Contribution:
    The source lidar data for the very nearshore (< -5 m) region. Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data were acquired with a SHOALS-1000T (for hydrographic & topographic data) using the Joint Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) lidar plane. These data were provided by Massachusetts CZM, who contracted the USACOE to collect the data. These data may be acquired by contacting czm: czm@state.ma.us
    Hydrographic Survey F00508 (source 11 of 11)
    National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2005, Hydrographic Survey F00508 Descriptive Report: Basic Hydrographic Survey Descriptive Report F00508, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA), Silver Springs, MD.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Below a link is provided to both the raster digital data and the Survey Descriptive Report.
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source bathymetry for the most offshore region of the grid.These data were acquired in 2005 by NOAA aboard the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson. Bathymetric data were acquired using a Odom Echotrac DF3200 MK II Echosounder and a Simrad EM1002 MBS.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 25-Mar-2012 (process 1 of 5)
    Each source bathymetric or topographic data were imported into ArcGIS (v. 9.3.1) from their native format and converted to an Esri grid. The coarsest resolution of any input grid was 30-m, so that was the target resolution for the composite grid. For any source data that was higher than 30-m resolution, the grid was resampled to 30-m in ArcMap (version 9.3.1). Each individual dataset was also projected to UTM-zone 19 N (WGS-84 datum). The following sources were already WGS-84 UTM zone 19N Esri grids and required no transformation or format conversion before resampling: Barnhardt and others 2006; Ackerman and others, 2006; Barnhardt and others, 2009; Andrews and others, 2010; and Barndhardt and others, 2010. The Butman and others, 2007 grid was in NAD83 UTM zone 19N, so NAD_1983_To_WGS_1984_5 was used to transform the projection before resampling. Poppe and others, 2006 was an ASCII text grid (4-m), which was converted to an Esri grid using the ASCII to raster converter, and was transformed from NAD83 UTM zone 19N to WGS84 UTM Zone 19N using NAD_1983_To_WGS_1984_5. Both of the NOAA Hydrographic surveys (H11421 & F00508) were converted from .bag format to xyz text using the online conversion provided by the NOAA/NGDC website. The xyz files in NAD84 UTM Zone 19N were converted to Esri grids by first 'adding xy data' in ArcMap and then converting features to raster. The NAD_1983_To_WGS_1984_5 transformation was used to get the data into WGS84. The Lidar data were provided as GeoTiffs in GCS NAD83. The GeoTiffs were converted to Esri grids in ArcMap and were reprojected in ArcToolbox to UTM Zone 19N WGS84 using the NAD_1983_To_WGS_1984_5 transformation. Finally, the GOMMI (SAIC, UNH, and NOAA) survey was provided as a NAD83 GCS xyz file. The xyz file was converted to raster the same way that the NOAA hydro surveys were converted, and it was converted from GCS NAD83 using reproject in ArcToolBox and the NAD_1983_To_WGS_1984_5 transformation. Resampling for each source grid was done in ArcMap (version 9.3.1) using the 'Resample' tool. The output cell size for all the source grids was 30m and the Resampling technique was 'Bilinear'. Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Date: 01-Apr-2012 (process 2 of 5)
    The Lidar data was the only dataset that was in NADVD88 vertical coordinate system. All the other bathymetric surveys were published in MLLW. After resampling and mosaicking (using the 'mosaic to new raster tool with 32_bit_signed pixels and the blend method) all grids except the Lidar, the composite bathymetric Esri grid was converted to a shapefile using 'raster to feature'. Xtools (version 7.1.0) was used to add and populate x and y fields and export the attribute table to a text file. VDatum (v2.3.3) was used to convert the bathymetric surveys (soundings) to NAVD88 using the "Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts - Gulf of Maine, Version 01 (1983-2001) regional transformation grid." A new vertically adjusted xyz file was then converted to an Esri grid in ArcMap (version 9.3.1) using 'add xy data' and 'convert feature to raster'. Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Date: 13-May-2012 (process 3 of 5)
    After the lidar and composite bathymetry data were in Esri format, a common resolution (30m), and horizontal and vertical coordinate system (WGS84 UTM Zone 19 N and NAVD88), the ArcMap (v. 9.3.1) mosaic tool was used again to combine the data into one grid (with 32 bit signed pixel depth). 30-meters was chosen as the output resolution and the blend function was chosen for overlapping areas. Next, using 3D Analyst, a hillshade was created using Surface Analysis - Hillshade. The azimuth was 315, the altitude was 45, and the z-factor was 2. The hillshade grid was converted to a TIFF by right-clicking on the grid in the table of contents and choosing "export data" and TIFF image format. Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508)-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    (508)-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Date: 19-Nov-2015 (process 4 of 5)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The distribution format was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. Online link to the data had to be fixed. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 5 of 5)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The horizontal accuracy of the source multibeam bathymetry (DGPS) is reported at 3 meters. The horizontal accuracy of the swath bathymetry (DGPS and/or RTK-GPS) is conservatively estimated to be 10m. The lidar data was collected to meet the 3-m accuracy specification. This composite topographic and bathymetric grid is assumed to be horizontally accurate to within 20-meters, as additional errors could have been introduced during resampling, vertical and horizontal projections, and mosaicking.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    The vertical accuracy of the source multibeam bathymetry (Simrad EM-1000 and the Reson Seabat 8101) is reported at +/- 30 to 50-cm. The vertical accuracy of the swath bathymetry is estimated to be +/- 0.1 to 0.6-m. The lidar data was collected to meet the +/- 30-cm accuracy specification. This composite topographic and bathymteric grid is assumed to be vertically accurate to within 1-m, as additional errors could have been introduced during resampling, vertical and horizontal projections, and mosaicking.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This image includes swath interferometric, multibeam, and lidar data collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Maine. The input grids can be downloaded by visiting the publications listed in the Source Information, or by visiting the Gulf of Maine Mapping Initiative website: http://www.gulfofmaine.org/gommi/coverage-map.php
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This hillshaded relief image was created from several smaller bathymetry and lidar datasets that were processed and published in various formats and datums (see Source Information for the individual input data). In order to create a seamless topographic and bathymetric surface, VDATUM was used to bring all the data to a common vertical datum (NAVD88), and all formats and resolutions were resampled and merged into a 30-m Esri format grid. No further data processing was conducted on the individual input datasets. These datasets are part of a larger mapping initiative: Gulf of Maine Mapping Initiative (GOMMI). The following website maintains a map that shows the extent of the high resolution bathymetric surveys, the organizations that collected them, and a geographical name description of the area covered. http://www.gulfofmaine.org/gommi/coverage-map.php You can also download the source data listed in the source contribtutions from this page.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700x2259 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The image contained in the zip file is available as a GeoTIFF with a world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, or an image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a TIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Jul-2018
Metadata author:
Elizabeth A. Pendleton
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
U.S. Geological Survey
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
ependleton@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/eastcoast/gome/nahant-northern_capecod_bay/NAVD88_HS_30mmeta.faq.html>
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