One meter acoustic backscatter mosaic acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_KLEIN_BS_1M.TIF GeoTIFF Image, UTM Zone 19N).

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
One meter acoustic backscatter mosaic acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_KLEIN_BS_1M.TIF GeoTIFF Image, UTM Zone 19N).
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 3-30 meters deep. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/html/current_map.html). The data collected in the study area located in Northern Cape Cod Bay Massachusetts includes high-resolution geophysics (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection), and ground validation (sediment samples, video tracklines, and bottom photographs). The data were collected during five separate surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 and cover 480 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. More information about the individual USGS surveys conducted as part of the northern Cape Cod Bay project can be found on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity webpage: 06012: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2006/06012/ 07001: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07001/ 07002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07002/ 07003: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07003/ 08002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2008/08002/
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, One meter acoustic backscatter mosaic acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_KLEIN_BS_1M.TIF GeoTIFF Image, UTM Zone 19N).: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Barnhardt, Walter A., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts.: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.648090
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.151940
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.096177
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.928100
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/browse_jpg/CCB_Klein_bs_1m.jpg (JPEG)
    gray scale image of sidescan-sonar mosaic
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 16-Aug-2006
    Ending_Date: 07-May-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of four separate date ranges - 20060816 to 20060823; 20070429 to 20070503; 20070725 to 20070807; 20080429 to 20080507
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 18000 x 40800 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    CCB_Klein_bs_1m.tif.vat
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255) with the data range 0-254. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). The background color is set to 255 and can be turned off without removing data values.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this GeoTIFF is to publish single mosaic of acoustic backscatter of the seafloor acquired during four surveys using a Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar in the Cape Cod Bay survey area.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (source 1 of 1)
    Information unavailable from original metadata. Assumed to be USGS., unknown, Information unavailable from original metadata..

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard.
    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution:
    Acoustic backscatter data acquisition for field activities 06012 and 07002: The Klein 3000 towfish was deployed from the stern A-frame of the R/V Megan T. Miller. A digital cable counter attached to the winch used to deploy the sidescan-sonar towfish measured changes in the amount of cable extended from the A-frame and updated the "cable out" parameter in SonarPro acquisition software (version 9.6). Backscatter data were collected with a 100 or 150 m range (200 or 300 m either side of towfish) depending on line spacing. Acoustic backscatter data acquisition for field activities 07001 and 08002: The Klein 3000 towfish was deployed from a davit on the port side of the R/V Rafael approximately 1 m astern and 0.5 m below the water surface. These data were acquired using a 75-100 m range(150-200 m total width).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2008 (process 1 of 6)
    Within XSonar/ShowImage sidescan-sonar processing software (version: 1.1) a median filtering routine (4 pixels across track by 3 pixels along track) was applied to the raw sidescan-sonar data (XTF) to remove speckle noise. Processed data are stored as 8-bit data files. Navigation was also extracted from the raw data at a 1-minute interval and saved in ASCII format. Quality checks were conducted on the navigation to eliminate spurious or duplicate navigation fixes. The sonar data were further processed to correct for towfish altitude (i.e. proper tracking of the seafloor), and slant-range and beam pattern distortions inherent in the sonar data. Processed sonar files were then merged with the edited navigation then mapped at a 1.0 meter resolution in UTM coordinates (UTM, Zone 19N, WGS84, meters) and saved in two XSonar/ShowImage mosaic files (*.ras) representing odd and even (i.e. every other line) sonar tracklines. Processing occurred in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 2008 (process 2 of 6)
    XSonar to Tiff conversion: Each *.ras file was converted to a raw raster file (*.raw) in Xsonar at a resolution of 1-m per pixel. The 80-byte header for each *ras raster file was removed and the images was converted to a raster (.raw) file with the command: dd if=filename.ras of=filename.raw bs=80 skip=1. The resulting rasters (.raw) were converted to a TIFF using Adobe Photoshop (ver. 10.0.1). Processing Occurred in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 2009 (process 3 of 6)
    PCI Mosaic: A new PCI project (ver.10.1.3) and four associated pix (06012.pix, 07001.pix, 07002.pix, 08002.pix) files were created to mosaic the TIFF files from each of the four surveys. Each TIFF file was imported to the corresponding pix file using the OrthoEngine module. Ground control points (GCPs) for each line were identified from adjacent overlapping lines. Once GCPs were collected, each line was orthorectified to the master pix file that is referenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system (UTM) Zone 19 WGS84. All GCPs were saved to text files with RMS errors for each point. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Jan-2010 (process 4 of 6)
    Final Mosaic: The four separate mosaics in pix format were combined into a new pix file (CCB_Klein_bs_1m.pix) that covered the entire extent of all four surveys in northern Cape Cod Bay using the basic steps below: 1) The rectified mosaic (*.pix) files from 07001 and 08002 were added to the new mosaic. 2) The rectified mosaic (*.pix) files for 06012 and 07002 were mosaiced together in PCI (CCB_offshore.pix) and then exported to a GeoTIFF (CCB_offshore.tif). The 8-bit range of the image (color stretch) was adjusted to visually match the inshore backscatter data in CCB_Klein_bs_1m.pix. 3) The color adjusted GeoTIFF (CCB_offshore_Adj.tif) was imported back into PCI and mosaicked into the CCB_Klein_bs_1m.pix file to generate a 1-m mosaic of Klein data. 4) The final mosaic (CCB_Klein_bs_1m.pix) was exported to a GeoTIFF (CCB_Klein_bs_1m.tif). A TIFF world file (tfw) was generated for the GeoTIFF using GeoTIFFExaminer (no version). Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Nov-2015 (process 5 of 6)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The format of the time period of content and some process dates had to be fixed. This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard. The distribution format was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 6)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., and Butman, Bradford, 2006, High-Resolution Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Nahant to Gloucester, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2005-1293, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Ackerman, Seth D., Butman, Bradford, Barnhardt, Walter A., Danforth, William W., and Crocker, James M., 2006, High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Boston Harbor and Approaches, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1008, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Hein, Christopher J., 2009, High-Resolution Geological Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2007-1373, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Barnhardt, Walter A., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., and Baldwin, Wayne E., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Duxbury to Hull, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2009-1072, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Danforth, William W., 1997, XSonar/ShowImage: A complete system for rapid sidescan-sonar processing and display.: Open-File Report 97-686, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255). Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values).
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Field activities 06012 and 07002: The Klein 3000 towfish was deployed from the stern A-frame of the R/V Megan T. Miller. Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS navigation data were provided by an Ashtech Z-Extreme receiver (an Ashtech BR2G DGPS was used as a backup system) and recorded to the raw data files (XTF) via the Klein SonarPro (version 9.6 & 10.0) acquisition software. During some portions of the survey, technical difficulties caused the GPS systems to malfunction and loose the "fixed" RTK signal. When this occurred, the navigation system generally defaulted to a "float" RTK or DGPS signal, or the navigation was lost. When possible, surveying was halted until a reliable GPS signal was restored. A digital cable counter attached to the winch used to deploy the sidescan-sonar towfish measured changes in the amount of cable extended from the A-frame and updated the cable out parameter in SonarPro. Using the cable out value and linear offset between the A-frame and the RTK-GPS antenna, Sonar Pro calculated towfish layback positions in real time and recorded them to the XTF file headers. A conservative estimate of positional accuracy is ± 10 m, but when the navigation system was providing the "fixed" RTK signal, positional accuracy is likely < 1 m. Positional uncertainty arises because layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. Field activities 07001 and 08002: The Klein 3000 towfish was deployed from a davit on the port side aft on the R/V Rafael. Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS navigation data were provided by an Ashtech Z-Surveyor Extreme receiver and recorded to the raw data files (XTF) via the Klein SonarPro (version 9.6 and 10.0) acquisition software. A conservative estimate of positional accuracy is ± 10 m, but when the navigation system was providing the "fixed" RTK signal, positional accuracy is likely <1 m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This mosaic does not include all acoustic backscatter data collected in the northern Cape Cod Bay survey area. Data collected along transit lines, east-west seismic tie lines and other lines of poor quality were excluded from this mosaic The "mosaic" attribute in the CCB_BackscatterTracklines shapefile published in this report identifies the 626 lines that were included, and the 17 lines that were not included, in this mosaic. A data gap exists in this mosaic where the Klein sidescan winch was inoperable for one day. The backscatter data in this gap is covered by backscatter data acquired with the SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar (CCB_SwathBS_1m.tif).
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All sidescan-sonar data in this mosaic were collected with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency (132/445 kHz) sidescan-sonar system. Only the 132-kHz data were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic. All data were processed with the same methods.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: WinZip file contains a GeoTIFF image and associated world file of sidescan-sonar collected within Northern Cape Cod Bay. in format GeoTIFF (version PCI v. 10.1.3) Size: 262
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/raster/backscatter/CCB_Klein_bs_1m.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: none

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This Zip file contains a compressed GeoTIFF image and world file. The user must have software capable of uncompressing the zip file and viewing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Jul-2018
Metadata author:
Brian Andrews
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bandrews@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/eastcoast/gome/northern_capecod_bay/CCB_Klein_bs_1m.tif.faq.html>
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