5 meter ArcRaster hillshade of bathymetry acquired with a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_FILL_HS Esri BINARY GRID, UTM Zone 19N).

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
5 meter ArcRaster hillshade of bathymetry acquired with a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_FILL_HS Esri BINARY GRID, UTM Zone 19N).
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 3-30 meters deep. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/html/current_map.html). The data collected in the study area located in Northern Cape Cod Bay Massachusetts includes high-resolution geophysics (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection), and ground validation (sediment samples, video tracklines, and bottom photographs). The data were collected during five separate surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 and cover 480 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. More information about the individual USGS surveys conducted as part of the northern Cape Cod Bay project can be found on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity webpage: 06012: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2006/06012/ 07001: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07001/ 07002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07002/ 07003: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07003/ 08002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2008/08002/
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, 5 meter ArcRaster hillshade of bathymetry acquired with a SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_FILL_HS Esri BINARY GRID, UTM Zone 19N).: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Barnhardt, Walter A., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts.: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.644046
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.154440
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.094617
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.930583
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/browse_jpg/CCB_fill_hs.jpg (JPEG)
    gray scale thumbnail image of hillshaded bathymetry collected in the Cape Cod Bay Massachusetts survey area.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 16-Aug-2006
    Ending_Date: 07-May-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of four separate date ranges - 20060816 to 20060823; 20070429 to 20070503; 20070725 to 20070807; 20080429 to 20080507
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 3512 x 8053 x 1, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    ccb_fill_hs.vat
    Value Attribute Table- Internal Feature Number (Source: ESRI)
    Rowid
    internal feature number (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    VALUE
    8-bit gray scale value (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:94
    Maximum:241
    COUNT
    number of cells within the grid that are assigned a specific 'VALUE' (8-bit gray scale values) (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5,478,458

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this ArcRaster grid is to show grayscale hillshaded bathymetry that includes the four surveys (06012, 07001, 07002, 08002) where bathymetry was collected by the USGS in the Cape Cod Bay survey area at 5 meter resolution for regional analysis.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (source 1 of 1)
    Information unavailable from original metadata. Assumed to be USGS., unknown, Information unavailable from original metadata..

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard.
    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution:
    Sonar Configuration: Bathymetry data were acquired using a Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar operating at 234 kHz (06012, 07001, 08002) or 117 kHz (07002). Survey lines were run at an average speed of 5 knots and were spaced 75-200 m apart to obtain overlapping swaths of data and full coverage of the seafloor. During USGS field activities 06012 and 07002, the SWATHplus transducers were mounted on a rigid pole on the starboard side of the R/V Megan Miller, about 2.6 m below the waterline. During 06012, a TSS DMS 2-05 motion reference unit was mounted directly above the sonar transducers and continuously recorded and sent vertical displacement (heave) and attitude (pitch and roll) of the vessel during acquisition to the SWATHplus software. During 06012 vessel heading was determined by a KVH compass that was corrected for magnetic variation of +15.583 degrees (from NOAA Chart number13246 36th ed., Mar. 10/01) during post processing. During 07002, a Coda Octopus F180 inertial-motion unit, mounted directly above the transducers, measured true heading, vertical displacement (heave) and attitude (pitch and roll) of the vessel during acquisition. Field activities 07001 and 08002: the SWATHplus transducers were mounted on a rigid pole on the bow of the R/V Rafael, about 0.5 m below the waterline. A Coda Octopus F180 inertial-motion unit, mounted directly above the transducers, measured true heading, vertical displacement (heave) and attitude (pitch and roll) of the vessel during acquisition. Navigation: Field activity 06012: Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS navigation was used to determine the horizontal and vertical position (xyz) of the GPS antenna mounted directly above the SWATHplus transducers with sub-meter accuracy. The RTK-corrected coordinates were transmitted to the ship from a land-based RTK-GPS station established by the USGS at NOAA Tidal Station #8446009 in Brant Rock Harbor, MA. Field activities 07001, 07002, and 08002: Differential GPS (DGPS) navigation was used to determine the horizontal position (x,y) of the GPS antenna mounted directly above and forward (F180R primary antenna, 0.5 meters) of the SWATHplus transducers with +/- 1-2 meter accuracy. RTK-GPS was used to determine the vertical position of the Ashtech GPS antenna (z) with sub-meter accuracy. Vertical coordinates for all four surveys were referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) using the offset between the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) and MLLW published for the tidal benchmark. Horizontal (x and y) and vertical (z) offsets between the transducers, motion sensor, and GPS antenna were precisely measured and recorded within the SWATHplus acquisition software (SEA Swath Processor (2005)), which established the motion sensor as the common reference point during data acquisition. Speed of Sound: Sound-velocity profiles were collected approximately every 2 hours by a hand-casted Applied MicroSystems SV Plus sound velocimeter. The depth of the transducers below the sea surface was measured and recorded within the SWATHplus acquisition software, and used as a reference point for deriving the acoustic ray path based on sound velocity profiles. Tides: During post-processing, soundings were referenced to local MLLW by using orthometric to chart datum offsets obtained from NOAA Tidal Station #8446009 at Brant Rock Harbor, Massachusetts. Data were processed and gridded by using the SEA SWATHplus Swath Processor (version 10.0) CARIS Hydrographic Information Processing System (HIPS version 6.1).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Dec-2009 (process 1 of 3)
    Calculate bathymetric hillshade: Calculated bathymetric hillshade (ccb_fill_hs) using the "Hillshade" tool in Spatial Analyst Tools (ArcGIS ArcToolbox ver. 9.3) with following parameters: Input raster: ccb_bath_f Azimuth: 335 Altitude: 45 Model Shadows: NO_SHADOWS Z factor (vertical exaggeration): 1 Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • ccb_bath_f (This publication)
    Date: 20-Nov-2015 (process 2 of 3)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The format of the time period of content and some process dates had to be fixed. This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 3 of 3)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Field activity 06012: The SWATHplus transducers were mounted on a rigid pole, approximately 2.6 m below the water line, along the starboard side of the R/V Megan T. Miller. Position data were provided by an Ashtech Z-Surveyor Extreme for real-time kinematic (RTK) navigation (an Ashtech BR2G Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used as a backup navigation system) and recorded to the raw data files (SXR) via Swath Processor (version 2.07) acquisition software. During some portions of the survey, technical difficulties caused the GPS systems to malfunction and lose the "fixed" RTK signal. When this occurred, the navigation system defaulted to a "float" RTK, and then to a GPS (stand alone) signal, after which the navigation signal was lost completely. Surveying was halted until a reliable GPS signal was restored. A conservative estimate of positional accuracy is +/- 2 meters, but when the navigation system was providing the "fixed" RTK signal, positional accuracy is <1 m. Field activities 07001, 07002, and 08002: The SWATHplus transducers were mounted on a rigid pole from the bow of the R/V Rafael, approximately 0.5 m below the water line during surveys 07001 and 08001, and 2.6 m below the water line on the starboard side for survey 07002. Position data were recorded by Hypack software to Hypack raw files using an Ashtech Z-Surveyor Extreme for real-time kinematic (RTK) navigation, and an Ashtech BR2G for Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) navigation. DGPS navigation from the primary F180 antenna was recorded to the raw sonar data files (SXR) via SWATHplus acquisition software. A conservative estimate of positional accuracy is +/- 2 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Based on SWATHplus interferometric sonar system specifications, vertical accuracy of the raw data may approximate 1% of water depth, which translates to 0.1 0.6 meters within the northern Cape Cod Bay survey area. RTK-GPS was used to establish water-level heights relative to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW), providing decimeter-scale accuracies. Tide-correction was done in post-processing (see process steps). Refraction artifacts were minimized by acquiring a range of sound velocity profiles throughout the survey area to model the sound velocity structure of the water column. Changes in vessel draft due to fuel and water usage were not considered.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This hillshade grid does not include all bathymetric data collected in the northern Cape Cod Bay survey area. Data collected along transit lines, east-west seismic tie lines and other lines of poor quality were excluded from this grid. The "Mosaic" attribute in the CCB_BathTracklines shapefile published in this report identifies the 524 lines that were included, and the 60 lines that were not included, in this grid.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Information unavailable from original metadata.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These data are not for navigational use. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: WinZip file containing the ArcRaster grid of gray scale bathymetric hillshade of data collected in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts survey area. in format AIG (version ArcGIS 9.3) ESRI Raster GRID format Size: 7.7
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/raster/bathymetry/ccb_fill_hs.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available as a ArcInfo 8-bit floating point binary grid in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) format. The grid consists of two folders, one with the "grid name", and one "info" folder. The two folders for each grid are compressed into one file using WinZip (ver. 9.0) software. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of uncompressing the WinZip file and importing and viewing an ESRI ArcRaster grid. The two folders for each grid must be uncompressed to the same folder. If during the process of extracting multiple grids in WinZip format to the same folder, the user is prompted by WinZip software to "overwrite existing files" in the info folder select the "yes" option.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Jul-2018
Metadata author:
Brian Andrews
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bandrews@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/eastcoast/gome/northern_capecod_bay/ccb_fill_hs.grd.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Mon Sep 10 17:45:08 2018