Location of bottom still imagery along with images collected during field activity 2012-035-FA by the U.S. Geological Survey and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in August 2012 (JPEG images, point shapefile, and CSV file)

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Location of bottom still imagery along with images collected during field activity 2012-035-FA by the U.S. Geological Survey and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in August 2012 (JPEG images, point shapefile, and CSV file)
Abstract:
Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human effects. Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of the Geologic Mapping of the Massachusetts Sea Floor program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. The program is focused on the inshore waters (primarily 5-30 meters deep, although the region surveyed in this field activity includes waters up to 90 meters deep) of Massachusetts. This dataset, collected aboard the Ocean Survey Vessel (OSV) Bold as part of the Geologic Mapping of the Massachusetts Sea Floor Program, is from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampling survey 2012-035-FA (August 21-27, 2012) by the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management with partners from the Massachusetts Bays Program, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During the survey, surficial sediment samples and bottom still and video imagery were collected in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts.
Supplemental_Information:
Bottom video, which may provide a better representation of the general seabed environment over a larger area, was also taken at each station (see shapefile 2012-035-FA_videos.shp available from the larger work citation; see the Coastal and Marine Geology Program Video and Photograph Portal to view the bottom videos [Golden and others, 2015; link available from the cross-reference citation]). Physical sediment samples were also collected at many stations and analyzed for grain size (see shapefile 2012-035-FA_samples.shp available from the larger work citation) and benthic infauna (see report by the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management [2013] available from the cross-reference citation). For more information about this field activity, see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2012-035-FA. For more information about the Geologic Mapping of the Massachusetts Sea Floor program, see https://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2018, Location of bottom still imagery along with images collected during field activity 2012-035-FA by the U.S. Geological Survey and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in August 2012 (JPEG images, point shapefile, and CSV file): data release DOI:10.5066/P924M8R1, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Huntley, Emily C., Ackerman, Seth D., Boeri, Robert L., Callaghan, Todd P., Sampson, Daniel W., and Blackwood, Dann S., 2018, Sampling data collected in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in 2012, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2012-035-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/P924M8R1, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Huntley, E.C., Ackerman, S.D., Boeri, R.L., Callaghan, T.P., Sampson, D.W., and Blackwood, D.S., 2018, Sampling data collected in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in 2012, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2012-035-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P924M8R1.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.907123
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.498667
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.873397
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.297040
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2012-035-FA/data/imagery/2012-035-FA_photos_browse.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of bottom imagery locations in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 21-Aug-2012
    Ending_Date: 27-Aug-2012
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster, vector, and tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (2093)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    2012-035-FA_photos
    Bottom image locations and bottom imagery collected during USGS survey 2012-035-FA in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, in 2012. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    PICNAME
    Name of bottom image used to uniquely identify between cameras and images: e.g., IMG_0006.JPG where 0006 refers to the sequential image number assigned to the photo by the camera for the Canon PowerShot G12 photos; and STA001_180833.JPG where STA001 refers to the station number and 180833 refers to the UTC time for the video frame grabs. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish images.
    CAMERA
    Camera used to collect bottom image. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish between different camera models mounted on the grab sampler.
    GPSTIME
    UTC time of bottom image from GPS navigation file in the format HH:MM:SS. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish the UTC times of the bottom images determined by the GPS.
    CAMR_TIME
    Camera time of bottom photograph from the Canon camera in the format HH:MM:SS. The camera time is not applicable to the video frame grabs, so a no data value of 99:99:99 was used for these images. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish the camera times of the bottom images determined from the camera's internal clock.
    TIMEOFFSET
    Offset applied, if any, to match the Canon bottom photograph to the correct time determined by the GPS navigation. This field is the time difference between the camera time and the GPS time in UTC in the format HH:MM:SS. A value of "00:00:00" indicates no offset was applied in processing. If the camera time were X seconds behind the GPS time, a positive offset of +X would be applied. If the camera were Y seconds ahead of the GPS time, a negative offset of -Y would be applied. The time offset is not applicable to the video frame grabs, so a no data value of 99:99:99 was used for these images. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish the offset times of the bottom images.
    JD
    Julian day that the bottom image was collected based on UTC time; Julian day is the integer number representing the interval of time in days since January 1 of the year (2012 for these data). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:234
    Maximum:240
    Units:days
    Resolution:1
    YEAR
    Year that the bottom image was collected (2012 for these data). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2012
    Maximum:2012
    Units:years
    Resolution:1
    DATE
    UTC date that the bottom image was collected in the format YYYYMMDD. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish dates.
    LAT
    Latitude of bottom image in geographic coordinates, WGS 84. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:42.29704000
    Maximum:42.87339670
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00000001
    LONG
    Longitude of bottom image in geographic coordinates, WGS 84. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-70.90712330
    Maximum:-70.49866670
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00000001
    FIELD_NO
    Station number as assigned in the field. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish station numbers.
    LINENAME
    Station number for the trackline along which continuous bottom video was acquired. Two stations (stations 164 and 179) have two bottom video tracklines, so the tracklines were named "a" and "b" to indicate back-to-back deployments at the same station (e.g., line names 164a and 164b). A no data value of -9999 indicates that the image is not within 10 meters of a bottom video trackline. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish station numbers.
    NEAR_SMP
    Field number of the nearest sediment sample from USGS survey 2012-035-FA. For stations where a physical sample was not collected, the sediment sample was based on visual analysis by USGS geologists of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish station numbers.
    NEAR_CLASS
    Sediment classification based on a rigorous definition (Shepard [1954] as modified by Schlee [1973] and Poppe and others [2014]) of the nearest sediment sample from USGS sampling survey 2012-035-FA. For stations where a physical sample was not collected, the classification was based on visual analysis by USGS geologists of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment. In the definitions below, gravel is defined as particles with nominal diameters greater than 2 mm; sand consists of particles with nominal diameters less than 2 mm, but greater than or equal to 0.0625 mm; silt consists of particles with nominal diameters less than 0.0625 mm, but greater than or equal to 0.004 mm; and clay consists of particles with nominal diameters less than 0.004 mm. (Source: Modified from USGS East-Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary)
    ValueDefinition
    CLAYEY SILTSilt less than 75 percent and equal to or greater than 50 percent, clay greater than sand, and sand less than 20 percent.
    GRAVELGravel equal to or greater than 50 percent.
    GRAVELLY SEDIMENTGravel equal to or greater than 10 percent, but less than 50 percent.
    MUDMud (silt plus clay) equal to or greater than 50 percent based on visual observation.
    SANDSand equal to or greater than 75 percent.
    SAND SILT CLAYClay, sand, and silt greater than 20 percent each.
    SANDY SILTSilt less than 75 percent and equal to or greater than 50 percent, sand greater than clay, and clay less than 20 percent.
    SILTY SANDSand less than 75 percent and equal to or greater than 50 percent, silt greater than clay, and clay less than 20 percent.
    DST_TO_SMP
    Distance in meters to the nearest sediment sample from USGS survey 2012-035-FA. For stations where a physical sample was not collected, the sediment sample was based on visual analysis by USGS geologists of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment. The visual observation sediment samples are generally located at the start of the sampler retrieval. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:76.7
    Units:meters
    Resolution:0.1
    NR_SMP_CMT
    Comment field for any additional information that may be important relating to the nearest sediment sample from USGS survey 2012-035-FA, such as if the nearest sediment sample is based on visual analysis by USGS geologists of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used for additional comments about the nearest sediment sample.
    CRUISE_ID
    USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activity identifier (e.g., 2012-035-FA where 2012 is the survey year, 035 is survey number of that year, and FA is Field Activity). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish cruises by year and ID number.
    DEVICE_ID
    Sampling device used to collect the bottom image. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to identify the sampling configuration used during the survey.
    VEHICLE_ID
    Vehicle (ship) used to collect data during survey 2012-035-FA. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to identify the survey vessel.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The CSV file has the same attributes, except for FID (which is not included), with the same definitions.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset is used to display the images and locations of bottom images acquired with a Canon PowerShot G12 digital camera or Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera on the SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) collected during USGS survey 2012-035-FA. Imagery data serve as a means to visually classify grain size and are especially important for sites where no physical sediment sample was collected.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Original JPEG photographs, bottom video, and raw navigation files (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Bottom imagery and navigation data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    Bottom imagery was acquired using the InterOcean SEABOSS. The observations from video and still cameras and the sediment data are used to explore the nature of the sea floor and, in conjunction with high-resolution geophysical data, to make interpretive maps of sedimentary environments and validate acoustic remote sensing data. The InterOcean SEABOSS incorporates a downward-looking video camera (a Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 in this setup), a still camera (a Canon PowerShot G12 in this setup), and a modified Van Veen sediment sampler. The elements of this particular SEABOSS system are held within a stainless-steel frame that measures 1.15 x 1.15 meters. The frame has a stabilizer fin that orients the system as it drifts over the seabed. Two lasers are set 20 centimeters apart (both as they are mounted on the SEABOSS frame and as seen in photographs and video on the seabed) for scale measurements. The red laser dots can usually be seen in the image depending on the bottom type and distance to the sea floor. A third laser is positioned at an angle so that when it intersects the other lasers, the SEABOSS is at the optimum height (approximately 75 centimeters) off the bottom for a still photograph. The OSV Bold occupied one of the target stations and the SEABOSS was deployed off the vessel's A-frame on the stern of the ship. The winch operator lowered the sampler until the sea floor was observed in the top-side live video feed. A scientist monitored the real-time bottom video and acquired bottom photographs at points of interest by remotely triggering the camera shutter. The number of photographs per station varied from 2-14 depending on the complexity of the bottom. The vessel and sampler drifted with wind and current for up to a few minutes to ensure a decent image with a clear view of the sea floor and then at most stations the sea floor was sampled with the SEABOSS's integrated Van Veen grab. Sediment samples were only attempted in areas where collecting a sample would not damage the SEABOSS; therefore, no samples were collected in areas with a cobble, boulder, or rocky seabed, as identified in real time using the top-side live video feed. The system was then raised and recovered to the deck of the survey vessel. The Canon digital photos were saved to the camera's SD memory card and periodically downloaded from the camera during the survey. The camera time was set to UTC; calibration photographs with the navigation system indicate that the camera time was off by two seconds throughout the survey, but this time offset was not corrected in the imagery processing. Photos taken in the water column, on deck, or without a clear view of the sea floor were deleted. Some stations did not have any usable photographs, usually because the still camera battery died, so still-image frame grabs were captured from the bottom video to supplement this dataset. Bottom video was recorded from the Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 downward-looking video camera on Digital8 tapes and backup DVDs. The images acquired with the Canon and Kongsberg cameras have different image dimensions and fields of view. The image dimensions of the Canon photos are 3,648 x 2,736 pixels, while the Kongsberg video frame grabs are 720 x 540 pixels. The field of view of the Kongsberg video camera overlaps the Canon camera but shows a slightly larger extent. The imaged area is most often within 0.5 to 1.25 meters from left to right. DGPS navigation from a Garmin GPSMAP 76CSx receiver was logged through a Microsoft HyperTerminal (version 5.1) session on a Dell Latitude D820 laptop computer running Windows XP SP2 via serial cable and was also recorded to the audio channel of the video files. The DGPS was set to receive fixes at a two-second interval in geographic coordinates (WGS 84). Log files were saved approximately for each Julian day in ASCII text format.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Aug-2012 (process 1 of 13)
    Three hundred fifty stations were occupied aboard the OSV Bold during USGS survey 2012-035-FA with the InterOcean SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001). The SEABOSS was equipped with a Van Veen grab sampler, a Canon PowerShot G12 digital still camera, and a downward-looking Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera. Bottom imagery was acquired at each station. The Canon digital photos were downloaded from the camera and backed up to a laptop and hard drive periodically during the sampling survey. Eight stations did not have any usable photographs, so still-image frame grabs were captured from the bottom video for these stations in a subsequent process step. Bottom video was recorded from the Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera on Digital8 tapes and backup DVDs. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    • Bottom video
    Date: Sep-2012 (process 2 of 13)
    DGPS navigation from a Garmin GPSMAP 76CSx receiver was logged through a Microsoft HyperTerminal (version 5.1) session on a Dell Latitude D820 laptop computer running Windows XP SP2 via serial cable. The DGPS was set to receive fixes at a two-second interval in geographic coordinates (WGS 84). Log files were saved approximately for each Julian day in ASCII text format. Dates and times were recorded in UTC. The original log files were reformatted into log files by full Julian day based on UTC time. An AWK script (awkseth.gprmc.12035.awk) was run on the log files to parse for the GPRMC navigation string and create ASCII Comma Separated Value (CSV) text files. The output files were merged and then reformatted using an AWK script (nav_time_reformat.awk), creating a final processed navigation file for the entire sampling survey. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Raw navigation files
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Processed two-second navigation file
    Date: Dec-2012 (process 3 of 13)
    Bottom photographs were culled to remove photos taken in the water column, on deck, or without a clear view of the sea floor. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Selected JPEG photographs
    Date: Jun-2014 (process 4 of 13)
    Since the DGPS was set to receive fixes at a two-second interval, a MATLAB script (latlon_dc_seth.m) was run to interpolate the navigation to get one-second fixes to populate the coordinates for the bottom imagery. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Processed two-second navigation file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • One-second navigation file
    Date: Oct-2017 (process 5 of 13)
    Navigation was not recorded by the Microsoft HyperTerminal session at station 77 due to a system malfunction. Instead, five fixes were extracted from the audio, which has the navigation embedded in it, of the video file for station 77. An additional known fix was identified based on the sediment sample site recorded in a log maintained by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during the survey. These known fixes were interpolated in Esri ArcGIS (version 10.3.1) to get one-second fixes. The Construct Points editing tool was used to create evenly spaced points along the line segments between the known fixes so that a point was created for each second. The coordinates of the points were calculated using the Calculate Geometry tool (Property=X Coordinate of Point and Y Coordinate of Point; Use coordinate system of the data source=WGS 1984; Unit=Decimal Degrees). The interpolated points were exported as a CSV file and added to the one-second navigation file. This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by the same person, Emily Huntley. Person who carried out this activity:
    Emily Huntley
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer/Database Specialist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ehuntley@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Bottom video
    • EPA logbook
    • One-second navigation file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Supplemented one-second navigation file
    Date: Oct-2017 (process 6 of 13)
    Eight stations with no usable photographs were identified. For these stations, three to four still-image frame grabs per station were captured from the SEABOSS bottom video taken with a downward-looking Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera. This was a manual process whereby the video was viewed in VLC media player (version 2.2.6) and clear images of the sea floor approximately equally distributed throughout the drift were captured. Data sources used in this process:
    • Bottom video
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Video frame grabs
    Date: Nov-2017 (process 7 of 13)
    The original JPEG images alone do not represent spatial data, however, they can be geolocated by linking the time the image was taken, which was recorded in the JPEG files' Exchangeable image file format (Exif) headers, to the corresponding time in the navigation logs. To geolocate the bottom images, a CSV file was created by matching the camera time for the original JPEG photos and the frame grab time for the video frame grabs with a CSV file of the interpolated one-second fixes in Microsoft Excel 2016 for Mac. Data sources used in this process:
    • Selected JPEG photographs
    • Video frame grabs
    • Supplemented one-second navigation file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Date: Nov-2017 (process 8 of 13)
    Microsoft Excel 2016 for Mac was used to add new fields to the bottom imagery locations CSV file, including an attribute for the camera (CAMERA: Canon PowerShot G12 or Kongsberg Simrad OE1365), camera time (CAMR_TIME, which is equal to the Global Positioning System [GPS] time [GPSTIME] for the Canon photos), time offset applied to the camera time (TIMEOFFSET, which is equal to 0 seconds for the Canon photos since no time offset was applied to the photos), Julian day of collection (JD), year of collection (YEAR), survey ID (CRUISE_ID), sampling device used to collect the imagery (DEVICE_ID), and survey vessel (VEHICLE_ID). Data sources used in this process:
    • Bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Edited bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Date: Nov-2017 (process 9 of 13)
    A shapefile was created using the bottom imagery locations CSV file in Esri ArcGIS (version 10.3.1). XTools Pro (version 12.0) for Esri ArcGIS was used to modify field parameters (Table Operations - Table Restructure) in the point shapefile. Data sources used in this process:
    • Edited bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Bottom imagery locations shapefile
    Date: Nov-2017 (process 10 of 13)
    Several attributes were added using the Spatial Join tool in Esri ArcGIS (version 10.3.1). This tool was run with the bottom video tracklines shapefile using the closest match option to calculate the station number (FIELD_NO). This tool was run a second time with the bottom video tracklines shapefile to calculate the video trackline (LINENAME) for each bottom image. The intersect match option with a search radius of 10 meters was used because some images were taken shortly before or after the video trackline. Three images were not within 10 meters of a trackline, so a no data value of -9999 was assigned to these images using the field calculator. These images were taken during the second deployment of the SEABOSS at a station where no video was collected (stations 66 and 145) or when the video was accidently not recorded (station 119). The shapefile was then projected to WGS 84 UTM Zone 19N so that the distance in meters to the closest sediment sample could be calculated when running the Spatial Join tool. Note that the term "sediment samples" used herein may be used to describe physical sediment samples as well as stations where no physical sediment sample was collected, but the bottom type was classified by USGS geologists based on the visual observation of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment. The Spatial Join tool was then run with the sediment samples shapefile to assign the station number of the closest sediment sample (NEAR_SMP), the sediment classification of the nearest sample (NEAR_CLASS), the distance in meters between the bottom image and nearest sediment sample (DST_TO_SMP), and the comment field for the nearest sample (NR_SMP_CMT). Next, the distance in meters between the bottom image and closest sample (DST_TO_SMP) was rounded to the nearest tenth using the field calculator. The shapefile was then projected back to WGS 84 and unnecessary fields created when running the Spatial Join tool were deleted (e.g., Join_Count, TARGET_FID, etc.). Finally, the shapefile's attribute table was exported in Esri ArcGIS and saved as a CSV file. The FID field was deleted in the CSV file. Data sources used in this process:
    • Bottom imagery locations shapefile
    • Bottom video tracklines shapefile (2012-035-FA_videos.shp)
    • Sediment samples shapefile (2012-035-FA_samples.shp)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Final bottom imagery locations shapefile
    • Final bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Date: Feb-2018 (process 11 of 13)
    The bottom imagery locations CSV file was reorganized to have fields for the filename, latitude, longitude, GPS date, and GPS time. A Python script (MCZM_writeexif_2_readfile.py) was run that incorporated the matched-up location data, along with additional survey information, into the appropriate tags in the Exif header of each JPEG image. Since the imagery was acquired with two different cameras, the script was run separately for each camera's imagery using slightly different tags. The Python script uses ExifTool (version 10.17) to write the information to the image headers. Information is duplicated in some tags because various software packages access different tags. Please note that depending on the software used to view the Exif header tags, only a subset of these tags may be extracted. The following tags were populated in the JPEG image headers:
    GPS tags (these values are unique for each image and based on the matched-up location data):
    GPSLatitudeRef
    GPSLatitude
    GPSLongitudeRef
    GPSLongitude
    GPSTimeStamp
    GSPDateStamp
    JPEG tag and the information used to populate this tag, which is different for each camera's imagery:
    Canon PowerShot G12 photos:
    Comment: Photo from down-looking camera on the USGS SEABOSS deployed from the OSV Bold during survey 2012-035-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2012-035-FA).
    Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video frame grabs:
    Comment: Video frame grab from down-looking camera on the USGS SEABOSS deployed from the OSV Bold during survey 2012-035-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2012-035-FA).
    Exif tags and the information used to populate these tags, which is the same for every image:
    ImageDescription: Image of the sea floor in Ipswich Bay or Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, from survey 2012-035-FA
    Artist: Seth D. Ackerman
    Copyright: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) tags and the information used to populate these tags, which is the same for every image:
    Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
    Contact: WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov
    Keywords: Ipswich Bay, Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, 2012-035-FA, SEABOSS, sea floor, USGS
    CopyrightNotice: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    Caption-Abstract: Image of the sea floor in Ipswich Bay or Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, from survey 2012-035-FA
    Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) tag and the information used to populate this tag, which is the same for every image:
    Caption: Image of the sea floor in Ipswich Bay or Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, from survey 2012-035-FA
    To extract the information from the image headers using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 10.17):
    exiftool -csv -f -filename -GPSTimeStamp -GPSDateStamp -GPSLongitude -GPSLatitude -n -Artist -Credit -comment -keywords -Caption -Copyright -CopyrightNotice -Caption-Abstract -ImageDescription *.JPG > out.csv
    The -csv option writes the information to a CSV file. The -n option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees. Data sources used in this process:
    • Selected JPEG photographs
    • Video frame grabs
    • Bottom imagery locations CSV file
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Draft (Exif updated) JPEG images
    Date: Aug-2018 (process 12 of 13)
    All the images were taken in landscape orientation, but some photos were inadvertently rotated to portrait orientation by the Canon camera. To set the orientation of all the images to landscape, the following command was used with ExifTool (version 10.17):
    exiftool -P -Orientation=1 -n *.JPG
    The -P option preserves the FileModifyDate. The -Orientation=1 option sets the orientation to horizontal (landscape). The -n option formats the orientation value as an integer (instead of an English string). Data sources used in this process:
    • Draft (Exif updated) JPEG images
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Final (Exif updated) JPEG images
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 13 of 13)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Golden, Nadine E., Ackerman, Seth D., and Dailey, Evan T., 2015, Coastal and Marine Geology Program video and photograph portal: U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

    Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management, 2013, ENV13 CZM 01 Benthic Infaunal Analysis Report: Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management, Boston, MA.

    Online Links:

    Blackwood, D., and Parolski, K., 2001, Seabed observation and sampling system: Sea Technology v. 42, no. 2, p. 39-43, Compass Publications, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Shepard, F.P., 1954, Nomenclature based on sand-silt-clay ratios: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology v. 24, no. 3., p. 151-158, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, OK.

    Online Links:

    Schlee, J.S., 1973, Atlantic continental shelf and slope of the United States - sediment texture of the northeastern part: Professional Paper 529-L, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Poppe, L.J., McMullen, K.Y., Williams, S.J., and Paskevich, V.F., 2014, USGS east-coast sediment analysis: Procedures, database, and GIS data: Open-File Report 2005-1001, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Camera time drift and the precision with which the camera time can be set often result in an offset. The Canon PowerShot G12 camera time was set to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC); calibration photographs with the navigation system indicate that the camera time was two seconds off throughout the survey and did not drift. This time offset was negligible and was not corrected in the imagery processing. For the attributes related to the nearest sediment sample (NEAR_SMP, NEAR_CLASS, DST_TO_SMP, and NR_SMP_CMT), please note that the term "sediment samples" may be used to describe physical samples as well as stations where the bottom type was determined by visual observation of the bottom still and video imagery taken during the sampler deployment, which is noted in the comments field (NR_SMP_CMT). The visual observation sediment samples are generally located along the bottom video trackline at the start of the sampler retrieval (the sampler retrieval position was chosen as the sample location because the video clip is considered the sample in the absence of a physical sample). Therefore, the distance in meters from a bottom image to the nearest sediment sample (DST_TO_SMP) usually represents the distance from the bottom image to the sampler retrieval location for the visual observation sediment samples.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The original JPEG images alone do not represent spatial data; however, the images were geolocated during post-processing by linking the time the image was taken to the corresponding time in the navigation data. Sources of horizontal inaccuracy may be due to the camera time or navigation data. The Canon PowerShot G12 camera time was off by two seconds throughout the survey; this time offset was negligible, accounting for +/- 1 meter of horizontal uncertainty, and was not corrected in the imagery processing. Navigation for survey 2012-035-FA used Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). The DGPS was set to receive fixes at a two-second interval in geographic coordinates (World Geodetic System of 1984 [WGS 84]), so the navigation data were interpolated to get one-second fixes. The recorded position of each image is the position of the DGPS antenna on the survey vessel, not the SEABOSS sampler. The antenna was mounted at the top of the vessel's A-frame from which the sampler was deployed, within a few meters of the sampler (+/- 3 meters). No layback or offset was applied to the recorded position. In addition to the +/- 3-meter offset, the sampler may drift away from the survey vessel when deployed to the sea floor. Based on the various sources of horizontal offsets, a conservative estimate of the horizontal accuracy of the bottom image locations is 10 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset includes bottom imagery in JPEG format and a shapefile of the locations of images collected during USGS survey 2012-035-FA. Three hundred fifty stations were occupied within the study area, and bottom photos were acquired at most stations with a Canon PowerShot G12 digital camera mounted on the SEABOSS. Photos taken in the water column, on deck, or without a clear view of the sea floor were deleted. Eight stations (stations 1, 6, 19, 48, 106, 121, 174, and 247) did not have any usable photographs, so still-image frame grabs were captured from the video to supplement this dataset. A total of 2,093 images for all 350 stations are included in this dataset.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Bottom imagery was acquired with a Canon PowerShot G12 digital still camera and a Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera. For the Canon PowerShot G12 photos, gaps in sequential photo numbers exist. Generally, Canon photos without a clear view of the sea floor were deleted. If the Canon camera was triggered accidentally on deck or a picture did not come out, it was deleted. The Canon photos were renamed after being downloaded from the camera, so some image numbers are out of chronological order (e.g., IMG_0153.JPG was taken before IMG_0152.JPG). The station numbers (FIELD_NO) were determined before the survey and are not necessarily in sequential order of when they were occupied. Gaps in sequential station numbers exist as not all planned stations were occupied during the survey.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS data release 2012-035-FA contains bottom imagery locations and images of the sea floor collected offshore of Massachusetts in Ipswich Bay and Massachusetts Bay (2012-035-FA_photos_shp.zip, 2012-035-FA_photos_jpg1.zip, 2012-035-FA_photos_jpg2.zip, and 2012-035-FA_photos_jpg3.zip). The four zip files contain the following files: a shapefile of the bottom imagery locations (2012-035-FA_photos.shp); a CSV file of the bottom imagery locations (2012-035-FA_photos.csv); 2,093 bottom images from the Canon PowerShot G12 digital camera and Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 video camera; a browse graphic of bottom imagery locations (2012-035-FA_photos_browse.jpg); and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) metadata files in three standard formats (2012-035-FA_photos_meta.html, 2012-035-FA_photos_meta.txt, and 2012-035-FA_photos_meta.xml).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The zip files contain data available as a point shapefile, a CSV file, and JPEG image files. The user must have software capable of reading shapefile format to use the point shapefile. The CSV file can be read with a text editor. An image viewer can be used to see the JPEG images.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Emily Huntley
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer/Database Specialist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
ehuntley@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/field_activities/2012_035_fa/2012-035-FA_photos_meta.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:14 2021