Point Shapefile of Locations of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean Compiled by the USGS in Open-File Report 89-020 (ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.shp: excludes NGDC Sample Locations)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Point Shapefile of Locations of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean Compiled by the USGS in Open-File Report 89-020 (ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.shp: excludes NGDC Sample Locations)
Abstract:
Ferromanganese crusts in the world's oceans may serve as potential sources of metals, such as cobalt and magnesium, valuable to civilian and military industry; these are metals that the United States would otherwise be dependent on foreign sources. Unlike abyssal ferromanganese nodules, which form in areas of low disturbance and high sediment accumulation, ferromanganese crusts have been found to contain three to five times more cobalt than abyssal ferromanganese nodules and can be found on harder, steeper substrates than abyssal plains, which can be too steep for permanent sediment accumulation. Ferromanganese crusts have also been documented on seamounts and plateaus within the U.S. exclusive economic zone in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and are therefore of strategic importance to the United States Government as well as to civilian mining and metallurgical industries. A database containing ferromanganese crust occurrences throughout the world's oceans was assembled from published and unpublished sources to provide data gathering and analytical information for these samples. These data provide the digital formatted locations of the sample locations of the U.S. Geological Survey and Scripps Institution Nodule Data Bank (SNDB) from appendixes A and B. These locations from 1986 and earlier are also represented on the maps of Lane and others (1986).

Lane, C.M., Manheim, F.T., Hathaway, J.C., and Ling, T.H., 1986, Station maps of the world ocean-ferromanganese-rust database: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map, 1869, http://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/1986/1869/
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, Point Shapefile of Locations of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean Compiled by the USGS in Open-File Report 89-020 (ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.shp: excludes NGDC Sample Locations): Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Manheim, F.T., and Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the Word Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database: Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -179.745000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 179.883000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 56.167000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -65.617000
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2014
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (1988)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    ussamp_sta_ofr89-020
    point shapefile (Source: Esri)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    sequence_n
    Sequence number. Six digit number where the first 3 digits are based on the "Marsden Square" system and the last 3 digits are an assigned serial number for each sample within that 10-degree grid segment. This is a numeric field represented as a text field to maintain leading zeros. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    lat1
    Latitude on bottom in decimal degrees. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-65.617
    Maximum:56.167
    Units:decimal degrees
    lat2
    Latitude off bottom in decimal degrees. No data value is -9999. 1723 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-56.153
    Maximum:39.383
    Units:decimal degrees
    lon1
    Longitude on bottom in decimal degrees. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-179.745
    Maximum:179.883
    Units:decimal degrees
    lon2
    Longitude off bottom in decimal degrees. No data value is -9999. 1721 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-178.007
    Maximum:175.8682
    Units:decimal degrees
    depth1
    Depth on bottom in meters. No data value is -9999. 90 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:64
    Maximum:7117
    Units:meters
    depth2
    Depth off bottom in meters. No data value is -9999. 1423 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:55
    Maximum:5877
    Units:meters
    cruise
    Cruise identification. 2 records are blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    station
    Station number. 979 records are blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    sample_no
    Sample number. 715 records are blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    moncol
    Month collected. Numeric value representing the month, where 1 is January through 12 (December). No data values represented as -9999. 1203 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:12
    Units:month
    daycol
    Day of collection. No data value is -9999. Zeros did occur in the original digital data and are assumed to be intended as no data. 1478 records either have the no data value or 0. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:31
    Units:day
    yrcol
    Two digit number representing the year of collection (complete year with the preceeding 19 added). An apparent error occurs where the year is 8. No data value is -9999. 1166 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:86
    Units:year
    hour
    Numeric value representing the hour time of collection. No specific detail was given in the readme.txt file or the report regarding format. No data values are -9999. 1668 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:2359
    Units:time
    sec
    Numeric value representing the seconds time of collection. No specific detail was given in the readme.txt file or the report regarding format. No data values are -9999. 1932 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:30
    Units:seconds
    phase1
    Phases collected. 665 records are blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    sampdev
    Sampling device. 235 records have blanks. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    amtcol
    Amount collected. No data value is -9999. Zero values also exist and are thought to be no data, but it could possibly be a rounding error in the original file. 1497 records have the no data value, 4 records have a value of 0. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:4900
    Units:weight (unit specified in the following attribute)
    unitscol
    Units of amount collected. 1491 records have a blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    inst
    Institution affiliated with the sample. 213 records have a blank. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    APLINundefined, but assumed related to the author Aplin.
    BRGPossibly the French Geological Survey, more commonly abbreviated as BRGM.
    FSUFlorida State University
    GSJUndefined, but assumed to be Geological Survey of Japan.
    HIGHawaii Institute of Geophysics
    LDGOLamont Doherty Geological Observatory
    NOAAUndefined but assumed to be National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
    NZOI-GLASBYUndefined, but assumed to be related to New Zealand Oceanographic Institute.
    OSUOregon State University
    REFUndefined.
    SIOScripps Institute of Oceanography
    TUCLZTechnical University Clausthal-Zellerfeld
    UMIAMIUniversity of Miami
    USGSU.S. Geological Survey
    USGS-MENLOU.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Pacific Marine Geology, Menlo Park, CA.
    USGS-WHUndefined but assumed to be USGS Woods Hole, MA office.
    USSRRussian data
    UWASHUniversity of Washington
    WHOIWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    SMITSmithsoniaon.
    photo
    Photo available (y or n). No data value is a blank. 1799 records have a blank. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    yyes a photo is available
    nno a photo is not available
    phase2
    Phase analyzed. 1108 records have a blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    thick
    Mean thickness of crust (cm). No data value is -9999. 1364 records have this no data value. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:120
    Units:cm
    morph
    Morphology of crust. 1748 records have a blank. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    Abotryoidal
    Bsmooth
    Cfriable
    free textself defined
    refid
    Reference number to link with reference file. 1337 records have a blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text. The definition of each reference is in OFR 89-020.
    navcode
    Navigation quality code. 1504 records have a blank. (Source: USGS)
    ValueDefinition
    ALoran C with satellite updates.
    BLoran C
    CLoran A
    Ddead reckoning with updates
    Edead reckoning
    comments
    Additional information regarding the location. 1766 records have a blank. (Source: USGS) ASCII text.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The attribute definitions are based on information from the README.TXT file that was downloaded from NGDC at the same time as the data file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Where available, the definitions of the attributes were first derived from the README.TXT file that was downloaded with the ASCII files from NGDC. In the event a definition was not available from that source, then the following reference was use:
    
    
    Manheim, F.T., Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: A review and comprehensive database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020.
    
    
    Unfortunately, some of the attributes or their enumerated domains were not adequately described in either place.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this dataset is to release the information contained in Appendix A (excluding A9) and Appendix B from USGS Open-File Report 89-020 in a GIS compatible format. These data contain station location information to be used with the analysis information of the chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world oceans. The digital files actually have more columns of information relative to the tables published in OFR 89-020.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    FeMn Manheim (source 1 of 2)
    National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 1991, U.S. Geological Survey Ferromanganese Crust Data Set: NGDC Data Set 1019, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This citation refers to the location where the digital data were acquired.
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    The digital file containing station locations for all the sample data other than the NGDC data listed in Table 11 were uploaded to National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in the file ussamp.sta - assuming the upload was around 1991 according to the README.TXT file. In turn, the data were downloaded from that site (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/usgscrust.html) on August 6, 2014. It is assumed that these data represent the information presented in Appendix A and B in Manheim and Lane-Bostwick (1989) with the exclusion of A9 in Appendix A (NGDC data). The following information regarding the data is extracted from the README.TXT file.
    
    
    All corresponding sample data other than the NGDC data listed in Table 11. are stored in the file called ussamp.sta. There are some sample records that do not have chemical analyses associated with them. They include dredges were there was no recovery, camera stations and physical oceanographic stations (Multisonde) where physical properties of the water column were taken on the German/US MIDPAC cruises.
    FeMnOFR (source 2 of 2)
    Manheim, F.T., and Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database: Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    The Open-File Report provided the details necessary to complete the metadata.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 06-Aug-2014 (process 1 of 8)
    The digital ASCII files were downloaded from NGDC. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian J. Buczkowski
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Core Curator and Data Management Specialist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-458-8700 x2361 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
    Date: Aug-2014 (process 2 of 8)
    The downloaded file ussamp.sta is an ASCII text file with the individual fields of information delimited by "|". Using Vi version 7.3 (under Cygwin on a Windows 7 computer) all of the "|" symbols were replaced with commas. Additionally, based on the README.TXT file, a header line was added to the file. This process step and all remaining process steps were performed by the same person - VeeAnn A. Cross. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • ussamp.sta
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • ussamp_vac.csv
    Date: Aug-2014 (process 3 of 8)
    The VB 2010 program SchemaGen (a simple VS 2010 tool written by VeeAnn Cross at the USGS in Woods Hole) was used to generate the appropriate field definition information for the schema.ini file. This enables the hard coding of an attribute type when the file is brought into ArcGIS. For instance, the Sequence number in the tables often had leading zeros. Because ArcGIS would have recognized this field as numeric, those leading zeros would have been lost. By assigning that field to be a text attribute, those leading zeros were maintained. Creating an appropriate schema.ini file to define the attributes aids in the prevention of data being lost because ArcGIS interprets the field as the wrong attribute type.
    Date: Aug-2014 (process 4 of 8)
    The comma-delimited text file was then added to ArcMap 9.3.1 as an event theme and converted to a shapefile. Data sources used in this process:
    • ussamp_vac.csv
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.shp
    Date: Sep-2014 (process 5 of 8)
    The comma-delimited text file had some blanks. Shapefiles don't allow blanks in numeric fields, those blanks are automatically converted to zeros. In some numeric fields zeros did exist. Those were left as zeros, but the blank fields that were converted to zeros were replaced with -9999.
    Date: Sep-2014 (process 6 of 8)
    The ASCII file marked the end of a record with "$". That attribute was deleted from the shapefile.
    Date: Sep-2014 (process 7 of 8)
    Using XTools Pro (version 7.1.0) in ArcMap 9.3.1 - export the attribute table to a comma-delimited text file using Table Operations - Export Table to Text. Exclude the attribute FID from the export. Data sources used in this process:
    • ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.shp
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • ussamp_sta_ofr89-020.csv
    Date: 17-Nov-2021 (process 8 of 8)
    Modified the title to move the dataset name from the beginning of the title. Added USGS Thesaurus keywords. Add the DOI link in the identification section and as a network resource name. Also added DOI links in the cross-references and source contribution when possible. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes (20210412). The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Tweaked a thesaurus name (20211117). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Lane, C.M., Manheim, F.T., Hathaway, J.C., and Ling, T.H., 1986, Station Maps of the World Ocean-Ferromanganese-Crust Data Base: Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 1869, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The data in the digital file were only spot checked against the paper report. It is assumed that the digital file and paper version are representative of one another except the digital files have more columns of information than are presented in the paper version. There are some suspect samples that have the yrcol (year collected) attribute with a value of 8. It is assumed these records should have a value of 83.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The overall accuracy of the data varies and is mostly unknown. However, based on known devices and the time frame of data collection, positional accuracy is assumed to be around 1 kilometer or more.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No information is recorded regarding how the depths were measured that are present in the data files. Therefore no accuracy value can be assumed.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All records from the downloaded usgssamp.sta file are included.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The assumption was that the digital file downloaded from the NGDC site would correspond to the sample locations in OFR 89-020 excluding the NGDC samples. This does not appear to be the case. Appendix A and Appendix B in OFR 89-020 represent the station locations, with Appendix A A9 being the NGDC locations. Excluding A9, Appendix A has 1764 records and Appendix B has 624 records. This file has 1988 records. Additionally, the README.TXT file distributed with the digital data from NGDC indicates that this file represents the sample locations presented in Tables 1-18 (excluding Table 11 which is the NGDC data). However, there are locations from the tables that are not represented in this file. Some of the attribute information is not fully described in the README. TXT file, where some of the enumerated domain values are defined and others are not. And in the case of the attribute "morph", a mixture of coded values (defined in the README.TXT file) and free text values are used in the attribute.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Brian J. Buczkowski
    Core Curator and Data Management Specialist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2361 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? ofr89-020_ussamp_sta.zip. This zip file contains the ussamp_sta_ofr89-020 shapefile, the corresponding CSV file, the FGDC CSDGM metadata files (in 4 formats), and the readme.txt file distributed with the files from NGDC.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 17-Nov-2021
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
Marine Geologist
Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)
Metadata extensions used:

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr1989-0020/ussamp_sta_ofr89-020meta.faq.html>
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